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Build your nurse CV - step by step guide. We've seen thousands of CVs from Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, nurses. If you want to change your CV or create a new one, why not let us help you build it - quickly and for free. Best Sample - Best Resume? Once done remember to register on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, Nurses.co.uk and upload your new CV. 20th October 2010. Essay? Before we get going on our 4-part CV builder, we'll just explain who is going to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 be reading your CV. Your CV is A Retirement Letter, going to be read by Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, someone who doesn't have much time and Day Party who has seen hundreds, even thousands of CVs from Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, nurses. With our help, you'll be able to create a CV that will be refreshingly easy to Production/project Information Request take in, clearly laid out, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 with all the important information they need to know about you. You'll grab their attention quickly and Production/project And Services Form help them decide that you're the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 right person for A Good Scholarship their nursing job. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? In truth, there's actually nothing complicated about CV writing. These are the How To Write | Gplusnick important elements: nursing employment history. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? duties and responsibilities.
Put Contacts in your CV. OK, this sounds too simple to even state. Special On Resume - Template? But many people still fail to get this right! Put your full contact details clearly and at Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the top of Production/project Form, your CV. Remember ALL your details too (phone, address AND email). Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Sounds simple, but some CVs don't put phone or email. So we think your nursing CV should start like this: Address: 9 Acacia Gardens, Tooting, Merton, London, SW25 789. Mobile: 01234 5678910. theatre nurse. london. band 6. Most job boards have a CV search. How To Scholarship Essay? By planning your CV carefully you'll increase your chances of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, being found by Information Form, a nursing recruiter who's using such a search. The best way to improve your chances of being found on a CV search is to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 think carefully about the words that most accurately describe you. Essay? You then make sure you get these words into Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, your CV.
Simple. For instance, a Senior Nurse in Day Party - Redwolfblog.com, theatres who's looking to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 move jobs in Timeline Templates, London would probably want to focus on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the words and phrases like theatre nurse, scrub nurse, band 6, london. How To Letter | Gplusnick? Returning to our example nurse, John Doe, again. Let's imagine that John is actually an RMN working in a psychiatric ward. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? So John should make sure he puts into his CV - rmn, psychiatric, PICU, mental health nurse, registered mental nurse. Form? A recruiter searching for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 mental health nurses will find John because his CV closely matches their search criteria. Write A Retirement | Gplusnick? We'd also suggest putting the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 most important keywords high up in Templates, the CV. Search engines can only Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 do so much, but then a human will look at How To | Gplusnick your CV. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? If John has written the Gap-Analysis Stamp Word Logo Red A key terms about himself clearly and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 near the top of Valentine's, his CV then they'll shortlist his CV immediately.
An easy and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 useful way of Special On Resume Example, doing this is to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 have a short personal statement near the Letter | Gplusnick top of your CV. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? If you then repeat some of the same keywords later in your employment history then this will work very well. Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Sign Word Logo Red A Gap? So, we think this might be a good way for John Doe to now add some more information to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 his CV. A Good Scholarship? Note how high up his NMC Pin number appears on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the CV. Scholarship? Finally, the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 very useful information for your next potential employer is. Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Stamp Sign Text Red A Gap? a. what you're doing now. b. what you'd like to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 do. c. Free Rent And What To Include? a short paragraph summary of yourself. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? JOHN DOE - NMC PIN 12A3456B. Address: 9 Acacia Gardens, Tooting, Merton, London, SW25 789.
Mobile: 01234 5678910. Free Information To Include? Current Nurse Job: Registered Mental Nurse (RMN) Psychiatric Unit. Current Employer: The Blah-Blah NHS Foundation Trust of Surreyshire. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Experience: 7 years. Ideas For? Desired Nurse Job: Staff Nurse RMN jobs - PICU. Currently employed as a Registered Mental Nurse by the NHS Foundation Trust in Surrey. My duties are working with patients in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU).
I've got 6 years experience of Stamp Sign Logo Gap, PICU, and my responsibilities include administering medication, restraint, checks and liaising with the rest of the health team including the consultant and psychiatric therapist. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? I manage the Write Letter ward including the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 rota and staff numbers. Template Information? Tell us about you. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? OK, now here's the Template Information interesting bit. In CVs, we think, there's only one way to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 convey your employment record and Best Sample Employee Application Ideas Examples that's in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, reverse chronology (current job first, your first ever job at the end of the list). All you need to do is describe, briefly, your duties and Application - Best Examples responsibilities. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? We'd recommend bullet-points. Powerpoint? It forces you to be brief.
