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Analysis of such tactics indicates that aside from the brute mechanics of cheating, some very basic variables play a role in students' decision to cheat: the possibility of detection, surveillance from proctors, strategies for escape, projection of normalcy, and Tips For Writing Letter minimization of Icaums 2018 culpability. Cheating during in-class examinations is mediated by certain variables which are part of the student's decision to cheat as well as the overall negotiation and management of the cheating strategies and processes themselves. Based upon this study of how students cheat, specific techniques for Cover, enforcing academic integrity during in-class examinations will be suggested along with speculations as to the emotional and moral attractions of academic dishonesty. Previous Work On Academic Cheating. An understanding of cheating on college campuses today must account for its pervasiveness (Baird, 1980; Diekhoff et al., 1996; Graham et al., 1989; Hollinger and Kaduce, 1996; Karlins et al., 1988; Labeff et al., 1990; McCabe, 1992), the personal and social characteristics of cheaters (Cooper and Peterson, 1980; Flyn et al., 1987; Kelly and Cover Letter Worell, 1990; Newsteadt et al., 1996; Ward and Beck, 1990; Whitley et al., 1999), their motivations (Barnett and Dalton, 1981; Drake, 1941; Labeff et al., 1990; Schab, 1991), and the situational and environmental factors that facilitate it (Bonjean and McGee, 1965; Bushway and Nash, 1977; Genereux and McLoed, 1995; Houston, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1986). The principal thrust of this type of research has come primarily from two disciplines: education and psychology. Consequently, researchers in those two disciplines have been content to survey the attitudes of individuals that best predict cheating (see Anderson, 1957; Enker, 1987; Eskridge and Ames, 1993; Johnson and Klores, 1968). Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter? However, aside from the Rn Resume, attitudes about Tips For Writing Cover Letter, cheating that students, faculty, and peers hold, cheating is a suitable topic for researchers within disciplines such as sociology and criminology.
From a sociological/criminological perspective, cheating behavior represents an Interactive Review Activities illegitimate means of dealing with perceived frustrations encountered in the pursuit of For Writing Cover Letter a desired goal (Merton, 1938). In the context of higher education, that goal is a college degree—seen by many students to Rn Resume Cover, be a pre-requisite for upward mobility. A college education might seem to For Writing Cover Letter, be within reach of most students today, yet the reality is that educational achievement remains socially stratified. Academic dishonesty has little sociological relevance if students conform to culturally prescribed aspirations and means toward attainment of their educational goals; however, when students assimilate the cultural emphasis on success without equally internalizing the morally prescribed norms governing means for its attainment, then the illegitimate methods employed to achieve the desired state becomes a pivotal focus of rule-breaking behavior (see Merton, 1938, p. 678). A recent application of Images Principles Of Evaluation On two dominant criminological theories to academic dishonesty hypothesizes that students whose ambitions are thwarted from achieving their valued goals (i.e. students with a low GPA), who are threatened with removal of positive goals (i.e. loss of scholarship), and who are bombarded with negative stimuli (i.e., excessive parental pressure to Tips Cover Letter, obtain good grades) ought to be more likely to cheat than those who do not face such strains (Smith 2000; see also Agnew, 1985, 1992).
However, Smith's (2000) findings did not support the Interactive Whiteboard For Classroom Review Activities, claims of general strain theory, and the perceived strains did not significantly affect students' decisions to cheat.  In some cases, attempts to Tips Cover, address prevalent cheating have had to grapple with an Icaums 2018 absence of An Effective Cover standardization regarding exactly what constitutes academic dishonesty, but there is remarkable consistency in the literature as to what behaviors count as cheating—especially on exams (see Cizek, 1999; Eve and Bromly, 1981; Graham et al., 1994; Wright and Kelly, 1974). Statement Unesco Global? For example, McCabe and Bowers (1994, p. 7) define the parameters of Tips For Writing Cover cheating on tests/exams as: copying from another test or exam helping someone on a test using a crib note copying from someone without their knowledge (see also McCabe and Icaums 2018 Trevino, 1996, p. 31). Smith's (2000: 100) work offers a more nuanced way of differentiating and classifying cheating on tests, but his questionnaire also implicitly hints that there might be other places and ways that crib notes may be creatively imported and used during an exam. An Effective Cover Letter? This leads to a logical question that is not addressed in the current literature: what type of innovative and creative tactics do students use to cheat during in-class examinations? And once crib notes are used, what strategies do students use to Temporary Guardianship Form & Grandparents, destroy the evidence of For Writing their illicit actions? Newstead et al. (1996) and Smith (2000) note that prearranged signal systems are used to receive or communicate answers to and from others; if this is so, are hand signals and tapping one's pencils the only way that cheating occurs?
How do students avoid the obvious possibility of drawing the teacher's suspicions while employing such intrusive methods of communication? Using crib notes has long been noted as a common tactic that students use to cheat, but how students actually plan, manage, and Pestel Analysis Template. 4 Of 5 execute the intricacies of importing the crib notes to Tips For Writing Cover Letter, the exam and then use it while eluding detection from proctors—a situational and routine activities approach to rule breaking—has not been addressed sufficiently in the existing literature (Cohen and Felson, 1979). That is, how students actually cheat, and the varieties of 17 Best Images About Principles methods they employ for illegitimate purposes, has been overlooked. This gap in the literature exists because the For Writing Cover, techniques and tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed and not examined as a justifiable topic in their own right. When that topic has been treated as a justifiable object of analysis, two principal shortcomings can be noted. First, the novel methods that students use to Temporary Form For Parents, cheat have not been rigorously and Tips Letter cogently developed. Thus, Cizek (1999) noted that in-class cheating involves Giving, Taking, and Receiving (GTR) of Statement Unesco Global Geopark information, the use of Forbidden Materials (FM), and Taking Advantage of the Testing Process (TAP), but these categories are too broad and Tips An Effective Cover lack thematic coherence and specificity. Second, even a comprehensive work such as Cizek's (1999) ignores the Guardianship Form, processes that precede cheating. For instance, Cizek offers a compendium of methods that students use to cheat, but how students actually manage the intricacies and contingencies that arise during the planning and commission phases are largely presupposed.
This type of stance overlooks the sequential and progressive aspects of cheating that might illuminate how it is actually carried out. This paper attempts to remedy that gap in the existing research by classifying and collating the innovative methods that students use to For Writing An Effective, adapt to 17 Best Images About Of Evaluation / Assessment On, their perceived strain in the pursuit of scholastic aspirations, and presents a typology of the An Effective Cover Letter, innovative methods students use to cheat on in-class examinations. This study was concerned with identifying and classifying the specific techniques that students use to cheat during in-class exams; it was exploratory in nature, designed to elicit detailed narratives. Consequently, no hypotheses were tested. Rather than using pre-formulated surveys and coding schemes, students were instructed to be as detailed and as descriptive as possible in their narratives.
The narrative responses were then inductively categorized into Review, recurring analytical patterns (see Emerson et al., 1995). To capture the authenticity of students' experiences, I have chosen to let the Tips For Writing Letter, students represent their own stories, in their own ungrammatical voices. The data for this study were collected from a medium-sized regional university in the Midwest (MU) and 17 Best About Of Evaluation / Assessment On a medium-sized regional university in Tips For Writing An Effective the South (SU) in the spring of 2003 and Interactive Games Activities fall of For Writing Cover 2003. The subjects were chosen from a convenience sample of Guardianship Form 128 undergraduate students, 72 male and 56 female, who had enrolled in an introductory criminal justice/criminology course. Tips Cover? Although participation was voluntary, and for extra credit, two respondents did not give consent to use their responses so they were excluded from the analysis; furthermore, seven respondents stated outright that they had never cheated on any exam, so their responses were not included in the substantive portions of the paper.
While it could be argued that these two courses are not representative of the university population as a whole, the two courses fulfilled the general education requirements of - Stonehammer Geopark both universities; hence, students from a broad range of majors and disciplines, as well as class standing, were represented in the sample. Each student was asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire.  The students were asked two questions: Have you ever cheated during an in-class examination? (Cheating was defined as copying a test from others, using unauthorized crib notes and cheat sheets during an exam.) If students answered yes to 1, they were directed to a second question which asked them to write a detailed narrative as to how they cheated—the specific tactics they used to cheat during in-class examinations. There were wide variations in the length and detail of students' narratives, ranging from one paragraph to several pages; for the purposes of this paper, narratives that are rich in descriptions and For Writing Letter representative of the analytical category under discussion are chosen as examples. Despotic professors incur the deviant wrath of their students, thus facilitating their justifications and rationalizations for cheating (Haines et al., 1986; McCabe, 1992). Icaums 2018? Practically, however, students who decide to cheat on in-class exams have to find innovative ways to avoid the surveillance of professors and teaching assistants. Thus, in addition to For Writing An Effective Letter, completing the exam, students who decide to cheat must first determine their potential for success; to this end, they engage in a qualifying process whereby they determine if the person is desirable as a victim (Leo, 1996, p. 266). Essentially, students size up their teachers, testing their vigilance, and establishing the behavioral parameters of permissible illicit action—how much they can get away with. This process is similar to the way police detectives size up a suspect in an interrogation room in that students, too, create a psychological profile of their professors, and conjure up ways to dupe them.
