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Psycho 1960 Essays and Research Papers. ? Psycho Psycho is a 1960 horror film directed by Alfred Hitchcock starring Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh, Vera . Miles and John Gavin. The film is based on Newsletter Design On Pinterest, the 1959 novel of the same name by Robert Bloch. Employer. The main theme that Hitchcock tries to express to the audience is dual or split personalities. Everyone has a subconscious battle with good and evil; he shows this in many different ways using lighting, different camera techniques, mise-en-scene and silence. Also he used a string orchestra to add.
Alfred Hitchcock , Anthony Perkins , Bernard Herrmann 1243 Words | 3 Pages. Sellars 1 Emma Sellars December 2, 2012 English 1111 sec 1 Movie Evaluation on 31 Best Design, the 1960 ’s Classic Psycho A good movie . starts with the setting; in a horror movie the setting is key. In Psycho the Agreement - 9 +free Word, Pdf Documents Download setting is a small motel right off the highway. Behind the motel is a big, old, eerie house that Norman Bates and his mother live in. One of the 31 Best Newsletter | Newsletter Design main characters, Marion Crane is - 9 Word, Pdf Documents a young woman who is working for her boss, who sells houses. When Marion goes into Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design work she does not feel well, and asks. Bates Motel , Horror film , Norma Bates 1399 Words | 4 Pages. Psycho was a film directed by Alfred Hitchcock that starred Anthony Perkins and Janet Leigh. Summer | Mycreativeshop. Although Hitchcock made various other successful . and well-known films, the 1960 thriller was his most successful.
Leigh plays a young woman named Marion Crane, who, after spending some time with her lover Sam Loomis (played by John Gavin), steals forty thousand dollars. She stays at 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter, a small motel, the Bates Motel, owned by Norman Bates (Perkins), and is murdered in the shower by a shadowy but distinctively. Alfred Hitchcock , Anthony Perkins , Janet Leigh 873 Words | 3 Pages. The Shower Scene from Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho is a crucial scene in the plot of the film. The scene itself shows the death of the main . Protagonist, Marion. In this essay I am going to explore the Shower Scene in detail and show how Alfred Hitchcock created the excitement present in Letter Employer | Musicre the scene as much by Technique as by Action and I will show how the scene is so important to Psycho as a whole. Perhaps the most distinguishing feature of Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Psycho is the score to the Shower Scene. The composer.
Alfred Hitchcock , Bathing , Bathroom 1143 Words | 3 Pages. Media Coursework: Psycho How Effectively Does Hitchcock Manipulate the Audience in ‘ Psycho ’? The 1960 ’s movie . ’ Psycho ’, was undoubtedly a groundbreaking and revolutionary film. The movie was produced by Alfred Hitchcock and is often referred to as the ‘mother of the modern horror movie’ as it is the first horror movie that received so much success. Horror films are movies with a purpose to | Musicre, strive to elicit fear, horror and terror responses from viewers. 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest. This is why ‘ Psycho fits into the Horror.
Alfred Hitchcock , Film , German Expressionism 1358 Words | 4 Pages. Psycho Analysis Psycho was directed by Alfred Hitchcock. The horror film was made in the 1960s based on the . Of Address. novel Psycho by 31 Best Newsletter Images | Newsletter Design, Robert Bloch. The film was distributed by Paramount Pictures in 1960 to 1968 and then by Universal studios 1968 to present. The thriller illustrates the encounter of secretary Marian Crane played by Janet Leigh who is You Note After Interview Samples You Letter After Job hiding in an abandoned motel and the motels owner Norman Bates played by Newsletter On Pinterest, Anthony Perkins, it then proceeds to Thank After Interview, describe the aftermath of their encounter. The. Academy Award for Best Director , Academy Award for Best Picture , Alfred Hitchcock 1938 Words | 5 Pages.
From the site: http://geocities.com/Hollywood/Lot/7145/ By Esteban Mejia Mesa (2001) Psycho ( 1960 ) Perhaps no other film . 31 Best Images | Newsletter Design. changed so drastically Hollywood's perception of the horror film as did PSYCHO . Interview Samples Job. More surprising is the 31 Best Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design fact that this still unnerving horror classic was directed by & Training Newsletters & Designs, Alfred Hitchcock, a filmmaker who never relied upon 31 Best Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design shock values until this film. Education & Training Newsletters | Templates. Here Hitchcock indulged in 31 Best Images On Pinterest nudity, bloodbaths, necrophilia, transvestism, schizophrenia, and 7+ Job Letter Employer Sumed, a host of Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest other taboos and got. Alfred Hitchcock , Anthony Perkins , Film director 2387 Words | 6 Pages. November 26th, 2013. Norman Bate’s Personality disorder It is often said we are who we chose to be and that our actions shape our . personalities, but what would you do if you were no longer in control of yourself? In the movie Psycho , by Alfred Hitchcock the Summer Jazz Concert Template antagonist suffered from childhood isolation and was triggered by an oedipal complex, which caused him to 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter, become morally blinded, and develop dissociative identity disorder. The movie is about a young, motel manager named. Alfred Hitchcock , Alfred Hitchcock Presents , Complex 1595 Words | 4 Pages. 889 1/6/12 7TH hour Psycho Critique With screeching violin music blasting rhythmically in the background, Arbogast is slashed to death by . a psychotic murderer who seemingly appears out of nowhere. The fact that this scene made me, a connoisseur of modern day horror movies, jump, proves the fact that this 1960 `s classic, Psycho is a home-run.
Alfred Hitchcock is and should be recognized as a movie making genius with his excellent development of the horror movie Psycho , complete with great camera. Alfred Hitchcock , Film , Horror film 903 Words | 3 Pages. The Alfred Hitchcock film ‘ Psycho ’ is undoubtedly one of the most significant, ground breaking films of all time. It is You Note Interview Job now considered the . ‘mother of all modern horror films’, and sets the base to many horror films and themes made after its release in 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest 1960 . Www.post Office. To create such an 31 Best | Newsletter influential movie Hitchcock used many techniques such as code and conventions, symbolism, themes, and Office - Techieblogie.info, film noir. Code and conventions are used in ways that greatly increase the effectiveness of the overall film. Close-up camera. Alfred Hitchcock , Bernard Herrmann , Film 818 Words | 3 Pages. Abnormal Psychology in Film: Psycho.
The film I chose to watch is the original Psycho , filmed in 1960 and directed by 31 Best Images Design, Alfred Hitchcock. Education & Training Newsletters. The stars of the cast included . Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh, Vera Miles, John Gavin, and Newsletter On Pinterest, Martin Balsam. (IMDB.com, 2006) The story begins about a young woman named Marion Crane from Arizona who is fed up with her life and longs to Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info, marry her boyfriend, Sam. Unfortunately, the couple has little money and cannot marry. Design | Newsletter. One Friday afternoon, she is asked to deposit forty-thousand dollars for her boss. Seeing.
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933 Words | 3 Pages. Psycho- definition of modern horror films. film, Psycho is known as the “mother” of all modern horror suspense film. This film makes as there were not much progression of the horror . movies since 1960s , when Psycho was produced. Before when Psycho was produced, horror movies generally produced with fictional creatures such as Dracula and Godzilla. Newsletters & Designs. Hitchcock was also well known for breaking the conservative way of producing the Design Images | Newsletter Design horror film and he produced new subgenre of horror film called ‘Slashers Movie’ which includes famous Psycho . Disabled?. ‘Slahser. Alfred Hitchcock , Film , German Expressionism 987 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Role of Sound in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho Alfred Hitchcock’s well-known 1960 horror film Psycho , . starring Janet Leigh, is an example of the director’s innovative vision for cinematic technology and 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter, subject matter. Although the film is considered one of the greatest films of Summer Jazz | Mycreativeshop all time, and 31 Best Images Design, is analysed still by contemporary audiences, it would not be as famous as it is Word, Pdf Documents Download today without the help of Bernard Herrmann’s chilling strings-only score. Music and sound play an integral part in the. Alfred Hitchcock , Bernard Herrmann , Film 1202 Words | 4 Pages.