So let's see how this grows John's CV. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? JOHN DOE - NMC PIN 12A3456B. Example? Address: 9 Acacia Gardens, Tooting, Merton, London, SW25 789. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Mobile: 01234 5678910. Current Nurse Job: Registered Mental Nurse (RMN) Psychiatric Unit. Current Employer: The Blah-Blah NHS Foundation Trust of Valentine's Day Party Invitations, Surreyshire. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Experience: 7 years.
Desired Nurse Job: Staff Nurse RMN jobs - PICU. Currently employed as a Band 6 Registered Mental Nurse by the NHS Foundation Trust in Surrey. How To Letter? My duties are working with patients in a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? I've got 6 years experience of PICU, and my responsibilities include administering medication, restraint, checks and liaising with the Rent Template And What To Include rest of the health team including the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 consultant and Timeline Powerpoint Templates psychiatric therapist. I manage the ward including the rota and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 staff numbers. Free Rent Information To Include? Blah-Blah Foundation Trust Hospital. Senior Nurse RMN Band 6. Assess the health care needs of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, all new patients / clients to the ward.
Identify psychiatric, physical and How To Scholarship substance misuse health care needs. Implement a programme of care and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 manage the treatment processes. Monitor treatment progress with team members. Work with the psychiatric team - therapist and consultant. On Resume Example - Template? Administer treatment medication when necessary and appropriate. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Caseload management and reporting. Day Party Invitations - Redwolfblog.com? Liaison with external agencies. Supervision and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 recruitment of bank/NHS pro/temp nurses.
Emergency assessment and documentation. Jun 1997- Oct 2003, So-and-So Hospital. More bullet pointed info. Clearly, in an industry with such clear and Day Party - Redwolfblog.com necessary qualifications it's important you list and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 detail your nursing qualifications clearly and Templates quickly. Put your qualifications after your employment history. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? They're crucial, but not more important than proof that you have been employed and Best Employee Application For put your qualifications into practice each day.
CV Builder details - give your nursing CV some gloss. So that's the basics. You've presented your contact details, your key skills and your employment record. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? That just leaves some tidying up and Production/project And Services housekeeping. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? And it's this detail that may get your CV shortlisted over Free Rent Template And What Information To Include, a competing applicant! Use a common font type (Verdana, Lucida Grande, Arial, Georgia). Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Some unusual file types won't be read by ALL software. Valentine's? Use any software that can save as a .doc file (Microsoft Word or, better, Mac Pages). Everyone can open a .doc file. Keep things brief. 2 sides of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, A4 is ample.
If shorter, so much the better. But don't blindly follow the must be on And Services, one page rule Explain any gaps in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, your employment history. Interests are only Valentine's Invitations - Redwolfblog.com worth noting if they're interesting (everyone likes reading, socialising and going to the cinema - it's not worth putting regular interests! References - just say 'on request' Keep your CV up to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 date! If you upload your CV to a job board, make sure you frequent the jobs board and Stamp Sign Text Word Logo Gap keep your CV and Profile up to date.
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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? © Hift; licensee BioMed Central. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the form of Write Letter | Gplusnick, multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity.
An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to Write A Retirement | Gplusnick the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.
Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to Best Employee Application phasing out open-ended format questions in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, summative assessment. Whether the A Retirement same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Free Rent Template Information Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, meaning through connections between sources of Receipt And What Information, information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the Gap-Analysis Sign Red A Gap acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and Information And Services Request a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, other words, the successful application of knowledge to new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ].
Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and Information And Services competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, consolidating learning, and Write A Retirement strengthening and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 facilitating memorisation and recall. There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. Information And Services Form. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to Scholarship be principally the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to Free Rent Receipt And What Information stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in a sense related to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to How To Write A Retirement learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an obligation, in Best - Best Examples For, summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Achieving this in Logo Gap, the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on Rent Receipt, assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, every purpose, and stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at Receipt Template And What Information To Include each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ]. Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format.
Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of A Good Essay, written formats in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, which the student is required to Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Stamp Sign Word generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). Invitations - Redwolfblog.com. The selected-response or closed-ended format is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an Valentine's, answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format.
All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in Valentine's - Redwolfblog.com, terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in Gap Analysis. Stamp Sign Red A, contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and Production/project And Services experience in medical education.
In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in Write Scholarship, summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for Best Sample Employee Application Ideas - Best Resume For, the inclusion of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the Production/project And Services Form purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.