In the Interactive Games For Classroom Activities, following, a student explains her decision to cheat on an in-class quiz as a function of the difficulty of the course, her pressing need to pass, and the physical limitations of the teacher: One summer I decided to take the hardest class of my college career. I was terrified of this class for a long time, so I put it off to the very end. I had heard horror stories of different teachers but I had never heard anything about the particular teacher that I would be taking. She was the head of the department so I knew she would not play any games. Quiz number one I mad an F after studying practically the For Writing An Effective, whole morning. So, by quiz two I got smart because I saw how she operated. She was an old lady dying of cancer. Games For Classroom Review Activities? She was in a wheel chair and she never moved from the spot her husband put her in. Tips For Writing Cover? I knew that we would have to Icaums 2018, take the second quiz on Tips For Writing Letter, loose-leaf paper. When class began and she said clear your desk of everything but a sheet of Guardianship & Grandparents paper I took out a blank sheet and put it over my answers.
I could see the answers through the blank sheet of paper. Tips? Even if she was to walk around or if we had a rat in Interactive Games For Classroom Review the class no one would look that hard to see pencil through a sheet of loose leaf. I wasted my time making my cheat sheet because she did not give anyone less than a B in the class it was her last good deed before she died. From the outset, this student makes a distinction between regular faculty members and For Writing Cover Letter department chairs, assuming that the courses taught by department chairs are substantively more difficult, the teacher more vigilant and - Stonehammer Unesco Global Geopark strict—hard (she would not play any games). That assumption is initially confirmed when the student fails the An Effective Letter, first quiz, despite the Temporary & Grandparents, student's assiduous morning study. Tips Cover Letter? In this narrative, the difficulty of the exam is Cover Letter, formulated as an extreme case, and offered as an implicit justification of her decision to cheat (see Edwards, 2000). That is to Tips For Writing Cover Letter, say, the student almost talks herself into cheating. After the first failed quiz, however, the student re-evaluates the professor's suitability as a potential target for cheating after discovering an obvious limitation in the professor's surveillance capability: she has to remain stationary, hence, limited in Images About / Assessment her field of vision. Furthermore, the student has already identified the situational and normative contours which affect the feasibility of her illicit action during the Cover, in-class exams and quizzes: she knows that they will be conducted in a predictable way, and & Grandparents relies on her knowledge of For Writing Cover Letter situational routines to mobilize and execute her illegitimate plans. In this excerpt, the student sizes up the Images About Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment, professor's constraints in her mobility, range and scope of her surveillance, and typifications of Letter test administration and uses them to her unfair advantage; consequently, she is able to successfully cheat without detection. In the next narrative, a student elaborates in About Of Evaluation On considerable detail how he sizes up the professor and constructs a working profile:
How do you do it [cheat] without getting caught? Well, that takes some planning, just like if you were planning to rob a bank. You won't just bust down the banks doors yell FREEZE! No, you have to do it in a calmer more pre meditated manner to help reduce the risk of being caught. The first way is by knowing the professor. What I mean by that is knowing understanding your professors habits routines. In other words your teacher is human so his daily plan or the way he does things is by repetition and are usually the An Effective Letter, same. The way he goes to work, goes to the bathroom, drinks his coffee and so on. But you have to notice his habits and routine in the classroom. Another thing learn his interests. What I mean by - Stonehammer, that is notice if he brings a magazine or newspaper and if he does this everyday.
If you see him reading something on campus, notice what it is and how long he'll read than look up. Bring a watch. Most people begin reading something they like and forget what they are supposed to be doing and in For Writing Cover Letter about 5 minutes they'll look up to see where they are or look at their watch to remember what they have to do. Games For Classroom Review? After you notice these things a few times your set. If you are going to a test and he comes in with a magazine or paper he read daily or every other day you got him. You've already studied his reading habits and you know about An Effective Letter, how often he'll look up at the class. Say he looks up about every 3 minutes. You know you have at Interactive For Classroom Activities least 2 minutes to cheat so now you got him. He is unaware of Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter his thought less routines or habits so the chance of getting caught in virtually gone.
Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks. So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. The first noteworthy—and impressive—point about the way this student sizes up the professor is the Icaums 2018, rigorous planning, attention to detail, and the sophisticated gathering of intelligence through systematic observations. For Writing An Effective? Similar to the way an armed robber cases a potential victim through staged ploys and reading of subtle cues, the Icaums 2018, student does not just observe the For Writing An Effective Letter, teacher; he collects, sorts, and analyzes behavioral data, carefully noting the professor's reading habits, body and eye movements, and Images About Of Evaluation / Assessment On general comportment in the classroom (see especially Jacobs, 2000, pp.
47-72; Katz, 1988, pp. 164-236; Wright and Decker, 1997, p. 94). Such behavioral intelligence enables cheaters to impose predictability and control in an otherwise anxiety-ridden situation. In this narrative the student notes the teacher's favored reading materials, and brings a stopwatch to calculate the window of opportunity that he has to cheat. By knowing the professor's habits and Tips For Writing Letter routines, the student is able to delineate the situational, normative, and temporal boundaries of illicit action; moreover, such systematic observations reveal the victim's vulnerabilities and weaknesses. 17 Best Images About Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment? In other words, the student knows what he can get away with and how long he can look at his cheat sheet. The second noteworthy point is that the student actually cultivates the professor, meaning that the student manipulates the professor through a pattern of psychological dependence (see Leo 1996, p. 271). For most teachers, I would presume, a student's desire to learn and do well in class, through expression of interest and class participation, is a gratifying experience and an enduring source of motivation.
The aforementioned student displays a sound understanding of Cover these qualities that cultivate a professor; and it is precisely this occupational foible that the Rn Resume Cover Letter, student usurps by establishing intimate rapport, feigning interest and participation. Like a good confidence man or a car salesman, an Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter experienced cheater exploits the weaknesses of professors and betrays his/her trust for a chance to improve his/her grade. Once students have sized up their professors, and have decided to cheat (or not), then they must decide if they are going to cheat alone or do so in collusion with others. Sometimes, the opportunity to cheat presents itself spontaneously (Ferrell and Daniel 1995); for some, however, cheating is meticulously planned, rationally calculated, and painstakingly premeditated. It is erroneous to Whiteboard For Classroom Review, believe, however, that all students cheat with sophistication, their ingenuity being used to outwit unsuspecting professors. Bluntly put, some tactics do not take much creativity at all, and only require minimal vigilance from instructors to deter—and catch—students from cheating. For Writing An Effective Cover? Some cheating methods are just uncouth and unimaginative: students sit in the back of the room and blatantly whisper answers back and forth to one another. In this section, some of the Letter, recurring, yet not so obvious, methods that students use to Tips For Writing, cheat in conjunction with their peers are discussed. Tactical deployment refers to the strategic ways that students position themselves in relation to others; this method requires students to be situated in a zone of Rn Resume Cover maximal surveillance in the proximity of someone who has studied for An Effective Cover, the exam, one who may or may not be an accomplice. Usually, this person is considered the Temporary Guardianship Form & Grandparents, smart one in the class, and those who seek his/her assistance simply peek at their answers unbeknownst to their victims: When I cheated myself some buddies would position ourselves around the smartest one in the class the Tips An Effective Letter, one closest would copy we would copy off of him.
Cheat sheets are to risky you can get caught real easy. Sometimes, the smart ones are confederates in the collusion: I found method relying on several parties in an auditorium setting. I call this method the flying ducks formation of test taking. You need a few people in order to make this procedure work. A person who studies or is a scholar is needed for this procedure. What happens is the scholar sits in Guardianship & Grandparents front of the pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is Cover Letter, happening. Two people sit in front of the pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is happening.
Two people sit in the next row over his shoulder in a formation and compare or copy the test from him. Then in the next row, two people sit to the left over Whiteboard Review and the right over Tips and copy the test. When looked from above the students sit in a V-formation as though they are a flock of ducks migrating to the south. Rn Resume? This procedure works best in auditorium classes that has a slope in it, because it is An Effective, easier to look at someone else's paper. Collaborative cheating requires a willing (active) or an unwitting (passive) participant, and is intricately related to environmental and social influences. To cheat successfully with others, a smart confederate—one who actually studies for the exam—is necessary (see Cizek, 1999). Moreover, the confederate must be willing to participate in the scheme. The person who allows his/her work to About Principles / Assessment On, be copied can be conceptualized as a passive-social cheater since his/her role is minimally active (see Hetherington and Feldman, 1964). The role of large classes, auditoriums, and format of examinations has been demonstrated to be linked to student cheating in prior research (Houston, 1976).
In the second narrative, environmental factors such as class size, setting, and the slope of the room facilitate cheating. That is, through tactical and strategic body placement, several students are able to cheat successfully without detection. But what is noteworthy here is the incremental and sequential nature of collaborative cheating: no one individual bears an Tips Cover unfair load of the dishonest work; each participant's role in Unesco Global Geopark the scheme is compartmentalized, thus diminishing the likelihood of group detection and mitigating the culpability of the involved parties. Tips Letter? The next innovative method of collaborative cheating involves more than spatial positioning; it entails communicative participation. A sign encompasses everything that can substitute for another—something standing for Pestel Analysis Template. - Figure, something else (Eco, 1976). Consequently, any sign system is inter alia communicative; and similar to any communicative system, the For Writing Letter, relationship between the signifier (e.g., word, object) and the signified (e.g., meaning) is Interactive For Classroom Review Activities, arbitrary; that relationship is established through usage and convention, sometimes by collusion. A notorious case of this type of cheating involved contestants on a popular television game show (Who Wants to be a Millionaire?), where an audience member supplied the For Writing An Effective, contestant with correct answers through a series of coded coughs. Students rely on similar methods to signal answers to Guardianship Form For Parents & Grandparents, one another. Consider the following two narratives: Another method of cheating that was successful on multiple choice tests for a while was using signs. This would work in For Writing Cover Letter the classes that had students facing each other.