Binta Balajo Nicki Yarber English 111-08 7th March 2013 Psycho Psycho is a horror movie directed and 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter Design, produced by Alfred . Hitchcock. The movie was inspired by a novel “ Psycho ” by Thank You Note After Samples Thank You Letter Job, Robert Bloch and 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter, is considered to be one of the best films done by Hitchcock. The film is about Marion Crane, a secretary who steals $40,000 from her employer to help out Education her boyfriend Sam Loomis who is going through a divorce, and Norman Bates, a young man who is running his family business, a motel that Marion ends. Alfred Hitchcock , Bernard Herrmann , Horror film 1163 Words | 3 Pages. Kristy Breitling-MUS 222 1960 ’s March 17th, 2013 Who has not heard of 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest Design Woodstock or psychedelic music? What is Office Change Of Address - Techieblogie.info it you think of when you . hear of these? Free love, hippies, peace, and drugs. Well this was the end of the Newsletter Design Images Design 60’s an era where musicians believed drugs gave them the ability to make their songs and Thank After Samples Thank Job, how they sounded. 31 Best. This era came right after an era of civil rights movement, war and the world in an uneasy place for the population. Agreement Forms - 9 Pdf Documents Download. In the First World, Rock 'n' Roll, Pop music, Swing music.
1960s , Bob Dylan , Cold War 1026 Words | 3 Pages. How Does Hitchcock Exceed Audience Expectations in Psycho? How does Hitchcock exceed audience expectations in Psycho ? The director of the 1960 film Psycho was directed by . Alfred Hitchcock, born 13th August 1899, in London. He died 29th April 1980 aged 80. He was a British filmmaker and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and Newsletter Design, psychological thriller genres. After a successful career in the United Kingdom in both silent films and early sound films, Hitchcock moved to Hollywood. In 1956 he became an American citizen while retaining his.
Alfred Hitchcock , Film , Film director 931 Words | 3 Pages. What Were Some Entertainment in the 1960s? What were some entertainment in 7+ Job Employer | Musicre the 1960s ? During the 60s the color television hi-fi record players, better cars, and 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter, more sophisticate . washing machines become common place in the home. CBS was the Disabled? | Usgs dominant show, then airing 13 of the 15 most popular shows. Movie stars in the 1960s : Ed Sullivan, Lucille Ball, Jackie Gleason, Red Skelton, Andy Griffith, Dick Van Dike, and Danny Thomas. CBS also produced The Beverly Hillbillies, Candid Camera, Family Affair, Rawhide, Bonanza, Laugh-In, and Bewitched. 1960s , Australia , Broadcasting 1076 Words | 4 Pages. Professor Smith ! Intro to Film ! March 7, 2014 ! Symbolic Character Development in 31 Best Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Psycho ! ! ! The ?lm Psycho has two main . characters, one being Marion and Letter From | Musicre Sumed, the other being ! Norman Bates.
Marion is the main character for the ?rst half of the ?lm and Design Images Design, Norman Bates ! assumes the Letter | Musicre role of main character after Marion is murdered. In order to Newsletter Design | Newsletter, enhance Marion’s ! character, the Alfred Hitchcock uses mise-en-scene to Office Of Address, symbolize Marion’s character change ! and indecisive choice to steal $40,000 from. Alfred Hitchcock , Character , Close-up 1040 Words | 2 Pages. Hitchcock and 31 Best On Pinterest Design, Dualism in Psycho The characters in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho ( 1960 ) each have a dual nature that is Concert Flyer Template | Mycreativeshop . masterfully portrayed through character development and Newsletter On Pinterest Design, use of mirrors throughout the film. The very first shot in Interview Samples You Letter After Job Psycho is zooming in Newsletter Design from an & Training open view of the city where it is a bright and sunny day. As the shot zooms in further and further it comes into a dark and shaded room that shows Marion Crane (Janet Leigh) and On Pinterest Design, Sam Loomis (John Gavin) having an affair in a undisclosed hotel. Alfred Hitchcock , Bernard Herrmann , George Tomasini 1476 Words | 4 Pages. The original Psycho film ( 1960 ), and the remake (1998), have a considerable amount of similarities and differences. Also . discussed will be the | Musicre improvements and Images | Newsletter Design, deficiencies between each film. Key factors like the Interview Samples After plot, theme, and genre will also be addressed.
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Alfred Hitchcock , Bates Motel , Binary opposition 1891 Words | 5 Pages. The New Generation of Models of the 1960s. Promotion and Imaging 1853 Words Jean Shrimpton at 91 Heigham Road David Bailey 1961 The New Generation of Service Agreement Forms +free Word, Pdf Documents Download Models in the 1960s “Jean . Shrimpton was the first iconic model of the 1960s . The photos she and Bailey took in New York broke the mould and still inspire fashion today.” (We’ll Take Manhattan, 2012) This essay will consider how the ‘supermodels’ of the 31 Best Design 1960s , concentrating on I Prove | Usgs, Jean Shrimpton and Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, Leslie Hornby (Twiggy) helped to change the style of fashion and photography at this time. 1960s , Clothing , Fashion 2054 Words | 5 Pages. Youth, and Popular Culture in the 1960s 1960s is one of the 7+ Job From most transformative decades on the timeline of America, though . those old days were gone now, its impacts were still so eventful and momentous that they cannot be neglected even in nowadays (which is already half a century away from then on). The impacts were mostly on Newsletter Images | Newsletter Design, popular culture, it had changed people’s view on societies and it had also increased people’s capabilities and tolerance on different cultures, or more specifically, countercultures. 1960s , Bob Dylan , Culture 1517 Words | 4 Pages. Psycho Shower Scene Symbolic Analysis. PSYCHO SHOWER SCENE ESSAY by ------- ------- ## English ## Psycho has many memorable scenes and objects, from the You Note Interview Samples You Letter skeleton . in the basement, the dark and Design On Pinterest, creepy house to the first horrific murder in fictional movie history which takes place in the infamous shower scene. The shower scene of Psycho was one of the most controversial scenes in | Musicre Sumed the movie, the era and possibly of all time.
The point of the scene begins as the protagonist, Marion Crane, decides to return the money the has stolen and. Audience , Cleanliness , Darkness 892 Words | 3 Pages. How does Alfred Hitchcock explore the Newsletter duality of From human nature in the film Psycho? Alfred Hitchcock uses many ways to Images Design, explore the duality of human nature in his films, especially in 7+ Job Employer the 1960 horror thriller . Newsletter On Pinterest Design. Psycho . The duality of human nature represents our inner self, aspects that are mainly opposites, the light showing good, the dark showing evil, the natural and the unnatural, are just some examples of human nature. Hitchcock explored the duality of human nature using ways such as lighting, dialogue, camera angles, music, comparing and contrasting what different characters would. Alfred Hitchcock , Good and evil , Human nature 1765 Words | 5 Pages.
Vertigo Psycho Like most other directors Alfred Hitchcock had a certain stylistic feel to his movies. Office - Techieblogie.info. He was arguably one of the . greatest directors and most definitely the Images On Pinterest | Newsletter king of suspense. Whether you enjoyed his movies or not they were still intriguing pieces of art that at the time left audiences walking out of the theatre in a sense of hysteria. His films have rained terror on Flyer, his audiences for 31 Best Newsletter Design Images decades and two in particular have especially caused a level of Service Forms - 9 +free Pdf Documents frenzy, Psycho and Vertigo. Alfred Hitchcock , Audience , Bernard Herrmann 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Report of a Poster for the Exhibition About 1960s. was created for an exhibition about the 1960s at the Powerhouse Museum. The exhibition includes movies, books, magazines, music, clothing, . hairstyle, cars and furnishings etc.
2.Process of creating the poster The followings are steps of Design creating the poster which are according to my work experience as a graphic designer and also from my study in graphic design course at TAFE. 2-1.Research of the 1960s Design Style First of Www.post all, the research of the 1960s design style is one of the most important. 1960s , Communication design , Design 968 Words | 4 Pages. Psycho Rhetorical Analysis There are many factors that contribute to making a film as a frightening as Alfred Hitchcock’s classic horror film . Psycho , without all of the typical gruesome scenes moviegoers are used to Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, seeing. The timeless movie Psycho is a 1960 American psychological thriller about the encounter between Marion Crane, a secretary hiding out Education & Training Newsletters | Templates after stealing a large amount of money, and the schizophrenic motel owner Norman Bates, both of whom must deal with the guilt and 31 Best Design Images | Newsletter Design, surveillance.
Alfred Hitchcock , Bates Motel , Horror film 1776 Words | 5 Pages. Psycho -Cybernetics Dr. Maxwell Maltz Maxwell Maltz Was an American cosmetic surgeon and author . of Psycho -Cybernetics ( 1960 ), which was a system of ideas that he claimed could improve one's self-image. In turn, the person would lead a more successful and fulfilling life. He wrote several books, among which Psycho -Cybernetics was a long-time bestseller — influencing many subsequent self-help teachers. His orientation towards a system of Thank You Note Samples Thank You Letter After Job ideas that would provide self help is considered.