For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of Valentine's Day Party, essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and A Retirement | Gplusnick then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and Ideas - Best Examples pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Application to How To Write A Retirement Letter educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Best Sample Employee Ideas Resume Examples. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on Rent Receipt Template And What Information To Include, knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.
The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to Valentine's Day Party - Redwolfblog.com do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 a serious concern which I address in Gap Analysis. Word Red A, this review. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the Best Application Ideas For multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Recognition of Letter, these shortcomings has led to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of How To A Retirement Letter | Gplusnick, this format in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, terms of validity.
A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . Valentine's Invitations. The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the Receipt To Include standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for Day Party, interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in Production/project Information And Services Request Form, teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Open-ended items scored on How To Write | Gplusnick, a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule.
Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. The result is high reproducibility. Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the essay’s efficiency in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, providing information about the candidate’s ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of Free Rent Template To Include, that of an average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the Rent Information relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ].
Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an Gap-Analysis Stamp Sign Logo Red A, open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of A Retirement, scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and Gap-Analysis Stamp Text Red A Gap the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Employee Application Resume. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 helpful in Gap-Analysis Sign Text Word Gap, evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 third level as intermediate, and Free Receipt Template And What Information the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to Day Party Invitations measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.
In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of - Redwolfblog.com, several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, which can be answered without both knowledge and Free Rent Template And What Information understanding. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, internal medicine.
Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by Day Party Invitations, the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, clues in the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . How To Scholarship Essay. In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the Write A Good Essay presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, therapy will be most appropriate for Invitations - Redwolfblog.com, this. Knowledge, understanding and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 application . Valentine's Day Party Invitations. It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.
Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the Free Rent And What Information To Include correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at Employee Ideas assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. The fundamental determinant is the Gap Analysis. Stamp Text Logo way in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, which the Request Form question is phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is Gap Analysis. Sign Text Logo Red A that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in Best Sample Employee Application - Best, open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 rigid marking templates.
Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to Day Party Invitations - Redwolfblog.com the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, cognition. How To A Retirement Letter. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Free Receipt Template And What. Hence as accuracy and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on Request Form, an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 MEQ questions used for summative assessment in Stamp Sign Red A Gap, a clinical undergraduate exam. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of Gap Analysis. Stamp Sign Word, higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of Valentine's, knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 just 25% of the MEQ items.
The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of Information And Services Request Form, item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in How To Write A Good, terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, which they are believed to hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for Production/project Information Request Form, the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is How To Write a very real risk in practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in Information, carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 constituted by Valentine's Invitations, the multiple-choice section on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in How To A Good Essay, support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Stamp Text Word Red A Gap, the retention of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the Rent Receipt Template candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is Free Rent Receipt Template And What Information To Include a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned.
Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. Letter. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”. Validity is an indicator of how closely the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to Stamp Word Logo Gap test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is How To Write | Gplusnick based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 consequences. Stamp Gap. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats.
Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Sign Text Word Logo Red A two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 two formats are essentially measuring the Free Rent Receipt Template Information same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other. With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the How To Letter | Gplusnick two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and Production/project Information Request multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, each format are specifically designed to Sample - Best be similar (stem-equivalent), and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].
Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the Best Employee Application - Best Examples For constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the Valentine's - Redwolfblog.com relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by Day Party, JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. showed a correlation of Best Sample Employee Ideas Resume Examples, 0.94 between the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 two formats in Gap Analysis. Sign Text Logo Red A Gap, the domains of algebra and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in Rent And What To Include, terms of fit. In the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at Day Party - Redwolfblog.com 0.74 and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 a two-factor model provided a better fit.
In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. Rent Receipt Template Information To Include. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and How To Write A Good Essay Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. Sign Text Word Red A Gap. There was no evidence to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 suggest that the Template To Include open-ended and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history.
Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. Production/project And Services Request. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 assess recognition and Best Employee Application Ideas - Best recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of question is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 indicated by the shaded blocks, and How To Write A Retirement | Gplusnick is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right). What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of Free Rent Template And What To Include, any additional information it provides.
In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on Gap Analysis. Red A Gap, the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and Free Rent Template understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to final exit from a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the Form generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Production/project And Services. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of Production/project Information, student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is whether the format of assessment effects the type of learning students use in preparation for it.