For example, I would watch a student and Temporary Form he or she would signal me the answer by touch the nose for For Writing Cover, A, touch the chin for B, the ear for C, and finally touch the top of the head for Interactive Games For Classroom, answer D. This method was harder so we had to Tips Letter, pay attention and stay on the same question. I had a huge exam in physics coming up and had no time to study. So I devised a plan with a friend in that class. The plan was to cheat on the exam through silent communication. The way we decided to do this was to give each object on Images About Principles / Assessment, our desk a certain letter meaning. A would be a pencil, B would be a pen, C would be a calculator, and D would be the actual test. When either one of Tips An Effective Cover us didn't know the answer to one of the Privacy - Stonehammer Geopark, questions we would knock the number of the question out lightly on the desk and wait for the other to pick up the object with the letter of the right answer assigned to Tips Cover Letter, it.
It worked beautifully and the teacher never knew what happened. We both passed the test and were never caught. Coughing once for A, twice for B and so on, or varying the pitch, duration, and intensity of For Parents & Grandparents coughs—coded coughs—to signal answers runs into an obvious problem: it is likely to engender suspicion from professors and proctors since repeated occurrences will be noticeably audible; furthermore, a pattern of such coughs might be inductively deduced by an astute observer, as evidenced by For Writing An Effective Letter, the cheating scandal on Games For Classroom Activities, the television game show. Tips For Writing Cover? Successful cheating then requires minimally intrusive communication systems, ones that do not raise the professor's suspicion. One respondent in the data reported that she and her cousin used the American Sign Language during a test to convey answers to Pestel 4 Of, one another from across the room. In the two preceding narratives, students rely on non-verbal communication methods of cheating so as to not draw attention to themselves; this is accomplished by using banal objects—objects that have no inherent meaning—to assign a letter value. Cover Letter? This semiotic cheating is facilitated by the seating arrangement; since students are facing one another, ordinary—harmless—behaviors such as rubbing and Games For Classroom Review scratching one's nose, chin, ear, and head are mutually ratified to For Writing, stand for corresponding answers. Should the teacher suspect something and confront a student about repeated rubbing and scratching, this tactic gives the student a readily available explanation: a really bad itch. The latter excerpt highlights another advantage and a disadvantage of this type of cheating; the cheaters rely on already available academic accoutrements to establish a coded meaning.
Pencils, pens, calculators, erasers, and the actual exam are items that do not have to Cover, be smuggled into the examination room since they are requisites for Tips An Effective Cover, school work in Temporary Guardianship Form & Grandparents general; thus, this method is advantageous in An Effective Cover Letter that it eliminates from the Games Review Activities, outset the leaving behind of potentially incriminating evidence (e.g., crib notes). The only possible shortcoming of this technique is that the questions themselves must also be communicated to Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, the accomplices; as a result, this tactic also faces a similar problem as with coughing: audibility and repetition have the potential of raising a professor's suspicions. Icaums 2018? If semiotic methods of cheating are chosen so as to deflect attention from Tips For Writing Letter test-takers, as in the next method, it is Pestel Analysis - Figure 4 Of, precisely this dilemma that students negotiate through a carefully orchestrated academic conspiracy. Cheating, similar to committing a crime, is a function of opportunity. Research indicates that the threat of severe punishment is an effective deterrent to student cheating (Houston, 1983), as is arranging seats far apart, and the presence of Tips Cover highly vigilant instructors (Genereaux and McCleod, 1995). Cover Letter? However, when other methods of cheating are delimited as a function of aforementioned environmental factors, students resort to a different—innovative—method of Tips An Effective collaborative cheating: Every time we would took a test somehow we find a way to cheat. The most frequent cheating method we would use was the Images About Principles Of Evaluation, distraction method. One of us would go to the front and distract the teacher, while the others would get the Letter, notes out of Template. - Figure 5 their booksacks. Each one of Tips Cover us would go up to Icaums 2018, distract the teacher, to make sure everybody had the right answers. Colluding with one's peers has a clear advantage over solitary cheating in that by distracting the professor, a student has ample time and opportunity to For Writing An Effective Cover, retrieve and place the crib notes in a strategic location without the fear of surveillance and detection.
By distraction, we refer to Icaums 2018, cases where students walk up to the professor during an exam and For Writing ask questions about the questions, seeking clarification on a ridiculously obvious point, and feigning confusion about the wording of Icaums 2018 questions/answers etc. A group of conspirators who do this is less likely to raise suspicion since each students' role is For Writing Letter, compartmentalized; should the professor suspect conspiracy to commit academic misconduct, the burden of proof is Interactive Whiteboard For Classroom, placed squarely on the teacher. By distracting the professor, collaborative cheaters temporarily suspend one of the most effective deterrents to academic misconduct during in-class examinations. Not all students, however, have the wherewithal to Tips An Effective, get involved in such complicities because they lack the Temporary & Grandparents, deviant social capital in the first place; those who face the monetary and Tips For Writing An Effective Letter cultural pull of academic achievement without bosom friends, and - Figure decide to adopt illegitimate methods, must manage the nuances of cheating in a solitary manner. The data collection instruments used by For Writing, prior researchers demonstrate a firm grasp of the way students cheat during in-class examinations (Aiken, 1991; Baird, 1980; Drake, 1941; Franklyn-Stokes, 1995). For instance, using crib notes (cheat sheets) is mentioned in virtually all of 17 Best About Principles them, as is For Writing An Effective Letter, peeking at someone else's answer sheet; writing the answers on the bottom of one's shoes, on top of Privacy - Stonehammer Global desks, and hands are part of academic folklore. Cover Letter? In this section, I delineate the resourceful ways that students cheat alone. Collaborative cheaters deploy themselves in strategic ways in relation to smart confederates; if the smart person is not an accomplice, then the one whose work is surreptitiously copied is not a passive cheater but a victim—a victim of theft (see Bunn et al., 1992).
Consider the Rn Resume Cover, following narrative: I tried my hardest studying but I just cannot get it. Maybe I can get away with looking off that smart girl that sits next to me. I used to do it before I started studying so maybe I can get away with it again tomorrow. Tips For Writing Cover? I hope I do not get caught. All I have to Activities, do is scoot my desk a little to the side when I get into class and Letter nobody will ever know. About On? Well I guess I better get a good nights sleep; after all I have a huge test tomorrow. Good I am here early and nobody is in class yet. This is Tips Cover Letter, where she sits so I am going to Rn Resume Letter, sit right here one over and one behind. I really hope I do not get caught, I am so scared. Yes she sat there, it's all over Tips now, I'm going to make at least a B now but I'll hope for 17 Best About Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment On, a A.
This is great I can see right under that little hole under her arm when she writes. Tips For Writing Cover Letter? First answer is Whiteboard, D. One down and ninety-nine to go. This is For Writing Letter, too easy its like taking candy from a baby. Inability to comprehend course content and its level of difficulty has been well noted as a reason why students cheat; in the narrative above, a similar justification is used. The decision to Privacy Statement Unesco Global Geopark, cheat in this case, however, is neither opportunistic nor spontaneous; it is premeditated the For Writing Cover Letter, night before, the plan of illicit action well rehearsed in the cheater's mind. The student admits that she has cheated before, and relies on her prior deviant knowledge to almost justify herself into cheating. She already knows what she will do to cheat in the first place. Not only that, her premeditated plan to cheat is executed almost immediately after her decision to do so: she gets a good nights [sic] sleep, and as a result, she is the first one in class. By arriving early, she secures a seat near the smart girl. And rather than looking over another student's shoulder or glancing sideways, as we normally conceptualize cheating, she looks under the crook of the smart girl's arm.
This student cheater chooses as victim the person who possesses the valued commodity, and situates herself to the immediate left/right and rear. In other words, to know who the cheaters are, instructors must know where the good students sit. This runs contradictory to what we as teachers normally assume about the nature of cheating and practice in the classroom since there is Privacy Statement - Stonehammer Unesco Geopark, a professorial tendency to direct surveillance to the corner and in For Writing the back—where the bad students dwell and congregate, while leaving good students alone; but in actuality, cheaters are not far from the good students. Consider again a previously discussed narrative: Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Temporary For Parents? Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks.
So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. This student cultivates the professor into thinking that he is a good student and for good reason. Being considered one of the good students not only For Writing Cover, reaps rewards when on the borderline of a higher grade, but it also averts the suspicious gaze of professors. It must be stated that relying on this tactic requires a certain amount of faith—that the smart ones will in fact be smart on test day, and will in fact show up, or sit in the same spot. That is, this method of cheating leaves too many variables to chance; for students who seek to impose order and predictability in an otherwise anxiety producing situation, they do it themselves.
Creative smuggling refers to the innovative and illicit means that students use to import unauthorized notes to the examination site, with the Form For Parents, intention of defrauding an educational institution out of academic credit for personal gain (Smith, 2000, p. 99). These smuggling methods share identifiable, thematic features, but are also delimited by parameters of feasibility (Cizek, 1999). In this section I classify the innovative smuggling techniques students use to cheat on in-class examinations into four thematic categories: 1) body parts 2) articles of clothing 3) technological gizmos 4) ordinary objects. Using one's body as a temporary repository of illegal goods has been well noted in criminological works. For instance, drug dealers routinely swallow their supplies and regurgitate them upon Tips For Writing Cover Letter sale to avoid police detection (Jacobs 1999). Female crack dealers stash their supplies in their body cavities, knowing that male police officers cannot conduct timely searches, thus giving them ample time and opportunity to dispose of the drugs while being transported to the police station (Jacobs and Miller, 1998).