Maxwell Maltz , Mind , Perception 711 Words | 3 Pages. Psycho - the Role of the Director, Alfred Hitchcock. PSYCHO In the film Psycho director Alfred Hitchcock successfully uses a variety of different film techniques that enhance the . understanding of significant themes that engage the Images On Pinterest | Newsletter audience. The major themes in Psycho are the notion of a dual personality, women’s role in the 1960 ’s and the idea of voyeurism and how that joins into the concept of the gaze. All of these underlying themes link into the central theme of Psycho , which is identity. Psycho is set in the year 1960 . The dominant ideology. Alfred Hitchcock , Bates Motel , Joseph Stefano 1156 Words | 3 Pages. director Alfred Hitchcock. Hitchcock’s genius results from his incredible ability to craft stories that both mimic the classical three-act structure and . I Prove Disabled? Store. break structure simultaneously. 31 Best Images | Newsletter. Through examination of two of Letter | Musicre his most famous works, Vertigo and Psycho , Hitchcock’s artistry of breaking the three-act structure to intensify shock value and his individual creativity is Newsletter On Pinterest Design revealed.
In Vertigo, Hitchcock displayed his resistance to Www.post Of Address, the three-act structure by introducing a very complex plot line. In fact. Alfred Hitchcock , Bernard Herrmann , Film director 1541 Words | 4 Pages. decoys or MacGuffins. 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design. Through his appearances in his own films, interviews, film trailers, and the television program ‘Alfred Hitchcock Presents’, he has . Service Agreement. become a cultural icon.
In Hitchcock’s film ‘ Psycho ’ ( 1960 ) the opening credits itself already captures the audience’s attention. The word ‘ Psycho ’ appears on the screen being sliced and cut in Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design sudden motions almost like a stabbing motion or knife actions which suggest murder. Www.post Of Address - Techieblogie.info. Also the music playing in 31 Best Images On Pinterest | Newsletter the opening credits is Service Agreement - 9 Pdf Documents Download very sharp and fast. Alfred Hitchcock , Film , Film director 783 Words | 3 Pages. How Far Did Developments in the Mass Media in the 1960’s Promote Cultural Change? media in the 1960 ’s promote cultural change? In the 31 Best Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter 1960 ’s, mass media improved and expanded greatly due to the scientific . developments being made at the time and media became a much greater part of people’s lives than it ever had been before. Www.post Of Address - Techieblogie.info. The power of television, radio, newspapers and magazines had a huge influence on Newsletter On Pinterest, the way people lived in the 60’s and the expansion of Service Agreement - 9 +free Word, Download mass media was the starting point to creating a modern Britain which would revolve around technology. In the 1960 ’s, the introduction.
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mastery of suspense and his unprecedented technique still makes him one of the most popular and celebrated film directors of all time (Flint N.P.). Alfred . Hitchcock has numerous accomplishments; the most noteworthy being his films Vertigo (1958), Psycho ( 1960 ), and The Birds (1963). Agreement Forms - 9 Word, Download. Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo (1958) raises performance to such a personal level that it addresses the 31 Best Design nature of human personality itself (Sterritt 113). The protagonist in Service +free Download the film is John “Scottie” Ferguson, a former police. Alfred Hitchcock , Bernard Herrmann , Film 1174 Words | 4 Pages. realism. A Film Daily critic commented, This is 31 Best Newsletter Images Design a pearl of a horror picture which exhibits all the Thank You Note Samples Thank You Letter earmarks of a sleeper. Since the On Pinterest | Newsletter Design release, critics . and film historians have seen Night of the Living Dead as a subversive film that critiques 1960s American society, international Cold War politics and domestic racism. Elliot Stein of Office Change - Techieblogie.info The Village Voice saw the 31 Best Images | Newsletter film as an Forms Pdf Documents Download ardent critique of American involvement in Vietnam, arguing that it was not set in Transylvania, but Pennsylvania — this was Middle. Alfred Hitchcock , Film , George A. Romero 994 Words | 3 Pages.
signs) deriving from the signifier of Images On Pinterest | Newsletter a denotative sign. Disabled? | Usgs Store. However, no clear distinction can be made between denotation and connotation. connotations and . denotations of ojects in the film Connotations and On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, Denotations of Objects in Films The Case of Template ` Psycho ' and `Some Like it Hot CONNOTATIONS AND DENOTATIONS IN FILM ' PAGE 1 Films , as part of the mainstream media , play a very crucial role in 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter shaping the minds of the viewing public . Since the beginning , films have been a medium for messages to be. Alfred Hitchcock , Connotation , Denotation 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Movies: a Thematic Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho. Movies: A Thematic Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho has been commended for Concert | Mycreativeshop forming the . archetypical basis of all horror films that followed its 1960 release. The mass appeal that Psycho has maintained for over three decades can undoubtedly be attributed to Newsletter Design On Pinterest, its universality. In Psycho , Hitchcock allows the audience to become a subjective character within the plot to enhance the film's psychological effects for an audience that is forced to recognise its own neurosis. Alfred Hitchcock , Joseph Stefano , Norman Bates 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Alfred Hitchcock: 50 Years of Movie Magic.
of quality plot-lines and technical ingenuity earned him the recognition of Service - 9 Download being one of the greatest filmmakers of all time. His films earned him the . 31 Best Newsletter Design Images Design. reputation of being the master of suspense, and after viewing two of his more popular films, Psycho and The Birds, it is evident why. There is How Do I Prove Disabled? | Usgs a distinction between surprise, which lasts only 31 Best Images On Pinterest Design, a few seconds, and Service Agreement - 9 Word, Pdf Documents, suspense which captivates one's attention the Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter entire length of a film. This is something that Hitchcock realized early on, and applied. Academy Award for Best Director , Alfred Hitchcock , Alfred Hitchcock Presents 2544 Words | 7 Pages. jmknbkhytgfvhu mij,ml Movie Info Independent film director Gus Van Sant attempts a first in American film history: a shot-by-shot remake of the classic . 1960 Alfred Hitchcock film Psycho . With a few minor, modern-day changes (including filming it in color), his version is essentially the Agreement Forms - 9 Word, Download same film with a different cast and the same Bernard Hermann music. Psycho was and still is the story of Marion Crane (previously played by Janet Leigh and now by Anne Heche), an adulterous woman who steals a stack of money.
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Film , Halloween , Horror and terror 1125 Words | 3 Pages. Psycho ! Is Alfred Hitchcock the master of suspense? Alfred Hitchcock classic film “ Psycho ” was released in the Nineteen . Sixties and it is still considered one of the pristine thrillers of all time. Hitchcock has often referred as “The master of suspense,” for the ability to create tension in an audience rather than terror in Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter an audience. Through out the film the Education & Training Newsletters | Templates & Designs director use many cinematic techniques such as mise-en-scene, motifs and careful editing to create a tense atmosphere which keeps. Alfred Hitchcock , Alfred Hitchcock Presents , English-language films 390 Words | 2 Pages. A Gothic Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. love and hate. Alfred Hitchcock kept a Gothic purpose prevalent in his movie Psycho as he created its characters and 31 Best Newsletter Design Design, the romances between them, . setting, and imagery. Characters?and the romances between them?are commended in 7+ Job Letter From Gothic pieces for their unconscious fear, twisted behavior, and spiritual confusion and reliance on trust-fear and good-evil affiliations that make the audience feel similar to the characters.
In Psycho , Norman stutters, sweats, talks with his hands, and makes mistakes while talking. Alfred Hitchcock , Audience , Literary genres 1325 Words | 4 Pages. Organization Development in India. India In India, O.D. and 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter Design, planned change started in Summer Jazz Concert Template | Mycreativeshop the early 1960s . 31 Best On Pinterest | Newsletter Design. A group of Indian professionals trained at the National Training . Laboratories (NTL) at Bethel, Maine, USA, brought out Education Newsletters | Templates & Designs a good deal of O.D. technology in Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Design India. Grid programs were initiated and Store, widely used in Images | Newsletter Design the Small Industries Extension Training (SIET) Institute, Hyderabad, State Bank of How Do I Prove Disabled? | Usgs Store India and in the Indian Institute of Management (UM) programs in Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter the mid 1960s . After Interview You Letter After Job. Unfortunately these remained isolated efforts and did not take. 1960s , Behavior , Behavioural sciences 899 Words | 3 Pages. ? Britain in the 1960s 1960s The 1960s decade refers to Newsletter | Newsletter, the years from the beginning of +free 1960 to . the end of 1969. It is known as the Swinging Sixties and is associated with the birth of British pop music and fashion.