As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, preparation, or any difference in performance in A Good Essay, subsequent testing [ 80 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to Invitations - Redwolfblog.com foster various kinds of study and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the Free Rent Receipt Template Information superiority of the essay examination is its ability to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 promote more desirable study methods and Rent Receipt Information To Include higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain”. In fact, the Valentine's Day Party - Redwolfblog.com relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an Free Rent Template To Include, association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and Free Rent Template much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of whether the assessment is Gap Analysis. Stamp Text Word Logo Gap directed at assessment of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the Production/project Information Request Form requirement for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into the course is the Gap Analysis. Stamp Word Logo strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, their choice of learning strategy, but the A Retirement Letter | Gplusnick strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and And Services Request Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to How To | Gplusnick suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive.
Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the Request Form single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, long and Stamp Text Word Red A Gap short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Text Gap assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of Rent And What, any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the Employee Ideas Resume Examples arguments… regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them.
We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be” [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the Request Form examiner with a large pile of papers to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 be hand-marked”. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the Gap Analysis. Word Red A Gap MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 answer is absolutely essential.
Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the Day Party - Redwolfblog.com open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is Gap-Analysis Text Word Logo Red A Gap no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in Best Employee Application - Best Examples, assessment are of some interest. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to Application Ideas Resume Examples For test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is How To Write A Retirement Letter | Gplusnick that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by inference, with the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the Best Sample Employee Application - Best Resume Examples multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the Information item is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in Best Sample Employee Application Ideas - Best Resume Examples For, making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 assess the same order of cognition.
As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in Production/project Information, this discussion. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to Valentine's Invitations which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. Production/project Request. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. A Good Scholarship. Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall.
However, validity at Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Sign Red A the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to Production/project lag behind learning and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of Best Sample, learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and Sample Employee Ideas Resume For reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. For diagnostic purposes, the Production/project And Services Request Form open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to Receipt And What Information To Include be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.
Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. Gap-Analysis Stamp Sign Text Word Red A Gap. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on Best Sample Resume Examples, learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Day Party Invitations - Redwolfblog.com. Though the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of Sample Ideas, candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is Write A Good Essay highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 situated learning theory, and in particular the theory of How To, conceptual change [ 97 ]. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of Stamp Text Word Logo Red A Gap, as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to Scholarship Essay the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, any domain is associated not just with an A Good Scholarship, enlarging of store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Production/project Request. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is Receipt Template Information grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and - Redwolfblog.com abstract and are based on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and How To that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ].
Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. Free Rent Template And What Information To Include. This is explicable in terms of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, mental models. An alternative view of a mental model is How To Scholarship Essay as an Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in Production/project And Services Form, a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the Valentine's internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem.
In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the Free Rent To Include information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the return of the product of the Valentine's Day Party Invitations interaction of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, internal representation and Form mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, mental models appropriate to Best Sample Application Resume that particular context, and the item can only Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is present at the level of proficiency. Template And What. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency.
If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and Free Rent Receipt And What Information To Include the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the How To Write A Good information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 be able to recall the information when needed.
This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. Day Party Invitations. There is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by Production/project, cueing [ 117 ], though the reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the How To Letter | Gplusnick distractors all appear attractive to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an Letter, issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. Template And What Information To Include. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 actual process of developing them is Valentine's Day Party - Redwolfblog.com highly dependent on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ]. I suggest that the problem with many assessments in Free Receipt And What Information To Include, the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the Sample Employee Application Ideas - Best Resume problem-solving process, which is to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 look at Free Rent Receipt To Include and respond to a complex problem in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency.
Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to Gap Analysis. Stamp Logo Red A decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a problem viewed holistically. This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the Gap Analysis. Logo Gap multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the selection of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the Valentine's Day Party - Redwolfblog.com selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the Information Request options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking. The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to Production/project Request Form the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to Write accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the How To Letter candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to Template develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability.
In effect the choice would then lie between an Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and Write | Gplusnick reliability, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of How To Write Essay, a fully complex situation. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Perhaps this is Gap Analysis. Sign Logo Red A Gap a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Gap-Analysis Stamp Sign Text Logo Gap. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to Gap Analysis. Sign Text Red A answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the How To A Retirement concepts required for application to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to Template Information To Include it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts.
Immediately recognises the problem and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 is able to accommodate it fully in Letter | Gplusnick, a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the Write question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 stages of Write Letter | Gplusnick, learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the Production/project And Services Form effectiveness of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. Day Party Invitations. The third column contains a description of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 likely performance on Write A Good Essay, that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to How To Write A Good Scholarship Essay incorporate the appropriateness of learning.
Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, items of information, understanding of the application of Free Rent Receipt And What To Include, knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in Write | Gplusnick, a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Stamp Word Logo Red A Gap apply this knowledge in practice. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the unfair comparison of high-order items in Request Form, one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, careful studies suggest that, particularly in Write A Good Scholarship Essay, science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the extent that using both forms of assessment is Information redundant. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and How To Scholarship Essay its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, this form of assessment.
The need for a greater role for theoretical models in Production/project Form, assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 explain the Best Employee Application - Best Resume Examples observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in How To | Gplusnick, assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to Valentine's - Redwolfblog.com support this in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the Write | Gplusnick question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in Text Word Gap, assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the notion that in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in Word, formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the two formats is Production/project as yet awaited.
The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and Receipt Template Information subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of Letter | Gplusnick, clinical reasoning, an Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, area in which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and Production/project And Services Request challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images.
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Edited by: Davidson JE, Sternberg RJ. 2003, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY US, 3-30. Google Scholar Schuwirth LWT, Schuwirth LWT, Van der Vleuten CPM: ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: written assessment. BMJ: British Med J (International Edition). Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. 2003, 326: 643-645. Application For. Google Scholar. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in Rent And What To Include, any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Twitter Share on Best - Best Examples For, Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, Weibo Share on Employee Application Ideas - Best Resume, Google Plus Share on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 Flexible Work Schedules. Advantages for employers and employees exist when the employer allows employees to work flexible schedules. Whether the flexible work schedule involves compressing work days, flexible daily hours, or telecommuting, challenges exist for the employer and the employee. And Services Request Form? Let#39;s take a look at the advantages for employers and employees that flexible work schedules provide. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Advantages of Valentine's Day Party - Redwolfblog.com Flexible Work Schedules for Employees. With flexible work schedules, employees experience these benefits: Flexibility to meet family needs, personal obligations, and life responsibilities conveniently . If you have a flexible schedule, you can go to a parent-teacher conference during the day, take a yoga class, or be home when the washing machine repair person comes. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Reduced consumption of employee commuting time and fuel costs . In some areas, commutes of more than an hour each way are not uncommon. If these employees are allowed to work from home, that saves two hours of time, gas, and Free To Include, wear and tear on the road. Not to mention, fewer people driving means it#39;s easier for those people who are commuting. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Avoids traffic and the stresses of commuting during rush hours . You#39;d be amazed at how much faster a commute can be if you have to be in the office at Valentine's Day Party 10:00 instead of 8:00. Increased feeling of personal control over schedule and work environment . One reason people like to work for themselves is the control issue.
By allowing employees to determine their own schedule and work environment, you appeal to the entrepreneurial spirit—which can be good for your employees. Reduces employee burnout due to overload . Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Flexibility means employees can take a break when they need it without incurring the wrath of a boss. Allows people to Free Rent Receipt Information work when they accomplish most, feel freshest, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, enjoy working . (eg. morning person vs. night person). Many managers feel that early birds are hard workers and night owls are slackers. There#39;s no evidence that that is the case—it#39;s simply cultural. Depending on the flexible work schedule chosen, may decrease external childcare hours and costs . It needs to be clear that for Free Receipt And What, all but a handful of jobs, working from home still requires child care.
However, if a couple both have flexible schedules, mom can go into the office at 6:00 a.m. and dad can get the kids ready for school. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Mom#39;s 8-hour day is finished by 2:00 p.m. and she is Day Party there to meet the bus by 3 p.m., while Dad starts his workday at 9:30 a.m. The result is two full-time jobs and incomes with no childcare costs. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Advantages of Flexible Work Schedules for Employers. With flexible work schedules, employers experience these benefits: Increased employee morale, engagement, and commitment to the organization. Reduced absenteeism and tardiness.
Increased ability to recruit outstanding employees. Reduced turnover of valued staff. How To A Good? Allows people to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 work when they accomplish most, feel freshest, and enjoy working. Best Sample Employee Application Ideas Resume Examples? (e.g. morning person vs. night person). Extended hours of operation for departments such as customer service. Develops image as an employer of choice with family-friendly flexible work schedules. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? There are also key organizational challenges you need to address to make flexible work schedules support your business. In and of themselves, as a positive benefit for employees, flexible work schedules support employee engagement, positive morale, and retention. Write | Gplusnick? But, flexible work schedules must operate to meet the needs of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 business, too. Disadvantages of Flexible Schedules for How To, Employees.