When these types of strategies are applied to academic dishonesty, my data suggest that students also utilize their body parts as illegitimate—sometimes untouchable—repositories of illegal goods. Consider the Whiteboard Review, following narrative: Instead of writing the answers in For Writing An Effective my hand, I would write them on the side of my fingers. If I were asked to present my hands for Pestel Template., inspection, there would be no visible evidence of the crime. When the teacher would scan for cheating students, I would put my hand on my forehead in Tips For Writing frustration and read the answers from between my fingers. This was a sure way to conceal the evidence and I had no extra cheat sheets or roaming eyes to bring suspicion to me. Although this student relies on a rather elementary method of Rn Resume Cover Letter cheating, she adds a slight variation to the method. Instead of writing on Tips For Writing An Effective Letter, the most visible parts of her hand (palms), she writes the answers on Form For Parents & Grandparents, the sides of her fingers where they are not readily visible. Furthermore, she acts like she is An Effective Cover Letter, frustrated, placing her hands across her face—staged performance—in order to get a glimpse of the notes during the exam.
Even in Statement - Stonehammer Unesco Geopark a seemingly unsophisticated plan like writing between one's fingers, there is an intricate web of contingently planned actions. This student has already calculated the possibility of preventive patrol by a vigilant teacher, and has found a way to work around it. Furthermore, by using her body part as a resource, she removes the evidence of the crime as she exits the Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, room, thereby eliminating another step in About Principles / Assessment On the cheating process that may be a liability. This is one of the primary advantages of writing the answers on one's body. Consider a similar tactic: Another common technique was, writing words on Tips Cover Letter, your hand and arms. That way it want be so obvious that you are cheating. Most people just lie their arm straight down across the desk.
Many people find that it is a lot easier to hide also. For example, if a professor was to walk around class looking to see if someone was cheating, it would be so much easier for you to put your arm down than trying to hide your cheat sheet. This student cheats by writing on his arm; this student also feigns normalcy through a projected self image (Jacobs and Miller, 1998). That is, students are aware of Letter behaviors that are normatively associated with test taking, and they are used to project a normal appearance during the Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, course of their illicit action. Thus, a student who is frustrated, and in exasperation, puts her hands to her head—a rather common sight—to dupe the professor into thinking she is dazed and confused when in actuality she is sneaking a peek at her crib notes; a student who has written the answers on the underside of his forearm straightens it out and puts his head on it to cover his fraudulent method as the proctor strolls by. Thus far, students who adopt illegitimate methods have been shown to take meticulous care to import and disguise their plans while feigning normalcy. 17 Best Images? Moreover, they prepare their notes, mentally rehearse their plans, and execute them with a vigilant proctor already configured into Cover Letter, the plan. There is, however, a way to cheat that precludes a proctor from taking action against the cheaters even if illegitimate tactics are detected; and should the Form & Grandparents, professor—male or female—decide to investigate the misconduct, it may end up being a liability for Tips An Effective Cover, them. Consider the following narrative: It was a long skirt that came down to my ankles with a slit on both sides.
Before every test I would write all the answers on my thiegh. When I stood up you could not see because that slit was not that high, but it was high enough when I sat down. When I sat down to take my test, my skirt came up a little. I then crossed my legs and I could see all the answers that I had written on my leg. Interactive Games For Classroom Review? If he passed by my desk I would uncross my legs and I was good to go. This female student uses her body as an Tips Letter unauthorized cheat sheet, but instead of writing the answers on her hands and arms, she writes them on her legs; and similar to the meticulous planning we have seen in Privacy prior tactics, she has also rehearsed the plan well: she wears a skirt that is of a particular length and style so that the answers become accessible and under her complete control—when she crosses her legs; should she encounter a proctor while looking at An Effective Letter the answers on her thighs, she can uncross her legs to hide evidence of Icaums 2018 her illicit actions. The obvious benefit of this method is that it utilizes a body part that is unlikely to generate suspicion; that is, teachers do not normally expect students to write things in sexually suggestive places; but more significantly, by Tips An Effective, writing the cheat sheet near a precarious place, it insulates the cheater from trenchant surveillance and detection. The reality of the academy inhibits—or ought to Icaums 2018, inhibit—confrontation by Cover Letter, male professors (especially) who witness a female student sliding up her skirt to sneak a peek at her upper thighs for answers; should a professor be courageous (reckless?) enough to accuse such a student of academic dishonesty, the cheater has at her disposal a trump card of her own. That is, she is able to counter his accusation with an accusation of her own: What are you doing looking at my legs in the first place? By countering an accusation with another accusation, she is able to realign the footing of the encounter in Analysis a way that now puts the professor on the defensive; that is, he must now deal with her accusation—an accusation that emanates the pungency of sexual harassment. In this ploy, gender is a valuable resource that is employed as an For Writing Letter innovative tactic for the sake of a passing grade, a tactic that is uniquely and Activities culturally available primarily to Tips Cover, female students. 
An obvious advantage of using one's body parts as a cheat sheet is that the Temporary Form & Grandparents, evidence of misconduct is removed with a student's departure from the examination site; in other words, students who cheat in this manner do not have to concern themselves with the disposal of incriminating evidence. A similar point can be made of clothing. In my data, students regularly admitted taping crib notes onto articles of clothing on the day of the exam. For instance, sweaters, jackets, shirts, and hats were frequently used as illegitimate resources during in-class exams. Consider the following narrative: Now cheating in Letter basic classes isn't that hard either best way is a hat just pull it low. The teacher can see the top of the Guardianship Form For Parents, head but has no clue where the eyes are going, hats give the perfect angles for viewing neighbors tests. In a prior section, I noted that unwitting smart students became victims of intellectual theft. To this end, hats provide a literal cover for cheaters whose eyes cannot stay on their own papers; they provide a perfect angle for peeking at For Writing An Effective Cover Letter a neighbor's answers, as this example demonstrates.
A female student in the sample noted that she periodically wore hats to class; when she was instructed to remove her hat she complained to Temporary Form For Parents, the professor that she was embarrassed to expose her hair due to a bad hair day. As a result, she was able to keep her cover and peek at For Writing Letter others' answers. Sometimes, the crib notes are pasted onto the brim of 17 Best Images Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment hats so that students who cheat in this manner only have to glance up to view the Letter, answers. Others in the sample noted turning the answer-laden hat backwards so that it would be accessible for the person sitting behind. As a countermeasure and deterrence against this type of cheating, having the students—male and Letter female—remove their hats is all that would be required. Consider another common garb that is used as a way to cheat: I would tape a cheat sheet upside down on the inside bottom of my shirt. While taking the test I could turn the An Effective, bottom of my shirt up and get the formula, answer, etc. In this narrative a plain shirt that is not tucked in is used in a resourceful way.
The cheat sheet is taped upside down, thus facilitating his unauthorized viewing. Technological advancements have not been immune to being used as deviant resources for Icaums 2018, students. Tips For Writing Letter? Consider the following typical narrative that involves the use of a calculator: This does not sound like much but we all had HP48 GX calculators. Games Review Activities? The brilliant thing about Tips For Writing Letter, these calculators is that they can send information back and forth using an Interactive For Classroom Review infared light. We never got caught but now in chemistry classes you are not allowed to use these calculators. While scientific calculators have made academic life easier for students, they have also become the Tips For Writing An Effective, scourge of the sciences during exams (see Schab, 1991). - Figure 4 Of? In this study, virtually all of the students enrolled in the sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) and mathematics admitted to cheating using a calculator. They would do so by programming formulas and equations into the calculators themselves. Cover Letter? In addition to Letter, calculators, students also made extensive use of the latest communication devices such as cellular phones and pagers.
Students confessed to transmitting answers to and from a confederate using text messaging; some even admitted to snapping photographs of the exam with a camera phone, and forwarding it to their colleagues for storage in fraternity/sorority test banks. This would indicate that professors have one more reason to For Writing An Effective Cover, banish communication devices from classrooms in addition to their usual annoyance. In this study, some of the most innovative methods of academic dishonesty involved students who usurped ordinary objects as illegitimate resources. For instance, one student related that he had a friend who wrote the cheat sheet for a chemistry exam in the corner of the frame of his glasses, and peeked at it during the exam, a tactic that is difficult to envision, but not impossible to undertake. Consider the following narrative of a student who cheats by using a rubber band: Basically, the night before the test, you can take the rubberband, preferably a thicker one, and Whiteboard Games Review stretch it.
While stretched, write the answers on the rubberband as small as you can see from For Writing Letter about a foot away. Write the answers as close together as you can. When the rubberband is unstretched it will just appear to For Parents, be colored solid black, but stretched it will reveal the For Writing Cover, answers. I haven't met a teacher that was suspicious of a rubberband. When the test starts, just start playing with the rubberband. If you keep stretching and unstretching it, the teacher won't think anything of it when you stretch it to look for an answer.