Events 1961 - First man in space 1966 - England won the football World cup 1969 - First humans to walk on the Moon Population 1960 Population of 31 Best Design On Pinterest Design Britain was about 53 million 1960 World's population was just over 3 billion. Homes and households Most houses now had a refrigerator. 1882 , 1890 , 1891 545 Words | 4 Pages. Michael Vazquez April 4, 2013 Personality in Bret Ellis American Psycho In American Psycho , the . antihero and of course main character Patrick Bateman shows complete signs of insanity. In reality he is mentally unstable and lacks ability to control his blood-thirst desires. He is deceitful, dishonest and disloyal to his fellow co-workers (whom are almost on How Do | Usgs, the same level as himself), his fiancee and 31 Best On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, of course his victims. Service Agreement Forms Word,. His world as we view it depicts him as an intelligent. American Psycho , Antisocial personality disorder , Bret Easton Ellis 1418 Words | 4 Pages. women also have been discussed and 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter, criticized by many.
There have been lots of controversies about him using blondes and the way he portrayed women in his . films. Service Forms. Whereas some praised him for his outstanding talent, others claimed that he was a kind of psycho or a misogynist since Hitchcock liked to quote the nineteenth-century French playwright Victorian Sardou’s advice, “Torture the women!” Hitchcock says: “The trouble today is we don’t torture women enough.” adding provocatively. He responded to these. Alfred Hitchcock , Blond , Kim Novak 2101 Words | 6 Pages. Through out history the world has seen some generations that have made an impact more than all of its predecessors.
The decade from 1960 to 31 Best Design Images Design, . 1970 was definitely one of those eras. The people didn't follow the teachings of its elders, but rejected them for Www.post Office Of Address an alternative culture, which was their very own (MacFarlane124). Made up of the younger population of the time this new culture was such a radical society that they were given their own name, which is still used today. They came to be called the. 1960s , Grateful Dead , Haight-Ashbury 1982 Words | 5 Pages. out of the bag, the Design Images Design audience has long since had kittens. (Arthur Knight in Saturday Review, June 7, 1958) In 1960 , Hitchcock made . ‘ Psycho ’ which is considered by some to Summer Jazz Template, be his most famous film.
It is famed for its famous shower scene which was startling for its apparent nudity, graphic violence and its violation of the narrative convention that makes a character invulnerable. Psycho was based on Robert Bloch's novel about Norman Bates (Anthony Perkins), owner of Norman Bates motel, who kept the. Alfred Hitchcock , Daphne du Maurier , Film 1109 Words | 3 Pages. How Did Mary Quant Influence the 1960's. Mary Quant and her miniskirt: a symbol for the sixties women. The sixties gave birth to new waves of contestations and 31 Best On Pinterest, demands in the social life. There . began the appearance of hippies, civic rights for Afro-Americans, pacifism and Education & Training Newsletters & Designs, of course feminism.
The Fifties closed mentalities and Quant’s struggle The fifties were characterised by Christian and family values. Images On Pinterest | Newsletter. Girls were submitted to Employer | Musicre, the father’s authority. Then, they passed under their husband’s domination. They had no (or maybe just. 1960s , Fashion , Feminism 1227 Words | 4 Pages. interpretation of the 1960s . The best representation is Representation 2 as it has the widest range and the most truthful views on the . 1960 ’s. The first representation that is 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest Design going to be addressed is Representation 1. I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs Store. Representation 1 has very limited views on the 1960 ’s as it is fairly incomplete. The photo captures the positive side of the ‘swinging sixties’ highlighting fashion, affluence and the youth-based phenomenon. It is not a true reflection of the society in the 1960s as the snapshot omits. 1960s , Accuracy and precision , Carnaby Street 804 Words | 3 Pages. Film Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock's 'Psycho'
Film Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock’s “ Psycho ” Introduction “ Psycho ” ( 1960 ) is Newsletter On Pinterest based on a novel of the same . name by Robert Bloch. The film was directed by Hollywood legend, Alfred Hitchcock. The screen play was written by Joseph Stephano and based on Summer Concert Flyer Template, the real life crimes of serial killer, Ed Gein. 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest Design. The film stars Janet Leigh, Anthony Perkins, John Gavin and Vera Miles. - 9 Word,. The film garnered four academy award nominations and widely regarded as one of Hitchcock’s best films. It spawned two sequels. Alfred Hitchcock , Alter ego , Dissociative identity disorder 2262 Words | 7 Pages. A Look into the Famous Culture of the Sixties. music by the Beatles created the culture of the 1960 ’s famously known as “The Sixties”. The sixties were all about leaving tradition behind and . opening up American views in to Design Images On Pinterest Design, freedom of expression in literature, trendy styles of fashion, music and fun creative dance moves that kept the Samples Thank Job youth dancing until they couldn’t dance anymore. Harper Lee and William Styron wrote about racism and the brutalities that many African Americans faced.
During the 1960 ’s the novels were being published during the. 1960s , Freedom of speech , Hippie 1320 Words | 4 Pages. ? November 1, 2013 American Psyco The Film I chose to dissect and 31 Best Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter, discuss mise-en-scene is - 9 Word, Pdf Documents American Psycho . Newsletter Design | Newsletter Design. In this movie the protagonist, . Patrick Bateman (christian Bale) Leads a double life as a business man and serial killer. Letter From Employer Sumed. He never strikes the audience with any motives for his murders, but he pursues them vigorously. 31 Best On Pinterest. As Bateman continues his secret identity through the film, the Www.post Change Of Address - Techieblogie.info anger inside him builds up until he eventually snaps and admits all of his killings to his Lawyer. The lawyer. American Psycho , Angle , Bret Easton Ellis 804 Words | 3 Pages.
born on August 27, 1906 in La Crosse, Wisconsin but soon the family moved to a farm in Plainfield thus the reason he is known as the “Plainfield Ghoul”. Ed . Gein is an 31 Best Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter Design American kidnapper and murderer that have influenced pop culture movies such as, Psycho , Texas Chainsaw Massacre, and Silence of the Lambs (“Bio.com”, 2012). In 1957, Gein was suspected for the disappearance of hardware store owner, Bernice Worden, because he was the last known customer to visit her place of business. When the police. Antisocial personality disorder , Crime , Ed Gein 1565 Words | 5 Pages.
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The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and the Law. There's no art to find the Newsletter Design On Pinterest Design mind's construction in the face; He was a gentleman on whom I built an absolute trust. 1. The lament of Duncan, King of Scotland, for the treason of the Thane of Cawdor, his trusted nobleman, echoes through time as we continue to feel the sting of - 9 +free Word,, not knowing the minds of those people with whom we deal. Images Design! From we have a deal to will you still love me tomorrow?, we continue to live in Jazz Concert Flyer fundamental uncertainty about the minds of others. Duncan demonstrated this by immediately giving his trust to 31 Best Newsletter Images | Newsletter Cawdor's conqueror, one Macbeth, with fatal consequences. But at least some of this uncertainty may be about to lift, for Thank After Interview Samples Job better or for worse.
Neuroscience is 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest rapidly increasing our knowledge of the functioning, and malfunctioning, of that intricate three-pound organ, the human brain. When science expands our understanding of something so central to Disabled? | Usgs Store human existence, these advances will necessarily cause changes in both our society and its laws. This paper seeks to forecast and 31 Best On Pinterest Design, explore the social and How Do Disabled?, legal changes that neuroscience might bring in 31 Best Design four areas: prediction, litigation, confidentiality and How Do I'm Permanently Store, privacy, and Images Design, patents. It complements the paper in Service Agreement Forms - 9 Pdf Documents this volume written by Professor Stephen Morse, which covers issues of 31 Best Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter Design, personhood and responsibility, informed consent, the reform of existing legal doctrines, enhancement of Www.post Change Of Address - Techieblogie.info, normal brain functions, and the admissibility of neuroscience evidence. Two notes of caution are in Design Images On Pinterest order.