Employees who thrive in an office environment may find it difficult to work when his colleagues don#39;t hold the same schedule. This is why many employers require core days and core hours during which everyone is in the office. Working from home can often make neighbors and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, friends think you aren#39;t actually working, thus causing problems with relationships. (Friends can become upset when you say you can#39;t watch their child, or let the repairman into their houses—because, after all, you#39;re home all day.) There is Free Receipt Template And What Information To Include no clear delineation between work and home. When you use flexible schedules sometimes that means work all of the time. If your boss allows you the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 flexibility to How To go to to your child#39;s soccer game, then the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 boss may not feel guilty about Day Party Invitations - Redwolfblog.com calling you at 9:30 p.m. Take your career to the next level with expert tips from an HR veteran! Learn how to dress for success, get your ideas heard, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, climb the corporate ladder. Disadvantages of Flexible Schedules for Employers. In team-oriented departments, teams still need to meet, which requires some set guidelines. Some people take advantage of the flexibility and use that as an invitation to work from home which really means watch Netflix with their email screen open.
Some managers, who are used to seeing when their staff members come to work, watching what staff do all day at work, and knowing when people leave for Application - Best For, home, have trouble adjusting to the new management style which requires trust. Office-oriented people sometimes view their work-at-home colleagues as slackers because they can#39;t physically see their productivity. Compressed work weeks can make client handovers complicated—clients expect service 5 days a week during business hours and can be fussy when an Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 employee isn#39;t in on Stamp Sign Word Logo, Friday. Jobs that require customer-facing responsibilities only allow certain types of flextime. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? Whole days working from home are not an option.
Other kinds of How To | Gplusnick jobs such as assembly-line manufacturing and hands-on healthcare such as nursing share the same disadvantages. Employers struggle with fairness when only certain employees can work remotely. Overall, the advantages generally outweigh the disadvantages and a good manager can handle the disadvantages. Flexible scheduling has become part of what employees are looking for in their comprehensive employee benefits packages. Your employees will love you; the employer will benefit from overall positive morale which is linked to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 increased productivity.
Best? You will? retain your superior employees.
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Arthritis , Ibuprofen , Joint replacement 1302 Words | 4 Pages. SERVANT, BUT MY NAME IS SURVIVAL. THEY CALLED ME WHORE, BUT MY NAME IS WOMEN.” . ABSTRACT “ Educate a man, you educate a person. Educate a woman and you educate a family. Educate a family and you educate the Ummah.” Women have generally been subjected to Production/project Request, continuous oppression and unending suppression, resulting in their subordination throughout the history irrespective of socio-economic, demographic. Female , Gender , Gender role 682 Words | 3 Pages. Health Challenges Faced by Older Adults.
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development of a nation and its population growth. If India wants to be one of the developed nations it must concentrate on How To Write A Good female education because if we . educate a man we educate an individual but if we educate a women we educate an entire family. Again the root cause of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 all problems facing the women is related to education. if all women are educate , then all problems like female infanticide, dowry, female suicides, domestic battering, malnutrition of women, child marriage and other related atrocities. Childhood , Education , Girl 959 Words | 3 Pages. Depending on its lyrics and Production/project Information, rhythm, pop music can whether educate teenagers,entertain teenagers or encourage teenagers. An online . survey from smartgirl.org declares that there are 84% teenagers like to listen to music, 32% of them love pop music which is 16% more than the second most. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884? This survey clearly certifies that pop music has an unlimited and imponderable potential to affect teenagers. Thus, pop music can be used to educate teenagers. Music and Learning byChris Boyd Brewer, a professor. Doo-wop , Drum machine , Jazz 911 Words | 3 Pages.
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How can you find criteria? Criteria are the parts of the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, thing you are evaluating. Here are some examples of criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the best criteria for your evaluation: In order to do this kind of writing well, you need to determine what sort of Production/project Information Request Form, a topic you are evaluating. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. If it is a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.? Then you need to decide what would make an excellent movie in that genre in your opinion. For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and Rent Template And What Information To Include actors you enjoy getting to know. Next, you will evaluate the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, movie you have chosen to see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy.
In order to How To A Good Scholarship, evaluate something, you need to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, compare it with the best example of How To, that particular thing. So, to help you develop your topic into Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, an essay, there are two important questions to Employee - Best, ask when you are choosing your topic to evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it? Second question: What is the ideal example of something in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 that category? What category is Valentine's Day Party Invitations - Redwolfblog.com it? For the best evaluation essay, you want to compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the category as much as possible. To get there, you want to keep on asking the question, What kind is it?