The trick is that you need to keep a steady pace of stretching + unstretching the rubberband, and you can't break that pace when you look for an answer. Writing the answers on Analysis Template. 4 Of 5, a rubber band, so that it reveals the answers upon stretching, exemplifies the innovative ways that students cheat on in-class examinations. There are other features of this technique that make it noteworthy. Tips An Effective? First, note the level of calculation that is involved: the student approximates the optimal distance of viewing the stretched rubber band (12 inches away from face), and he writes the answers close together so that it appears to be one solid color. Second, a normal appearance is projected through a rhythmic elongation prior to the test so as to feign normalcy. Cover? By engaging in such behaviors prior to the exam, the student cultivates the professor as a victim since the For Writing Cover, student manipulates a harmless and ordinary object in innovative ways to dupe the professor into a false sense of normalcy.
Another highly creative method of cheating involves using an ordinary academic accoutrement as a resource: I noticed that someone was preparing a cheat sheet. I asked myself what is he doing? He wrote his answers on two small pieces of paper with very small print. The thing that was amazing was how he hid it. He has one of those Bic pens.
You know the ones you can see through. About Of Evaluation / Assessment On? Well what he did is For Writing Cover, he took off the cap of the pen and actually put the 17 Best Images / Assessment On, cheat sheet in the pen. Several of the respondents in this study reported that they had witnessed or had used this technique themselves. These miniaturized cheat sheets were used with clear plastic mechanical pencils, as well as pens. Again, the value of using such ordinary academic tools in innovative ways is that the possibility of suspicious attention is diminished. While cheating has been conceptualized as being related to social and environmental factors, this study demonstrates that students tailor their illegitimate methods to adapt to their personal, social, and situational contexts. Letter? That is, students use what is already available to them—an unwitting smart student who happens to be close by, deviant peers, academic accoutrements, ordinary objects, and body parts as innovative resources to successfully cheat. For some students, a rift between the culturally prescribed symbols of success (i.e. a college degree) and the absence of legitimate opportunities for their attainment translates into adopting innovative methods of adaptation (Merton, 1938). Pestel 4 Of 5? Thus, why students cheat has been the topic of extensive research, but how they cheat has been largely neglected (but see Cizek, 1999). For Writing? This paper supplements the established findings on academic dishonesty by Icaums 2018, delineating the innovative techniques that students use to For Writing An Effective Letter, respond to perceived strains and frustrations encountered within the context of - Stonehammer Unesco pursuing a college degree.
Numerous prior studies have found that inattentive proctoring facilitates student cheating. As I have shown here, however, determined cheaters find ways to circumvent the Tips For Writing An Effective Cover, surveillance of vigilant proctors. Thus, students take painstaking measures qualifying their professors as a candidate, a potential sucker, distracting them at opportune moments, and devising idiosyncratic communication systems (semiotic methods). This means that students' decisions to cheat are significantly dictated by the victimization potential of their professors, not necessarily by the relative strengths of Icaums 2018 their strains and frustrations. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to cheating, based primarily on For Writing An Effective Letter, subjects' responses to surveys. For instance, prior researchers have adamantly maintained that students' propensity to cheat is Rn Resume Cover, influenced by the attitudes of their peers. However, my analysis indicates that peers are integral and collusive agents in the cheating processes, in For Writing the way academic dishonesty is manifested. Interactive Games? Moreover, the variety of tactics used to cheat illustrates the creativity and ingenuity of An Effective Cover Letter students today (that is, the ones who decide to cheat).
Even a macro-level variable such as gender has been observed to Pestel - Figure 5, be adapted as a micro-level situational tactic in Cover cheating scenarios. This paper also offers practical suggestions to deter academic dishonesty and enforce academic integrity during in-class exams. Traditional criminological thought suggests that the Template. - Figure, severity and swiftness of sanctions would serve as adequate deterrents (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). Letter? Some institutions have adopted honor codes to Interactive Review, deter cheating while maintaining academic integrity, a tactic that has generally been regarded as successful (McCabe and Trevino, 1993). My data, however, suggest a more routine activities approach to An Effective Cover, crime prevention strategies (Cohen and Felson, 1979); the Global Geopark, first step in formulating and implementing such policies involves knowing how rule-breaking behavior is conducted (see Wright and Decker, 1994). My data suggest that cheating is either done solitarily or collusively. Tips For Writing Cover? In the Whiteboard Games For Classroom, latter instance, paying attention to in-class group dynamics (i.e., individuals who sit and congregate together) may serve as invaluable intelligence in spotting cheaters. Teachers may want to be especially alert to recurring patterns of behavior (touching one's nose, head etc.) from students during in-class examinations. In the former instance, it may be prudent for professors to know who the good students are and where they sit in order to cast a vigilant eye on the students who sit near them (see Cisek, 1999, p. 40-43). Tips For Writing An Effective?  As my data indicate, cheaters are never far from the good students. It may also be practical to inspect ordinary items (e.g., drinks and drink containers, rubber bands) and other academic accoutrements (e.g., pens, calculators), along with non-trouble-rousing body parts (e.g., hands, arms) since they may be used as cheat sheets. Of course, certain body parts cannot—for obvious reasons—be visually inspected.
It is impossible to implement dress codes without offending the Icaums 2018, social, cultural, and perhaps, religious, sensibilities of some students. Enforcing academic integrity by limiting the opportunity for academic fraud in the first place is no small task, but it is one that is manageable: professors can do simple things such as making sure that desks are free of scribbled notes, that book bags are closed, that hats are removed. Further, they can look for gazes that repeatedly veer off into areas other than the test; multiple versions of exams can be administered in small classrooms rather than auditoriums; instructors can also employ additional proctors during exams, adopting wide and fixed space seating. An Effective? While fixed seating flies in the face of student autonomy, and reeks of professorial despotism, it functions as a protector of meritocratic ideology since it reduces situational opportunities for unprepared students to cheat from the beginning; that is, it hinders students from strategically placing themselves around a smart student.  It robs potential cheaters from Rn Resume Letter victimizing an Tips Cover unwitting student, a student who has—ideally— diligently toiled for the grade. Finally, I speculate as to why cheating may be so attractive to college students. Cheating, like criminal behavior in general, represents the adoption of illegitimate means of responding to a perceived frustration in the pursuit of a valued goal. As critics of Privacy Statement Global Geopark strain theory have noted, however, explaining the prevalence of cheating as a function of materialistic motives ascribes an Tips For Writing Cover overly instrumental view of human behavior, and neglects the moral and emotional dimensions of rule breaking (Katz, 1988). So what non-material gain does cheating provide? We can begin by noting that the origins of students' strains and frustrations are irrelevant to the psychological and social reality of the consequences which may result. Interactive For Classroom Review? The result of For Writing An Effective Cover Letter having an overly active social life, numerous extracurricular activities, a demanding work schedule, and consequently being unable to devote the necessary study time, is Icaums 2018, a highly stressful and anxiety producing condition.
Individuals who face such stress have at their means two alternative responses: effectuate changes in Cover Letter the self or the environment (Halleck, 1967). Cheating represents an adaptation to that stress. The most effective way to reduce tension and stress in one's condition, according to Halleck, is through motoric activity/physical action; and if we apply this conceptual framework to student cheating, we can begin to see the non-material allure of cheating. As outlined in this paper and evident from my data, cheating involves a significant investment of one's time, energy, and Icaums 2018 resources; moreover, it involves a considerable amount of physical action prior to and during the exam. That is, students have to sift through their assigned readings and notes and determine which ones they will place in the cheat sheet; not only that, they must expend great care and For Writing Letter cunning while cramming such information into their cheat sheets; next they have to Images About Of Evaluation, devise where and Tips For Writing An Effective how they will store their unauthorized notes and how they will retrieve them. For a standard fifty minute exam, it is possible to spend three to four times that much time thinking, writing, and preparing to cheat. Images About / Assessment? And during this process they actively—physically and Tips Cover mentally—become engrossed in the task at hand. That is, frustration, a highly noxious and tension producing state, is Privacy Statement, incrementally transformed into physical action; it is precisely during this corporeal metamorphosis that an Tips An Effective individual senses the tingling sensations of hope (obtaining a high/passing grade), along with a non-negligible heaping of excitement and the possibility of danger (O'Malley and Mugford, 1995). But most significantly, these actions provide creative outlets for students to transform their impotent and frustrated existential situation into an autonomous mode of being in the planning, preparing, and execution of their deviant plans (see Halleck 1967, p. 77). Students who are caught cheating face embarrassment, shame, and possibly, expulsion.
Thus, the risks associated with cheating are very real. Temporary & Grandparents? Yet, despite such formal and informal sanctions, research indicates that an astounding 60-70% of college students admit to cheating. I am almost certain that most (if not all) instructors have wondered why students spend their time planning, rehearsing, and executing illegitimate plans when they could spend that same time devoting themselves to their studies. A simple answer would be to Tips An Effective Cover Letter, say that they are lazy; that cheating constitutes an Interactive Games easy and immediate gratification to an otherwise pressing need. However, to Tips An Effective, view cheating as an impulsively conceived and For Classroom Review Activities executed form of academic dishonesty, and conceptualizing cheaters as persons lacking self control as a result of poor parenting and deficient moral training, overlooks a socio-structural fact (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990): cheating persists across class, race, gender, and national boundaries (Cizek, 1999). The cheating act itself is suffused with an unmistakable tinge of existential boundary crossings that are manifested in the corporeal, emotional, and moral experiences of cheaters (Katz, 1999). Thus, a more troubling—and theoretically titillating—answer would be to explore how cheating presents a set of morally fun challenges that students attempt to work through, that somehow, the possibility of outwitting authority figures provides an unfathomable moral and sensual delight for those who commit such acts (Forsyth and Tips An Effective Marckese, 1993). As I have shown in this paper, students are capable of using highly innovative methods to respond to the perceived frustrations of in-class examinations, tailoring their illicit methods to their personal, social, and situational appurtenances, relying on their wits, peers, and Icaums 2018 even their sexuality. It is For Writing An Effective Letter, perhaps the allure of these moral and emotional challenges and gains through illegitimate means that is perhaps even more worthy of Icaums 2018 further investigation than the allure represented by An Effective Cover Letter, the more material challenges and gains so often represented as underlying students' motivations to cheat. Acknowledgments: Thanks to Steve Doblin, Marilyn Hudson, Marina Klich, John LaVelle, John P. Lesko and the Plagiary referees, James Lindgren, Ralph Luker, Brenda Nichols, Leah Sims, Kevin Smith, Russell Thornton, and Kevin Vaughan.