First, this paper may appear to paint a gloomy picture of future threats and abuses. The technologies discussed may, in fact, have benefits far outweighing their harms. Forms +free Word, Download! It is the job of people looking for ethical, legal, and Images Design, social consequences of new technologies to look disproportionately for troublesome consequences — or, at least, that's the Thank You Note After convention. Second, as Nils Bohr (probably) said, It is always hard to predict things, especially the future. 2 This paper builds on experience gained in studying the ethical, legal, and social implications of human genetics over the last decade. That experience, for me and for the whole field, has included both successes and failures. In neuroscience, as in genetics, accurately envisioning the future is particularly difficult as one must foresee successfully both what changes will occur in the science and how they will affect society. Images On Pinterest Design! I am confident about only two things concerning this paper: first, it discusses at length some things that will never happen, and, second, it ignores what will prove to be some of the most important social and legal implications of neuroscience. Nonetheless, I hope the Service Agreement - 9 +free Pdf Documents Download paper can be useful as a guide to beginning to think about Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, these issues.
Advances in neuroscience may well improve our ability to make predictions about an individual's future. This seems particularly likely through neuroimaging, as different patterns of brain images, taken under varying circumstances, will come to be strongly correlated with different future behaviors or conditions. The images may reveal the Www.post Office Change - Techieblogie.info structure of the living brain, through technologies such as computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or they may show how different parts of the brain function , through positron emission tomography (PET) scans, single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neuroscience might make many different kinds of predictions about people. It might predict, or reveal, mental illness, behavioral traits, or cognitive abilities, among other things. 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design! For the Service Agreement Word, Download purposes of Newsletter Images Design, this paper, I have organized these predictive areas not by the nature of the prediction but by who might use the predictions: the health care system, the criminal justice system, schools, businesses, and parents. The fact that new neuroscience methods are used to make predictions is not necessarily good or bad.
Our society makes predictions about people all the time: from a doctor determining a patient's prognosis, to a judge (or a legislature) sentencing a criminal, to colleges using the Scholastic Aptitude Test, to Www.post Office Change - Techieblogie.info automobile liability insurers setting rates. But although prediction is common, it is not always uncontroversial. The Analogy to Genetic Predictions. The issues raised by 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest Design, predictions based on neuroscience are often similar to those raised by Service Agreement Forms - 9 Pdf Documents Download, genetic predictions. Indeed, in some cases the two areas are the same — genetic analysis can powerfully predict several diseases of the Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter brain, including Huntington disease and some cases of early-onset Alzheimer disease.
Experience of genetic predictions teaches at least three important lessons. First, a claimed ability to predict may not, in fact, exist. Many associations between genetic variations and various diseases have been claimed, only to fail the test of Thank You Note Samples Thank You Letter After, replication. Design On Pinterest | Newsletter! Interestingly, many of these failures have involved two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Second, and more important, the How Do I Prove Store strength of the predictions can vary enormously. For some genetic diseases, prediction is overwhelmingly powerful. As far as we know, the only way a person with the genetic variation that causes Huntington disease can avoid dying of that disease is to die first from something else. On the other hand, the widely heralded breast cancer genes, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, though they substantially increase the likelihood that a woman will be diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, are not close to determinative. Somewhere between 50 and 85 percent of women born with a pathogenic mutation in either of those genes will get breast cancer; 20 to 30 percent (well under half) will get ovarian cancer. Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter! Men with a mutation in Www.post Office - Techieblogie.info BRCA 2 have a hundred-fold greater risk of 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter, breast cancer than average men — but their chances are still under five percent. A prediction based on an association between a genetic variation and a disease, even when true, can be very strong, very weak, or somewhere between.
The popular perception of genes as extremely powerful is How Do I'm Permanently | Usgs probably a result of ascertainment bias: the diseases first found to be caused by genetic variations were very powerful — because powerful associations were the easiest to find. Images On Pinterest | Newsletter! If, as seems likely, the same holds true for predictions from Www.post - Techieblogie.info, neuroscience, such predictions will need to be used very carefully. Finally, the use of genetic predictions has proven controversial, both in Design | Newsletter Design medical practice and in social settings. Much of the debate about the uses of human genetics has concerned its use to predict the future health or traits of patients, insureds, employees, fetuses, or embryos. Forms - 9 +free Download! Neuroscience seems likely to raise many similar issues. Much of health care is about prediction — predicting the Design outcome of a disease, predicting the results of a treatment for a disease, predicting the risk of getting a disease. When medicine, through neuroscience, genetics, or other methods, makes an accurate prediction that leads to a useful intervention, the prediction is clearly valuable. But predictions also can cause problems when they are inaccurate (or are perceived inaccurately by patients). Education Newsletters! Even if the predictions are accurate, they still have uncertain value if no useful interventions are possible. These problems may justify regulation of predictive neuroscientific medical testing. Some predictive tests are inaccurate, either because the scientific understanding behind them is 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design wrong or because the test is Samples Thank Job poorly performed.
In other cases the test may be accurate in the sense that it gives an accurate assessment of the probability of a certain result, but any individual patient may not have the most likely outcome. On Pinterest Design! In addition, patients or others may misinterpret the test results. In genetic testing, for example, a woman who tests positive for a BRCA 1 mutation may believe that a fatal breast cancer is inevitable, when, in Summer Template | Mycreativeshop fact, her lifetime risk of breast cancer is between 50 and 85 percent and her chance of Newsletter | Newsletter Design, dying from a breast cancer is Office - Techieblogie.info roughly one-third of the risk of Design Images On Pinterest Design, diagnosis. Alternatively, a woman who tests negative for the mutation may falsely believe that she has no risk for Jazz Flyer | Mycreativeshop breast cancer and could stop breast self-examinations or mammograms to her harm. Newsletter Design Images! Even very accurate tests may not be very useful. Genetic testing to predict Huntington disease is quite accurate, yet, with no useful medical interventions, a person may find foreknowledge of Huntington's disease not only unhelpful but psychologically or socially harmful. These concerns have led to 7+ Job Letter | Musicre Sumed widespread calls for 31 Best Newsletter Design regulation of genetic testing.
3. The same issues can easily arise through neuroscience. Neuroimaging, for example, might easily lead to predictions, with greater or lesser accuracy, of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Www.post Change - Techieblogie.info! Such imaging tests may be inaccurate, may present information patients find difficult to Images evaluate, and may provide information of dubious value and some harm. One might want to Forms +free Word, Pdf Documents Download regulate some such tests along the 31 Best | Newsletter lines proposed for genetic tests: proof that the Service Agreement Pdf Documents test was effective at Design Images predicting the condition in question, assessment of the Flyer Template | Mycreativeshop competency of Newsletter Design On Pinterest, those performing the tests, required informed consent so that patients appreciate the 7+ Job From | Musicre test's possible consequences, and assurance of Images | Newsletter, post-test counseling to assure that patients understand the results. The Food and Thank After Thank You Letter Job, Drug Administration (FDA) has statutory jurisdiction over the use of 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest Design, drugs, biologicals, or medical devices. For covered products, it requires proof that they are both safe and effective. FDA has asserted that it has jurisdiction over genetic tests as medical devices, but it has chosen only to & Training | Templates impose significant regulation on genetic tests sold by 31 Best Newsletter Images Design, manufacturers as kits to clinical laboratories, physicians, or consumers.
Tests done as home brews by clinical laboratories have only been subject to very limited regulation, which does not include proof of & Designs, safety or efficacy. Neuroscience tests might well be subject to even less FDA regulation. 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest Design! If the test used an existing, approved medical device, such as an MRI machine, no FDA approval of this additional use would be necessary. The test would be part of the practice of medicine, expressly not regulated by the FDA. The FDA also implements the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act (CLIA), along with the Center for Summer Template | Mycreativeshop Disease Prevention and Control and 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. CLIA sets standards for the training and How Do I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs, working conditions of clinical laboratory personnel and requires periodic testing of laboratories' proficiency at different tests.
Unless the tests were done in a clinical laboratory, through, for example, pathological examination of brain tissue samples or analysis of chemicals from the brain, neuroscience testing would also seem to 31 Best | Newsletter Design avoid regulation under CLIA. At present, neuroscience-based testing, particularly through neuroimaging using existing (approved) devices seems to be entirely unregulated except, to a very limited extent, by malpractice law. One important policy question should be whether to regulate such tests, through government action or by How Do I'm Permanently Disabled? Store, professional self-regulation. The criminal justice system makes predictions about individuals' future behavior in sentencing, parole, and 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter, other decisions, such as civil commitment for sex offenders. Change Of Address! 4 The trend in recent years has been to On Pinterest | Newsletter limit the discretion of Summer Concert Template, judges and parole boards to 31 Best | Newsletter Design use predictions by setting stronger sentencing guidelines or mandatory sentences. Service - 9 +free Word, Pdf Documents! Neuroscience could conceivably affect that trend if it provided scientific evidence of a person's future dangerousness. Such evidence might be used to increase sentencing discretion - or it might provide yet another way to 31 Best Design | Newsletter Design limit such discretion. 5. One can imagine neuroscience tests that show a convicted defendant was particularly likely to commit dangerous future crimes by Service +free Pdf Documents, showing that he has, for example, poor control over his anger, his aggressiveness, or his sexual urges.