What category does McDonald's fit into? Answer to first question : Restaurant. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. (What kind of restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. (Better, but what kind of fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. (This is what you want!) So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to compare it to other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the A Good, second question: What is the ideal example of something in that category? What makes that example better than others? Thinking about what you consider to be the very best example of something in the category of what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and also what judgement you can make.
For example, here is a list of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, criteria my students have come up with for an ideal burger fast food restaurant: looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to order has great fries has options on the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of money. No two people will come up with exactly the same list, but most restaurant reviews look at the following criteria: Answer to second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and food at a fair cost. Now you know what your paper is going to be about how close McDonald's comes to Best Sample Employee Application Ideas - Best Examples, this ideal. Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, list of Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Stamp Sign Word Logo Gap, criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to wait a while to get your meal at Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the meal is worth the wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only great service, but a fun atmosphere for eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price. Topic sentence for paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home. Food served quickly Easy to order Friendly Not pushy They get the order correct. Topic sentence for paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there.
Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and chairs. Topic sentence for paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the best in How To Write Letter | Gplusnick town. Juicy burgers with lots of grease Many choices for toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for those who don't like burgers. Topic sentence for paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price. Quality ingredients Burgers and fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills. Using this quick outline, most of you could probably write your own essay on Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to one of the best of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, that genre (use something everyone would know to save time).
You will not do an extended comparison, but just use the comparison as a lead-off into your own judgment. Valentine's Day Party Invitations. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is especially easy to do for this essay type. Use the Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the subject, then describe how the subject was either better or worse than you expected. Frame : Use a description of the subject to frame the essay. That way you get right into How To A Good Scholarship Essay, the action.
Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Give your evaluation and then conclude with the end of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, your frame. Define Genre and Compare: In this essay, you would start out by Receipt To Include describing the typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club). After describing the “typical,” you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the genre or deviates from the norm. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Probably this type of organization is best used for a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to break out of the Valentine's Day Party, normal expectations of that genre. Analysis by Criteria: In this type of paper, you introduce the subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the competition is, and how you gathered your data. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in Production/project Information Form order of importance.
Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of your paper. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. It means telling what happened in the order it happened. This is Request Form particularly useful for a performance or restaurant review. Causal Analysis: This measures the effect on the audience. How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the Visual: This organization plan works well for analyzing works of art and pictures. The analysis focuses on composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and background, symbols, cultural references, and key features of that visual genre. It also notices the tools of the artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and Rent Template And What media. This paper analyzes these details in order to explain how they are related to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, the cultural and historical context of the work of art and then tells how they relate to the overall meaning of the piece. Be sure to evaluate if and why this piece is effective or ineffective. Analysis Focused on the Social Context or the Story : This type of evaluation takes an image and analyzes how it is effective for Production/project Information Request Form a particular point.
Usually, the image is about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to the emotion or debate surrounding the event. It may be that the How To Write, image is ironic or misleading. The only Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 problem with our example above is that it is so easy to write, and Rent Information To Include so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. How can you make your essay stand out? Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the reader feel that they have been to Essay, the restaurant with you. Use the introduction and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 conclusion to entice the reader.
Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Use a conversation about the food. Start with your expectations and A Retirement Letter end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them). Talk about Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 popularity or history of the How To Write Scholarship Essay, restaurant. Use statistics of people eating fast food more. Discuss the controversy about fast food and obesity and health. See the chart below for more ideas. How to Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Present the Subject in an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, detail : Be sure to Valentine's Invitations - Redwolfblog.com, explain clearly what it is and provide enough information for the reader to agree with your judgment. Sometimes movie reviews leave the reader in suspense as to the outcome of the story.
You will have to decide what you want to tell. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to decide if they agree. Employee Application - Best. Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the summary of the subject is no more than a third of your paper. The main part of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, your paper is supposed to Production/project And Services Form, be the evaluation, not the summary. It is possible to do the summary separately and then do the evaluation, or you can summarize as part of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, your evaluation.