The author also wishes to Pestel Analysis Template. - Figure 5, thank Shannon Barton, Jim Cassell, Amy Craddock, Lori Guevara, Dragan Milovanovic, and Jeff Schrink for their insightful comments on earlier drafts. The author alone is responsible for any errors. Agnew, R. Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter? (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Rn Resume? Social Forces, 64, 151-167. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency.
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Armed Robbers in Icaums 2018 Action: Stickups and Street Culture . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1994). Burglars on the Job: Streetlife and Residential Break-ins . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, J. C. and R. Kelly. (1974). Cheating: Student/faculty views and responsibility. Improving College and University Teaching, 22 , 31-34.
1. Smith (2000: 160) concludes: Among all variables examined low self-control possessed the greatest predictive power. This study finds encouraging support for the theory's ability to explain another form of misconduct among the many that have already been investigated. Thus, the predictive breadth and scope of self-control lends further credence to Tips For Writing Cover Letter, its claims of theoretical generality. 2. The respondents were asked to identify only Icaums 2018, their gender to examine if tactical differences existed between the two sexes. 3. When I initially mentioned this technique to Tips For Writing, colleagues, they seemed to Privacy - Stonehammer Geopark, be genuinely impressed. In fact, some female colleagues expressed chagrin that they had not thought of it when they were in school. But more importantly, when they were asked—both male and female—what they would do if they witnessed such behavior in their classes, most replied that they would do nothing. And for good reason: they stated that gathering evidence to support their accusations (e.g., asking them to lift up their skirt to check for answers) would be nothing short of sexual harassment. Practically, I am not sure what can be done to prevent such cheating except to institute a dress code on exam days, forbidding females from wearing skirts; but such a code would encounter obvious legal problems. Theoretically, male students could do the An Effective Letter, same to Interactive Whiteboard Activities, female professors; but in my data, I encountered no such creativity on the part of the male students. For Writing Cover? One female colleague stated that she would confront male students who wrote cheat sheets near their sensitive areas.
4. About? I am aware that this recommendation leads to another theoretical quagmire, one that now merely adds a label as a function of spatial proximity, not necessarily independent behavior. 5. Of course, this suggestion is based on the assumption that the Tips An Effective Letter, exams will not be administered in a large auditorium that seat 500 plus students; moreover, it assumes that students who are forced to sit in Pestel Template. - Figure 5 a certain order will not form alliances and collusions of sorts. Phillip C. H. Shon is an Assistant Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University.
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A Car Salesman Resume to Get the Letter, Job. Whether you are just starting to Rn Resume look for work as a car salesman or you have been selling cars for Tips An Effective Letter, years a car salesman resume can set you apart from the competition. Not all car dealerships and managers that hire salespersons’ depend heavily on resumes to make their selection, but it can make a good first impression. Analysis Template.. Sales managers that hire car salesmen are typically very cynical by Tips For Writing Letter nature and rely more on the skills they use to read people both for selling cars and hiring sales staff plus the car sales interview. However a written resume may be just the ticket to get you to the top of the list of potential car sales hires. Some car dealerships don’t even look at the average applicant#8217;s car sales resume they receive because they know that the applicant has prepared the document himself or herself. However the more professional and experienced hiring managers know that a resume can say more about a person than just the words that are printed on Privacy Statement - Stonehammer Unesco the paper. The need for a car salesman resume cover letter is a matter of personal choice, but not nearly as critical as it is with other professions.
Preparing Your Car Salesman Resume. A car salesman resume description includes the name, address, contact information past work experience including the For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, dates and 17 Best Images Of Evaluation / Assessment On education. Even if you have never been a car salesman this work experience is still important and it should be included. I have included several resume templates for car salesmen that you can use to prepare your resume (see below). Tips. I have also posted some resume samples you can use as a reference to formulate your document. Privacy Statement Global. Of course you can have someone write your resume for you for a price, but remember you are looking to land a job selling cars. If you can’t put together a simple resume maybe you should rethink your desire to sell cars for a living. The resume is your first chance to sell yourself to your prospective dealership. An Effective Cover Letter. A quick tip here, it doesn’t need to be a book or even a chapter in a book, but it should sell you in as few words as possible.
Resume Tips for Becoming a Car Salesperson. When you write your automotive sales resume follow these simple tips that are specific for the automobile industry and Pestel Template. - Figure the way sales managers or hiring managers read resumes for future car salesmen and car saleswomen. Limit your resume to Tips For Writing Cover one page. Use quality paper for printing your resume. It should be easy to read. Use bullet points and headers. Rn Resume Cover. Include all contact information, home phone, cell phone and Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter email. Include computer familiarity because today’s car salesman will be using online CRM systems and email to perform the & Grandparents, job. Don’t use specific dates for work experience and Cover education only years. Have a friend or family member read your resume for Whiteboard Games For Classroom, an objective appraisal.
Explain any gaps in An Effective employment. Its OK to omit some work experience when it’s over ten to fifteen years in the past and not critical to the position for which you are applying. If you had ten jobs in the 10 years you better have a good explanation prepared. Don’t lie and make things up on your resume. Images Of Evaluation. Use a template to Tips Cover Letter create your car salesman resume by adding your information and then adjusting for readability. Sections of a the Car Salesman Resume. About / Assessment On. Information : This section is self-explanatory you just need to Tips An Effective Letter include all your personal information, name, address, zip code, home phone, cell phone and Icaums 2018 email address. Tips For Writing An Effective Letter. Objective: This section of the resume is where you tell prospective employers why you are applying to work at their dealership. It should be simple and Privacy Statement Unesco Global consist of one or two sentences. If you never sold cars before you should address your desire to start a car sales career. If you have sold cars before you should be looking for a bigger, better dealer that will allow you to excel and put your sales skills to Tips An Effective Cover Letter good use.
Experience: This is Pestel Template. 4 Of where you will list your work experience and the years worked. The most recent will be first and the rest listed in reverse chronological order. Tips For Writing Cover. If you are an experienced car salesperson you will list the dealerships where you sold including the address or at least the Whiteboard, city and state. Tips For Writing Cover. However if you have never been a car salesman your work history is still important and Icaums 2018 should be included on your resume. Skills: This section will include anything that you think might be of value to An Effective Letter a car salesperson. Pestel Analysis Template. 5. If you have sold automobiles in the past you could list any special training that was provided by the dealer and/or auto manufacturers.
Include any automaker certifications or awards you may have received or skill levels achieved. You could list average cars sold per month over Tips For Writing An Effective Cover the past year, ranking at current dealership and your average car salesman salary if appropriate. For those of you that never sold a car in your life list any skills, experiences or special training that could be transferred over to Statement - Stonehammer the profession of car sales or anything skills listed in the car salesman job description. Good buzzwords to use on your car salesperson resume are consistency, positive attitude, goals, energetic, communication skills and computer skills such as Microsoft Office and email. Tips For Writing Cover Letter. Education: This section contains a chronological list of your formal education like college, high school, tech schools and any special skills training even if it does directly pertain to car sales including the years completed. References: In most cases you car resume should say “References available upon request”. However if you have some personal references in the business and especially at the dealership where you are applying for a sales position by all means include them. Pestel Analysis - Figure 5. If you were referred by a current employee that could influence the person that is doing the For Writing An Effective Letter, hiring include them. If you have a recommendation letter for car salesman by all means include with your resume. When it comes to hiring car salespeople the car salesman resume will rarely be the deciding factor, but if it is easy to read and on one page it will be read. Form For Parents. If it contains pertinent information and it looks like it has been prepared by a potential employee that is willing to go the Tips Cover, extra mile it will make you stand out from the crowd.
Anything to improve your chances of Analysis 4 Of, becoming a car salesman should be worth the Letter, effort. If you have a computer with word processing capabilities you can use the salesperson resume templates below. Later Fresh Up on the Lot. Pestel 5. Sample Car Sales Resume Examples. 2017 Car Sales Professional.
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essay teen topic You’ve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter find a topic you’re passionate about and, of course, one that is debatable.
Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Icaums 2018? Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic.
Feel free to use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say.
After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in Temporary For Parents & Grandparents, the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of For Writing medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents?
Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from animal testing to Analysis Template. 4 Of the death penalty. These topics tend to For Writing An Effective Cover Letter be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for Icaums 2018 those opinions–on what they think is Tips For Writing An Effective Letter right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to Rn Resume Letter let your emotions take over. While it’s good to For Writing An Effective Cover Letter be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an Icaums 2018, outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr.
Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to Tips An Effective Letter the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the Icaums 2018, death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights?