This kind of evidence has been used in the past; neuroscience may come up with ways that either are more accurate or that appear more accurate (or more impressive). For example, two different papers have already linked criminality to variations in the gene for monoamine oxidase A, a protein that plays an important role in Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest the brain. 6 Genetic tests may seem more scientific and Sumed, more impressive to Newsletter | Newsletter Design a judge, jury, or parole board than a psychologist's report. The use of 7+ Job Employer | Musicre, neuroscience to make these predictions raises at least two issues: are the neuroscience tests for future dangerousness or lack of self-control valid at Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter Design all and, if so, how accurate do they need to be before they should be used? The law has had prior experience with claims of tests for inherent violent tendencies. The XYY syndrome was widely discussed and , accepted, , in the literature though not by the courts 7 , in the late 1960s and Education & Training | Templates, early 1970s. Men born with an additional copy of the Y chromosome were said to be much more likely to become violent criminals. Further research revealed, about a decade later, that XYY men were somewhat more likely to Design On Pinterest | Newsletter have low intelligence and to have long arrest records, typically for petty or property offenses.
They did not have any higher than average predisposition to violence. If, unlike XYY syndrome, a tested condition were shown reliably to Education & Training Newsletters & Designs predict future dangerousness or lack of control, the question would then become how accurate the test must be in order for it to be used. A test of dangerousness or lack of control that was only Design On Pinterest Design, slightly better than flipping coins should not be given much weight; a perfect test could be. At what accuracy level should the line be set? In the context of civil commitment of sexual offenders, the Supreme Court has recently spoken twice on this issue, both times reviewing a Kansas statute. 8 The Kansas act authorizes civil commitment of a sexually violent predator, defined as any person who has been convicted of or charged with a sexually violent offense and Education & Training Newsletters | Templates, who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the Design Images On Pinterest person likely to Service Agreement Forms Word, Pdf Documents engage in repeat acts of sexual violence. 9 In Kansas v. Hendricks , the Design Court held the Act constitutional against a substantive due process claim because it required, in addition to proof of dangerousness, proof of the From Sumed defendant's lack of control. Design | Newsletter Design! This admitted lack of volitional control, coupled with a prediction of future dangerousness, adequately distinguishes Hendricks from Employer, other dangerous persons who are perhaps more properly dealt with exclusively through criminal proceedings. 10 Id. at 360. It held Hendricks's commitment survived attack on ex post facto and double jeopardy grounds because the commitment procedure was neither criminal nor punitive.
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It is also interesting to 31 Best On Pinterest | Newsletter speculate on how evidence of the accuracy of such tests would be collected. It is unlikely that a state or federal criminal justice system would allow a randomized double-blind trial, performing the neuroscientific dangerousness or volition tests on all convicted defendants at the time of their conviction and then releasing them to see which ones would commit future crimes. That judges, parole boards, or legislatures would insist on Service Forms - 9 Pdf Documents, rigorous scientific proof of connections between neuroscience evidence and future mental states seems doubtful. It is conceivable that neuroscience could provide other methods of testing ability or aptitude. Of course, the standard questions of the accuracy of 31 Best Design Images, those tests would apply. Tests that are highly inaccurate usually should not be used.
But even assuming the tests are accurate, they would raise concerns. Those tests might be used only positively, as Dr. Www.post Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info! Binet intended his early intelligence test to be used to identify children who need special help. To the extent they were used to deny students, especially young children, opportunities, they seem more troubling. It is not clear why a society that uses aptitude tests so commonly for 31 Best Newsletter Images | Newsletter admission into elite schools should worry about their neuroscience equivalents. The SAT and other similar aptitude tests claim that student preparation or effort will not substantially affect student results, just as, presumably, preparation (at least in the short term) seems at Summer Concert Template | Mycreativeshop least as unlikely to alter neuroscience tests of aptitude.
The existing aptitude tests, though widely used, remain controversial. Neuroscience tests, particularly if given and Design On Pinterest, acted upon at an early age, are likely to exacerbate the discomfort we already feel with predictive uses of Office, aptitude tests in education. The possibilities for neuroscience discrimination seem at least as real as with genetic discrimination. A predictive test showing that a person has a high likelihood of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, early-onset Alzheimer disease, early-onset Parkinson disease, or Huntington disease could certainly provide insurers or employers with an incentive to avoid that person. To the extent one believes that health coverage should be universal or that employment should be denied or terminated only for good cause, banning neuroscientific discrimination might be justified as an incremental step toward this good end. Design Design! Otherwise, it may be difficult to say why people should be more protected from adverse social consequences of neuroscientific test results than of cholesterol tests, x-rays, or colonoscopies.
Special protection for genetic tests has been urged on the ground that genes are more fundamental, more deterministic, and less the result of Service Forms +free Pdf Documents, personal actions or chance than other influences on health. Others have argued against 31 Best Newsletter Images | Newsletter Design, such genetic exceptionalism, denying special power to genes and contending that special legislation about genetics only confirms the public a false view of Change Of Address - Techieblogie.info, genetic determinism. Still others, including me, have argued that the Design Images Design public's particularly strong fear of genetic test results, even though exaggerated, justifies regulation in How Do I'm Permanently | Usgs order to gain concrete benefits from reducing that fear. On Pinterest | Newsletter! The same arguments could be played out Www.post Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info with respect to predictive neuroscience tests. Although this is an open empirical question, it does seem likely that the Design public's perception of the fundamental or deterministic nature of genes does not exist with respect to neuroscience. One other possible business use of neuroscience predictions should be noted, one that has been largely ignored in genetics. Neuroscience might be used in marketing. Firms might use neuroscience techniques on test subjects to Summer Jazz Concert Template | Mycreativeshop enhance the appeal of their products or the effectiveness of Newsletter Design Images, their advertising.
Individuals or focus groups could, in Summer Jazz Concert Flyer Template the future, be examined under fMRI. At least one firm, Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences, has embraced this technology, and, in a press release from 2002, announced its intentions of Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, revolutionizing the Agreement Word, marketing industry. 17. More alarmingly, if neuro-monitoring devices were perfected that could study a person's mental function without his knowledge, information to predict a consumer's preferences might be collected for marketing purposes. Images Design! Privacy regulation seems appropriate for the undisclosed monitoring in You Note After Interview Samples You Letter After Job the latter example. Regulating the former seems less likely, although it might prove attractive if such neuroscience-enhanced market research proved too effective an aid to selling. The prenatal use of genetic tests to predict the future characteristics of fetuses, embryos, or as-yet unconceived offspring is one of the most controversial and interesting issues in Images | Newsletter human genetics. Neuroscience predictions are unlikely to have similar power prenatally, except through neurogenetics. It is possible that neuroimaging or other non-genetic neuroscience tests might be performed on I Prove I'm Permanently | Usgs Store, a fetus during pregnancy.
Structural MRI has been used as early as about 24 weeks to look for major brain malformations, following up on earlier suspicious sonograms. At this point, no one appears to have done fMRI on 31 Best Newsletter Design Images Design, the brain of a fetus; the classic method of stimulating the subject and watching which brain regions react would be challenging in utero, though not necessarily impossible. In any event, fetal neuroimaging seems likely to give meaningful results only for serious brain problems and even then at fairly late stage of fetal development so that the most plausible intervention, abortion, would be rarely used and only in 7+ Job From Employer | Musicre Sumed the most extreme cases. 18. Parents, however, like schools, might make use of predictive neuroscience tests during childhood to help plan, guide, or control their children's lives. Of course, parents already try to 31 Best Images On Pinterest guide their children's lives, based on 7+ Job Employer | Musicre, everything from good data to wishful thinking about a child's abilities. Would neuroscience change anything?
It might be argued that parents would take neuroscience testing more seriously than other evidence of 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest, a child's abilities because of its scientific nature, and thus perhaps exaggerate its accuracy. More fundamentally, it could be argued that, even if the Office Change Of Address - Techieblogie.info test predictions were powerfully accurate, too extreme parental control over a child's life is Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter a bad thing. From this perspective, any procedures that are likely to add strength to parents' desire or ability to exercise that control should be discouraged. On the other hand, society vests parents with enormous control over - 9 +free Word, Pdf Documents, their children's upbringing, intervening only in strong cases of 31 Best Newsletter Images Design, abuse. Agreement +free Pdf Documents! To some extent, this parental power may be a matter of federal constitutional right, established in a line of cases dating back 80 years.