Make sure what you are evaluating is clear: It is often effective to use an Gap Analysis. Gap-Analysis Word Gap introduction which describes the subject or gets the reader involved in Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the action quickly. 2. How To | Gplusnick. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to foreshadow your body by including the main reasons for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 your evaluation in that thesis sentence. (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for a college student's study break because of the hilarious comedy, intense action, and Rent Template And What fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and the genre of the subject (in the above example, the audience is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 college students and the genre is action comedy). Create a three-column-log to Production/project And Services Request Form, help you make notes for your paper. Separate your notes into three columns for criteria, evidence, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 judgment. Pick at least three criteria to talk about in your essay. And Services. For example, for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 a mystery play, it could be three of the Valentine's Invitations - Redwolfblog.com, following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of minor characters, the pace of the action, or the unveiling of the mystery.
Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to read. Use vivid nouns and engaging verbs. Have a strong judgment about how this subject is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 either better or worse than similar subjects. Your judgment can be mixed. Day Party Invitations. For example, you might say the concert on the mall was a good mix of bands and that the new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the sound equipment was poorly set up and tended to make it hard to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, hear the singers. Order the body paragraphs from least to most important. Back up your opinions with concrete examples and convincing evidence. 3. Free Rent Template And What. Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, your judgments, you need to Rent Receipt And What To Include, give reasons to back them up that are specific, interesting, and convincing.
For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. In some cases it is effective to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think. For example, if your subject is Best Ideas - Best For very popular and you think it is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 terrible, you may want to Best Employee Application Examples For, state what most people think and tell why you disagree. This exercise is intended to help you prepare to write your paper. As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the topic (subject) you are going to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, evaluate? Do a short description of it in Write Scholarship Essay a list or paragraph. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. What category is your topic?
Be as specific and narrow as possible. Rent Receipt And What To Include. Who might be interested in this? This is your audience for the paper. What does this audience already know? What do they want or expect from this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 evaluating your topic? (Think of Gap Analysis. Stamp Sign Logo Gap, what is most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations?
In your evaluation of Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, your topic, what is good? In your evaluation of your topic, what is not as good? What is the best example of something in your topic? (Or what other things can you use to compare your topic with?). How does your topic compare to the best of this sort of thing? If I had to put my evaluation in a single sentence, I would say: Look at “How to Production/project Information And Services Request, Write and Evaluation Essay” Organization Strategies. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it.
Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of Write, these will work best for you? frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the subject, define the genre, personal story, quote from someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and contrast. How will you use this introduction and conclusion idea in your essay? Now write a brief outline of Day Party, your paper (see hamburger example above). Most of us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas.
Instructors may have you work in groups to talk out your ideas. I've even had some students turn on their webcam and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 answer these questions while videotaping themselves! If your instructor doesn't have you work in a group, you can get together with some friends to answer the following questions and take notes to help you get ideas for your paper. Take turns in your group. Day Party Invitations - Redwolfblog.com. The main goal is to Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884, help one another prepare to write.
Pay special attention to helping each other describe their subject vividly and Free To Include make their evaluation clear and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 precise. Also, look for good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to Rent Receipt Template Information To Include, your group. Let the group respond and tell you what they know about it or what they would expect. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. You write down their answers. Explain your subject. Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for you if you want).
Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in pre-writing). Have the How To Write Letter | Gplusnick, group respond. Do these seem like the best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 your thesis).
Get suggestions for Free Receipt And What To Include how to make is more effective. Look at Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 the different “Organization Suggestions” on the “Basic Features of an Evaluation Paper.” What type of Sign Text, organization would work best for this paper? Try to write a simple outline. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22.
100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write Cause and Effect Essays. by Virginia Kearney 5. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.
Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Production/project And Services Request, Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Thank you for Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 this its really helped with my college English class. thank you gave a better explanation that my professor. Thanks!
This is helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. That is an interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only visuals, and Free Information To Include now I have it evaluate it. I've never written an evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 United States. Hi Janelle! I have lots of information on topic ideas and how to write different types of Freshman English essays. I wrote these over my 24 years of teaching and publish them here to Sample - Best For, help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out.
Many students find my essays on their own but I welcome instructors using links to my material, but please do not post the information to your own website or print out my information. Thank you for this. I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and I'll use some of this material to teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality. I am trying to evaluate a hotel.
Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech. Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the Kindle Keyboard 3G. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. :) askformore lm 2 years ago. Thank you for a very interesting and useful hub. Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from Bangladesh. wow!! amazing really. I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago.
Thank you for this very accessible and useful information. Rent Receipt Information. Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks DVKR--I think this is Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 one of the easier essays to Information And Services Request, write because we are all familiar with the review. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884 respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is How To Write Letter a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Art-Director-Cover-Letter-1-638.jpg?cb=1392953884. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.