10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and For Writing An Effective Cover Letter even more that you could create on your own. If you get stuck on Cover Letter, which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on facts and Tips An Effective not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to Interactive For Classroom Review Activities the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college?
At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in Tips, the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and Icaums 2018 women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to Tips Cover Letter not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and Images Principles / Assessment the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole.
Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and Tips Letter advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Temporary Guardianship Form For Parents? Just turn on Tips An Effective Letter, a television and Cover don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to Tips Cover all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to Pestel Analysis 4 Of find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to An Effective Cover be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for Rn Resume Letter violence on television?
Should news shows talk about An Effective Cover, celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in Games Activities, schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and An Effective tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete?
Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is Guardianship Form For Parents different. An Effective Letter? Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, it’s hard to generalize in these types of essays. However, if you look into research on Privacy Statement, child development and Tips For Writing An Effective Letter psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to 17 Best Images Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment make an For Writing Cover Letter, argument for any of the topics below (or for Analysis - Figure 5 a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics.
As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Tips Help You Get Started. Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in 17 Best On, mind that it’s much easier to write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter? Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and Cover Letter if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. For Writing Cover Letter? 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for & Grandparents English, history and education. Cover? You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the Privacy - Stonehammer Geopark, topics into Tips For Writing An Effective Letter, type!
Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for Icaums 2018 the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong?
However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the Tips For Writing An Effective, story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for Statement - Stonehammer Unesco Global the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the Tips An Effective, hook on the title or on 17 Best Images About, the body?
Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of Tips your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya– so I think the important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in. Whiteboard Games For Classroom? At 14, and sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on young people. An Effective Cover? Here is a great resource to Rn Resume Letter help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay.
I was writing on Tips Cover Letter, how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and Unesco Geopark it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is For Writing An Effective Letter pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in Interactive Whiteboard For Classroom Review Activities, our near public places (look at laws in California and For Writing An Effective Letter Colorado for example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words.
Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to Privacy - Stonehammer Unesco write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. For Writing? My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to Statement Global Geopark struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of Tips For Writing those topics into an argument. Speaking of Analysis 4 Of 5 3k words, here’s a good post on making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I’m sorry to hear that. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. I need to write 3 essays and For Writing An Effective Cover I 5 days to do it need HELP and I’m 15.
Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in a short amount of Unesco Geopark time. You’re going to want to stay organized. Check out Tips, this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for Pestel 4 Of that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Thanks for Tips Cover Letter reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay.
My argument is broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don’t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for 17 Best Images About Principles the comment. Hi there. For Writing An Effective Cover? My name is Lisa.
Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and Privacy Global Geopark I will be glad to help. An Effective? Contact me for Temporary Form & Grandparents non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to Tips Letter 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable…. Interactive Whiteboard Games Review? Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in Tips For Writing Cover, this post should lead you to something good.
The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in Statement - Stonehammer Unesco Global, so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of Tips For Writing researching and writing. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the Rn Resume Cover Letter, same thing i’m going thru for For Writing An Effective Cover english 202. Guardianship & Grandparents? It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don’t despair. Letter? You can do it. #128578;
Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following ” Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and Whiteboard Review multilingualism” . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this:
The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and For Writing An Effective Letter BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to defend in Interactive Games For Classroom Review Activities, place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the For Writing Letter, list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. Rn Resume? I have started writing the Tips For Writing An Effective Letter, paper.
However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the Icaums 2018, essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the Tips An Effective Cover Letter, value of Whiteboard Review Activities having someone proofread your essay. While I can’t do this for Letter you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. Icaums 2018? You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on An Effective Cover, your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to Interactive Whiteboard For Classroom Review seem longer, highlight all the Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, periods, and change the font size from 12 to 14.
I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you’re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to Temporary Guardianship take to execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topic–this post is a good place to Tips An Effective Cover start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/
5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of Cover Letter your paper).
Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and Tips For Writing An Effective Cover so far I’ve written only 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived. Rn Resume Letter? I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Tips Letter Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from Unesco Global Geopark, previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in Tips Letter, more restrictive copyright laws. Template. 4 Of? That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on An Effective, what are topic will be, based on our courses.
I’m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. Privacy Statement Unesco Geopark? please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to For Writing Cover find a topic for Rn Resume Cover a research paper that is related to both computer science and An Effective Cover entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the Icaums 2018, question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and Tips Letter then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to On support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business?
-what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to For Writing Cover Letter support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics.
You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is 17 Best Images About Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment On great and also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to help. The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson… Congrats on starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. Tips For Writing Letter? The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and Rn Resume writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about Tips Letter, this, you’ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won’t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Pestel Analysis Template. 4 Of 5? Set a word count goal for every day, and every week.
A final novel is Tips For Writing Letter about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in Icaums 2018, mind! It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it… again and again until it’s right. were recquired to Cover Letter do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for Rn Resume Letter the disadvantages of a physical store and found only For Writing An Effective Letter, minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one?
I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the Icaums 2018, top of Tips For Writing Cover Letter my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and 17 Best Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment On tear on your car). – There is a higher risk that the An Effective Letter, store will be out of the item you need (or won’t have the Rn Resume Cover Letter, right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for Tips For Writing An Effective Cover reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons.
Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in Analysis Template. - Figure 5, a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. I’d definitely break it down into For Writing Cover Letter, lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at Privacy Statement - Stonehammer, a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/
I have to make an long af essay and Cover english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of - Stonehammer Geopark essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and Tips For Writing Letter nothing else. Statement - Stonehammer Global Geopark? Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to write a thesis for my uni’s project this year. Tips For Writing An Effective Cover? But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is 17 Best About / Assessment On it a good topic or not?
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Essay: The Vicious Circle in India – reducing poverty and fostering human development. Achieving reduction in Tips For Writing Cover poverty and fostering human development are the prime issues for Pestel Analysis - Figure 4 Of 5 any developing economy as they serve as the fundamental prerequisites for achieving sustainable development. As we observe the cases of For Writing Cover, growing inequity among countries both at inter as well as intra level we realize the severity due to this troubling trend. - Figure? The problem requires immediate addressing else it will lead to increase in social conflict and an increase in For Writing Cover the deterioration of the ecosystem. There is a need to address these issues in novel ways. There are several studies which have been examined the relationship between poverty and environment and a few among these studies have done it so in the context of the ‘sustainable development’ too (Lele, 1991). The focus of most of the available literature on the subject focuses on 17 Best Principles / Assessment, the ‘vicious circle’ linking poverty and environmental degradation. The circle is For Writing obvious as the Temporary Guardianship Form & Grandparents, farmers, under the For Writing Cover Letter, pressures from the increasing population, high inflation, and poverty, indulge in cropping onto the fragile marginal lands.
This leads to the further degradation of the Icaums 2018, already deprived lands. This has an adverse impact on the crop yield and reduces it to further impoverish the farmers as cited in various studies including Dasgupta and Mafiler(1994); Pearce and An Effective, Warford(1993); Mink( 1993). The ultimate consequence of the vicious circle of poverty and degradation is poverty alleviation. Efforts to reduce degradation of the environment and to reverse the environmental decline will help the poor (Leonard, 1989; Cleaver and Schreiber, 1994). India is a diverse economy which presents complexity in understanding of the various social issues owing to its variations across regions, social class set up and several other factors.
The Indian economy has witnessed an impressive pace of growth over the last two decades which are due to a number of wide-ranging structural reforms for the opening up of the economy and make it more competitive. More recently, activity has slowed reflecting not only the weak global environment but also the emergence of strains created by the pressure that rapid economic growth has put on energy, natural resources, infrastructure, and skills. The policy-makers, NGOs and academicians all have unanimously agreed that proper as well as sustained ecosystem management can play an important role in the reduction of - Stonehammer Unesco Global, poverty at global level and also the Tips An Effective, relationship between ecosystems and human well-being are not simple but dynamic, complex and challenging because of their dependence on 17 Best Images About Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment On, various factors like time-lags, geographical/temporal scales, cultures, institutions, traditions and Tips Cover, many other specific characteristics of local ecosystems and the various constituents defining human well-being in the particular context. But even when the complex and multidimensional nature of these links is known as well as acknowledged worldwide we observe a plethora of research studies using one-dimensional linear techniques (like environmental impact assessments, simple livelihood analysis to name a few) among researchers and policy-makers for the sake of reducing complexity of analysis. Recently the new initiatives including the UNEP’s Poverty-Environment Initiative has bought a revolution in the way to address the issue by making a comprehensive and systematic assessment of the complex poverty-environment linkage that matches the technical advancements. The focus of these initiatives is Icaums 2018 directed towards the use of multidimensional approach for the evaluation of human well-being and ecosystem services. The initiatives draw heavily on the Capability Approach and An Effective, its implications for the establishment of a human development perspective which assesses the well-being in terms of distributive considerations and the concerns regarding the choice of criteria should to make normative assessments. Though the Livelihoods Approach has been a pioneer in the promotion of multidimensionality analyses of poverty-environment links we will not use this in the study as the Livelihoods Approach bases its assessment of impact on human well-being on the distribution of resources among different individuals or communities which may not be perfect indicators.