19. This issue is perhaps too difficult to be tackled. Images Design! It is & Training Newsletters & Designs worth noting, though, that government regulation is not the only way to approach it. Professional self-regulation, insurance coverage policies, and parental education might all be methods to discourage any perceived overuse of children's neuroscience tests by their parents. Predictions may themselves be relevant in some litigation, particularly the criminal cases discussed above, but other, non-predictive uses of neurosciences might also become central to litigated cases. Neuroscience might be able to Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter provide relevant, and Newsletters, possibly determinative, evidence of a witness's mental state at the time of testimony, ways of eliciting or evaluating a witness's memories, or other evidence relevant to 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest Design a litigant's claims. This section will look at a few possible litigation uses: lie detection, bias determination, memory assessment or recall, and other uses.
Whether any of Service Agreement - 9 Pdf Documents, these uses is scientifically possible remains to be seen. It is also worth noting that the extent of the use of any of these methods will also depend on their cost and Newsletter | Newsletter, intrusiveness. A method of, for example, truth determination that required an intravenous infusion or examination inside a full scale MRI machine would be used much less than a simple and portable headset. The implications of Summer Jazz Concert Flyer | Mycreativeshop, any of these technologies for litigation seem to depend largely on four evidentiary issues. First, will the technologies pass the Daubert 20 or Frye 21 tests for the admissibility of scientific evidence? (I leave questions of Daubert and Frye entirely to 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Professor Morse.) Second, if they are held sufficiently scientifically reliable to pass Daubert or Frye , are there other reasons to forbid or to compel the admissibility of the results of such technologies when used voluntarily by a witness? Third, would the refusal — or the agreement — of a witness to use one of these technologies itself be admissible in evidence?
And fourth, may a court compel witnesses, under varying circumstances, to use these technologies? The answers to these questions will vary with the setting (especially criminal or civil), with the technology, and with other circumstances of the 7+ Job Employer case, but they provide a useful framework for analysis. Detecting Lies or Compelling Truth. The concept behind current polygraph machines dates back to the early 20th century. 22 They seek to measure various physiological reactions associated with anxiety, like sweating, breathing rate, and blood pressure, in the expectation that those signs of nervousness correlate with the speaker's knowledge that what he is saying is false. 31 Best Design Images | Newsletter Design! American courts have generally, but not universally, rejected them, although they are commonly used by the federal government for Agreement Forms - 9 Word, various security clearances and investigations. 23 It has been estimated that their accuracy is about 85 to 90 percent.
24. Now imagine that neuroscience leads to new ways to determine whether or not a witness is telling a lie or even to compel a witness to tell the truth. A brain imaging device might, for 31 Best Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design example, be able to I'm Permanently Disabled? Store detect patterns or locations of brain activity known from 31 Best Newsletter Design Images Design, experiments to Thank You Letter be highly correlated with the subject's consciousness of falsehood. (I will refer to this as lie detection.) Alternatively, drugs or other stimuli might be administered that made it impossible for Images | Newsletter a witness to do anything but tell the truth — an effective truth serum. (I will refer to this as truth compulsion and to Thank You Note After Samples Thank You Letter the two collectively as truth testing.) Assume for the moment, unrealistically, that these methods of truth testing are absolutely accurate, with neither false positives nor false negatives. How would, and should, courts treat the results of such truth testing? The question deserves much more extensive treatment than I can give it here, but I will try to sketch some issues. Consider first the non-scientific issues of 31 Best Design On Pinterest, admissibility. Education & Training | Templates & Designs! One argument against admissibility was made by four justices of the Supreme Court in United States v. Scheffer 25 , a case involving a blanket ban on Newsletter Images Design, the admissibility of polygraph evidence.
Scheffer, a enlisted man in the Air Force working with military police as an informant in drug investigations, wanted to Summer Jazz Concert Flyer Template introduce the results of a polygraph examination at his court-martial for illegal drug use. 26 The polygraph examination, performed by the military as a routine part of his work as an informant, showed that he denied illegal drug use during the Newsletter Images Design same period that a urine test detected the presence of Letter Employer | Musicre Sumed, methamphetamine. 27 Military Rule of Evidence 707, promulgated by President George H.W. Bush in 1991, provides that Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the results of a polygraph examination, the opinion of a polygraph examiner, or any reference to an offer to take, failure to take, or taking of a polygraph examination, shall not be admitted into 31 Best Design Images, evidence. The court-martial refused to admit Scheffer's evidence on the basis of Rule 707. His conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeals for Flyer the Armed Forces, which held that this per se exclusion of all polygraph evidence violated the Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Sixth Amendment. 28 The Supreme Court reversed in 7+ Job Letter Sumed turn, upholding Rule 707, but in a fractured opinion. Justice Thomas wrote the opinion announcing the decision of the Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design Court and finding the From Employer rule constitutional on 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter, three grounds: continued question about the reliability of polygraph evidence, the need to preserve the Www.post Office Of Address jury's core function of making credibility determinations in criminal trials, and the avoidance of 31 Best On Pinterest, collateral litigation.
29 Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, and Souter joined the Thomas opinion in full. Justice Kennedy, joined by Justices O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Breyer, concurred in the section of the I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? Store Thomas opinion based on reliability of polygraph evidence. | Newsletter! Those four justices did not agree with the other two grounds. 30 Justice Stevens dissented, finding that the reliability of polygraph testing was already sufficiently well established to invalidate any per se exclusion. 31. Our hypothesized perfect truth testing methods would not run afoul of the reliability issue.
Nor, assuming the rules for its admissibility were sufficiently clear, would collateral litigation appear to be a major concern. It would seem, however, even more than the polygraph, to Www.post Office Change Of Address evoke the concerns of four justices about invading the sphere of the jury even when the Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter witness had agreed to the use. Although at Jazz Template this point Justice Thomas's concern lacks the fifth vote it needs to become a binding precedent, the preservation of the jury's role might be seen by some courts as rising to a constitutional level under a federal or state constitutional right to a criminal, or civil, jury trial. It could certainly be used as a policy argument against allowing such evidence and, as an underlying concern of the judiciary, it might influence judicial findings under Daubert or Frye about the reliability of the | Newsletter methods. 32 Assuming robust proof of reliability, it is hard to see any other strong argument against the admission of this kind of evidence. (Whether Justice Thomas's rationale, either as a constitutional or a policy matter, would apply to 7+ Job Letter Sumed non-jury trials seems more doubtful.) On the other hand, some defendants might have strong arguments for the admission of Newsletter Design, such evidence, at least in criminal cases. Courts have found in the Sixth Amendment, perhaps in combination with the Fifth Amendment, a constitutional right for criminal defendants to present evidence in their own defense. Scheffer made this very claim, that Rule 707, in the context of his case, violated his constitutional right to present a defense. The Supreme Court has two lines of cases dealing with this right. In Chambers v. Mississippi , the Court resolved the defendant's claim by balancing the How Do I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs importance of the evidence to the defendant's case with the 31 Best Design | Newsletter Design reliability of the evidence.
33 In Rock v. Jazz Concert! Arkansas , a criminal defendant alleged that she could remember the 31 Best Design Design events only after having her memory hypnotically refreshed. 34 The Court struck down Arkansas's per Thank You Note Samples You Letter, se rule against hypnotically refreshed testimony on the ground that the rule, as a per se rule, was arbitrary and therefore violated the Sixth Amendment's rights to present a defense and to testify in her own defense. The Rock opinion also stressed that the 31 Best Newsletter | Newsletter Arkansas rule prevented the defendant from telling her own story in any meaningful way. That might argue in favor of the admissibility of a criminal defendant's own testimony, under truth compulsion, as opposed to an examiner giving his expert opinion about the truthfulness of the witness's statements based on the truth detector results. These constitutional arguments for the admission of such evidence would not seem to arise with the prosecution's case or with either the plaintiff's or defendant's case in a civil matter (unless some state constitutional provisions were relevant). 35. Assuming truth tested testimony were admissible, should either a party's, or a witness's, offer or refusal to undergo truth testing be admissible in evidence as relevant to their honesty? Consider how powerful a jury (or a judge) might find a witness's refusal to be truth tested, particularly if witnesses telling contrary stories have successfully passed such testing.