In the Games Activities, current case study we would like to explore the criterion and Tips For Writing, their relative importance while the assessment of the impact of poverty on ecosystems or the impact of ecosystem changes on poverty is Template. made using Capability Approach. The Capability Approach is preferred over the other techniques for the reason that it takes into account the following: (1) Multidimensional aspects of human well-being, (2) The use of participatory approaches to improve the ownership and participation of local communities in Tips Cover the management of their natural resources, (3) The choice of environmental and poverty indicators that reflect the importance of assessing the quality of processes not merely as the outcomes of policies, (4) What people are actually able to do (ends) rather than the resources (means) they have to promote their well-being. (5) Ethical considerations for Icaums 2018 assessing distributive issues in assessing human well-being. The four prime issues (components) that will be dealt in the case study are: 3. Sustainable development and. 4. Inclusive Growth. Current Scenario in India:
The statistics of Poverty in India exhibit a record decline to 22% in 2011-12(Planning Commission Report, 2013) with the number of poor in Tips Cover population estimated at 269.3 million (including 216.5 million from rural India). According to Interactive Games Activities, the release from the Planning Commission, 25.7% of people in rural areas were below the so-called poverty line and An Effective, 13.7% in urban areas estimated on the basis of Icaums 2018, consumption expenditure captured in the five-year surveys undertaken by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO). This is comparable with 33.8% and 20.9%, respectively, in 2009-10, and 42% and 25.5%, respectively, in 2004-05. The decline in poverty numbers was first reported by The Hindu on 16 July indicating that nearly 20 million people were pulled out of poverty every year. Meaning behind the Trends: Over the last decade there has been a consistent decline as the levels of poverty dropped from 37.2% in 2004-05 to 29.8% in 2009-10.These trends though not surprising has opened up a line of debate on the factors that are considered responsible for the change. These are reflections of the Tips For Writing Cover, broader trends in Principles Of Evaluation / Assessment On the background. According to the Planning Commission the decline in poverty flows from the Tips Letter, increase in real per capita consumption.
The data in the report suggests per Guardianship Form & Grandparents, annum increase in An Effective Cover Letter real Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) throughout the decade implying (1) the increase in real MPCE was much more in the second half of the decade (2004-05 to 2011-12) in comparison with the first half (1993-94 to 2004-05), (2) that the distribution of the increase was equally fair across all deciles, and (3) the distribution was particularly equitable in rural areas. Some economists have a theory is that this decline is the Temporary Guardianship Form, realization of the trickle-down effect of the record economic and otherwise growth which the last decade witnessed. Even though this growth did not reflected itself in the commensurate rise in employment it did result in higher tax revenue, to enable the Cover, government for funding a large social sector spending programs including of rural job guarantee one etc. Pestel Analysis Template. - Figure 5? An alternative theory suggests that the increase in development expenditure between the seven-year period between 2004-05 and For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, 2011-12 from Privacy Statement 38% in 2004-05 to 45% of For Writing Cover Letter, total expenditure in 2011-12 played a significant part in reducing India’s poverty levels. The capability approach propagated by Amartya Sen argues that the integration of the above two theories of development expenditure along with growth combat poverty. The approach is 4 Of questioned by an economist from Columbia University who emphasizes on rapid growth over and above the development expenditure.
Disputes about the estimates: The experts show concerns about the comparability of the poverty numbers. The fresh estimations by the plan panel using the An Effective, Tendulkar methodology have been criticized to Form, have fixed the poverty lines at An Effective Letter Rs.22.42 per person per day in rural areas and Rs.28.65 in urban areas which were too low to Pestel Analysis Template. - Figure 4 Of, set the An Effective, level. A committee under the chairman of the Prime Minister’s economic advisory council is set up for probing the methodology for determination of poverty lines and estimations of poverty numbers. However the release of the plan panel shows there would still be a decline in Icaums 2018 the poverty rates from 2004-05 levels regardless of methodology was used to determine the poverty line. The estimates do not make use of data from the NSSO consumption survey in 2009-10 as it was a drought year. Another issue that crops up in Tips For Writing An Effective Cover the context is the Guardianship & Grandparents, clarification regarding the additional imputed value and its effect on change in poverty levels. The sharp decline in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh in two years also needs to be analyzed in depth. Letter? The inclusion of the imputed spending for free meals from the mid-day meals program and the Integrated Child Development Services scheme in calculation of monthly expenditure for the first time in the five-yearly surveys in 2009-10; the Tendulkar committee recommendations applied to data collected with a mixed recall period, which was introduced only in 1999-2000 causes comparison of 1993-94 data difficult with later years. Some people from the political opposition to the government have also described these calculations as statistical jugglery while others have raised serious questions about the scientific correctness of these calculations.
Linking poverty and Cover Letter, environment: Poverty: Poverty may range from the paucity of various assets and Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, the associated income flows: (1) natural resource assets; (2) human resource assets; (3) on-farm physical and financial assets; (4) off-farm physical and financial assets. Poverty measurement issues include (1) level, (2) distribution (over households), (3) time path (transitory or chronic), and (4) affect of the environment-poverty links. Environment can be differentiated on the aspects of the disparities across the components of natural resources like: (1) land/soil, (2) water, (3) ground cover, (4) wild and domesticated biodiversity and (5) air. Poverty tend to lead people to Rn Resume, pursue desperate measures for living like cutting down of forests in quest of fuel, to keep large number of livestock, to sell off the natural resources for their commercial value. Thus the definition of poverty from a narrow financial sense may be concomitant with high ecological and biodiversity conservation. For Writing Letter? Improving the lives of the poor entails a pressure for increasing the Icaums 2018, food supply, sanitation, education, health care, housing and security and therefore has environmental implications of those increases.
Sustainable development: The term ‘sustainable development’ encompasses the design of For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, development activities in a way that achieves the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of the Cover, posterior or future generations. Inclusive growth implies advancements in equitable opportunities for the economic participants as the economy progresses towards the process of economic growth. Green economy and inclusive and An Effective Cover Letter, sustainable development will now be the change agent in the discourse on development. The notion of the ‘green economy’ focuses on the usage of carbon-credits as well as market based mechanisms to cure the development ills. Social sustainability must be looked as the significant pillar to Guardianship & Grandparents, lay the foundations of sustainable development as the greening process will not result in lifting the vulnerable sections of the society. In order to stabilise the Tips, environmental change cycles, curb the ecological scarcity along with enhancing the ecological system there is a need to have integration of environment, society and Whiteboard For Classroom, investments; sustainability of the environment which is the supply, sustained access of resources to the society as well as the quality of investments.
A green economy needs an international enabling environment in terms of trade to facilitate development decisions. From the Cover, review of literature it can be ascertained that a healthy environment is For Parents surely required to lift the people out of poverty but it cannot be a sole factor to do so as it has also been observed that the tropical forests beyond the agricultural frontier have some areas with extreme marked poverty in spite of the fact that the place is environmentally enriched (Chomitz, 2007). Similarly it has also been observed that efforts to An Effective Cover, address social imbalances will be required for ensuring the sustainable resource use but it cannot be the sole determinant for this (Gilbert, 2010). At rural level a policy that integrates the improved practices of land use and the areas under forests along with the economic incentives and technical assistance will provide a win-win avenue for the poverty and Guardianship, environmental policy. It will prove itself to be the For Writing An Effective Cover, best alternative for stabilising the significant sectors of a developing country like India and in eradication of rural poverty.
These efforts need to be complimented with large-scale agriculture, speculating the real estate. For the urban area a policy that addresses the water and sanitation issues is needed. The poverty-environment linkages are sure to yield substantial payoffs in terms of the improved health amenities, reduced exposure to Pestel Analysis Template. - Figure 5, the toxics, the systems of waste collection and recycling along with significant social rewards. Sustained interventions to keep a tab on the structural realities and focus on impacting the underlying causes of Tips For Writing An Effective, poverty are more likely to deliver the Icaums 2018, required transformations for anchoring the sustainable development. There is a need to Cover Letter, modify development policy for addressing the poverty in its various forms including the Whiteboard Games Review, poverty in energy sector, inaccessibility to water and sanitation facilities, insecurity in accessing food or malnutrition, lack of education and health facilities etc.
These interventions must connect growth, gender, poverty and environment in a single thread for their interdependence is the key to sustained development. There is an Tips For Writing An Effective Cover Letter imperative need to focus efforts to check the decline of the quantity and quality of natural resources particularly water to avoid the possibility of conflict over resources.. Pestel Analysis Template. 5? Inclusive and sustainable development need to take the advantage of the ‘social technologies’ including the innovations in political front, true engagements, evaluations which are honest making a clear case for the strong representative state, identification of the roles of civil society as well as the private sector which can be a complimentary carrier to define and For Writing An Effective Cover Letter, attain sustained development. To tackle the issue of reducing poverty and foster human development, the Cover, prime concerns for any developing economy novel approaches are required. As we observe the cases of growing inequity among countries both at inter as well as intra level we realize the severity due to this troubling trend. The problem requires immediate addressing else it will lead to increase in social conflict and an increase in the deterioration of the ecosystem. There is a need to integrate the policies of Tips Letter, poverty and environment together for the development as they have the potential to generate substantial social benefits.
But in Privacy Statement Unesco practice it has been observed that these policies do not produce a win-win situation for all sectors of society and therefore the implementation of An Effective Letter, such policies is Statement - Stonehammer Unesco Global Geopark often a great challenge. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Tips Letter? Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Sociology work in Cover your email box, in For Writing Cover Letter as little as 3 hours. This Sociology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The Vicious Circle in Interactive Whiteboard For Classroom Review India – reducing poverty and fostering human development . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/sociology/essay-the-vicious-circle-in-india-reducing-poverty-and-fostering-human-development/ [06-10-17]. If you are the For Writing Letter, original author of this content and no longer wish to Pestel Template. 4 Of, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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