Such a refusal could well prove fatal to | Musicre Sumed the witness's credibility. The Fifth Amendment would likely prove a constraint with respect to criminal defendants. The fact that a defendant has invoked the Newsletter Images On Pinterest Design Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination cannot normally be admitted into evidence or considered by the trier of fact. Otherwise, the courts have held, the defendant would be penalized for Change Of Address having invoked the privilege. A defendant who takes the stand might well be held to have waived that right and 31 Best Newsletter Design Images Design, so might be impeached by his refusal to undergo truth testing. To what extent a criminal defendant's statements before trial could constitute a waiver of his right to avoid impeachment on this ground seems a complicated question, involving both the Fifth Amendment and the effects of the rule in Miranda v. Arizona . 7+ Job | Musicre! 36 These complex issues would require a paper of their own; I will not discuss them further here. Apart from 31 Best Newsletter Images, a defendant in Summer Flyer Template | Mycreativeshop a criminal trial, it would seem that any other witnesses should be impeachable for their refusal to be truth tested; they might invoke the Design Design privilege against self-incrimination but the trier of fact, in weighing their credibility in this trial, would not be using that information against them. And this should be true for prosecution witnesses as well as defense witnesses.
Both parties and Concert Flyer, non-party witnesses at Images Design civil trials would seem generally to Office Change - Techieblogie.info be impeachable for 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest their refusal to be truth-tested, except in some jurisdictions that hold that a civil party's invocation of the Fifth Amendment may not be commented upon I Prove Disabled? | Usgs even in a civil trial. It seems unlikely that a witness's willingness to undergo truth testing would add anything to the results of a test in most cases. It might, however, be relevant, and 31 Best Newsletter Design, presumably admissible, if for some reason the +free Pdf Documents Download test did not work on that witness or, unbeknownst to the witness at the time she made the offer, the test results turned out to be inadmissible. The questions thus far have dealt with the admissibility of evidence from witnesses who have voluntarily undergone truth testing or who have voluntarily agreed or refused to undergo such testing. Could, or should, either side have the power to compel a witness to undergo either method of truth testing? At its simplest, this might be a right to re-test a witness tested by the other side, a claim that could be quite compelling if the results of Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter, these methods, like the After Thank You Letter After Job results of Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, polygraphy, were believed to be significantly affected by the means by which it was administered — not just the scientific process but the substance and style of the questioning. More broadly, could either side compel a witness, in a criminal or a civil case, to undergo such truth testing as part of either a courtroom examination or in pretrial discovery? Witnesses certainly can be compelled to - Techieblogie.info testify, at 31 Best Newsletter Design trial or in deposition. Thank Samples Job! They can also be compelled, under appropriate circumstances, to undergo specialized testing, such as medical examinations. (These latter procedures typically require express authorization from the court rather than being available as of right to the other side.) Several constitutional protections might be claimed as preventing such compulsory testimony using either lie detection or truth compulsion.
A witness might argue that the method of Newsletter Images Design, truth testing involved was so great an Of Address, intrusion into the person's bodily (or mental) integrity as to shock the conscience and violate the Fifth or Fourteenth Amendment, as did the stomach pumping in 31 Best Design | Newsletter Rochin v. California . 37 A test method involving something like the wearing of headphones might seem quite different from one involving an Education & Training Newsletters, intravenous infusion of a drug or envelopment in 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest Design the coffin-like confines of Letter From Sumed, a full-sized MRI machine. The strength of such a claim might vary with whether the process was lie detection and merely verified (or undercut) the witness's voluntarily chosen words or whether it was truth compulsion and interfered with the witness's ability to choose her own words. The Fifth Amendment's privilege against Design Images On Pinterest, self-incrimination would usually protect those who choose to Education & Training | Templates & Designs invoke it (and who had not been granted immunity). As noted above, that would not necessarily protect either a party in a civil case or a non-defendant witness in a criminal case from impeachment for invoking the Images | Newsletter Design privilege. Would a witness have a possible Fourth Amendment claim that such testing, compelled by court order, was an Www.post, unreasonable search and seizure by the government? I know of no precedent for considering questioning itself as a search or seizure, but this form of 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, questioning could be seen as close to searching the confines of the witness's mind. In that case, would a search warrant or other court order suffice to authorize the test against a Fourth Amendment claim?
And, if it were seen in that light, could a search warrant issue for & Training Newsletters the interrogation of 31 Best On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, a person under truth testing outside the context of any pending criminal or civil litigation - and possibly even outside the context of an arrest and its consequent Miranda rights? If this seems implausible, consider what an attractive addition statutory authorization of such mental searches might seem to the Administration or the Congress in Forms +free Word, Pdf Documents Download the next version of the USA PATRIOT Act. 38. In some circumstances, First Amendment claims might be plausible. Truth compulsion might be held to violate in 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest Design some respects the right not to speak, although the Agreement +free precedents on this point are quite distant, involving a right not to be forced to say, or to publish, specific statements.
It also seems conceivable that some religious groups could object to 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter these practices and Agreement - 9 +free Word, Pdf Documents Download, might be able to 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter make a free exercise clause argument against Service Agreement - 9 +free, such compelled speech. These constitutional questions are many and knotty. Equally difficult is the question whether some or all of 31 Best | Newsletter Design, them might be held to be waived by Www.post Office Change Of Address, witnesses who had either undergone truth testing themselves or had claimed their own truthfulness, thus putting it in Design Images On Pinterest question. And, of Template, course, even if parties or witnesses have no constitutional rights against being ordered to undergo truth testing, that does not resolve the policy issue of whether such rights should exist as a matter of 31 Best Newsletter Images | Newsletter Design, statute, rule, or judicial decision. Parties and witnesses are not the only relevant actors in Summer Concert | Mycreativeshop trials. Truth testing might also be used in voir dire. Prospective jurors might be asked about their knowledge of the parties or of the 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter case or their relevant biases.
Could a defendant claim that his right to & Training an unbiased juror was infringed if such methods were not used and hence compel prospective jurors to undergo truth testing? Could one side or the other challenge for cause a prospective juror who was unwilling to undergo such testing? In capital cases, jurors are asked whether they could vote to convict in light of a possible death penalty; truth testing might be demanded by the prosecution to make sure the prospective jurors are being honest. It is also worth considering how the existence of such methods might change the pretrial maneuvers of the parties. Currently, criminal defendants taking polygraph tests before trial typically do so through a polygrapher hired by their counsel and thus protected by the attorney-client privilege. Whatever rules are adopted concerning the admissibility of evidence from truth testing will undoubtedly affect the incentives of the parties, in civil and criminal cases, to undergo truth testing. This may, in turn, have substantial, and perhaps unexpected, repercussions for the practices of criminal plea bargaining and 31 Best Newsletter Images Design, civil settlement. As the vast majority of criminal and civil cases are resolved before trial, the effects of truth testing could be substantial. Even more broadly, consider the possible effects of truth testing on judicial business more generally. Certainly not every case depends on the honesty of witness testimony.
Some hinge on conclusions about reasonableness or negligence; others are determined by questions of law. Education Newsletters | Templates & Designs! Even factual questions might be the | Newsletter Design focus of Thank You Note You Letter After Job, subjectively honest, but nevertheless contradictory, testimony from 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, different witnesses. Still, it seems possible that a very high percentage of cases, both criminal and civil, could be heavily affected, if not determined, by truth-tested evidence. If truth testing reduced criminal trials ten-fold, that would surely raise Justice Thomas's concern about the proper role of the jury, whether or not that concern has constitutional implications. It would also have major effects on the workload of the judiciary and, perhaps, on the structure of the courts. The questions raised by a perfect method of truth testing are numerous and & Designs, complicated. Newsletter On Pinterest Design! They are also probably unrealistic given that no test will be perfect.
Most of these questions would require reconsideration if truth testing turned out to be only 99.9% accurate, or 99% accurate, or 90% accurate. That reconsideration would have to consider not just overall accuracy but the rates of both false positives (the identification of a false statement as true) and false negatives (the identification of a true statement as false), as those may have different implications. Similarly, decisions on admissibility might differ if accuracy rates varied with a witness's age, sex, training in beating the machine, or other traits. How Do I Prove Store! And, of course, proving the 31 Best Design accuracy of How Do Store, such methods as they are first introduced or as they are altered will be a major issue in court systems under the Daubert or Frye tests. In sum, the invention by neuroscientists of perfectly or extremely reliable lie detecting or truth compelling methods might have substantial effects on almost every trial and on the entire judicial system.
How those effects would play out in On Pinterest | Newsletter Design light of our current criminal justice system, including the constitutional protections of the Bill of Rights, is not obvious. Evidence produced by neuroscience may play other significant roles in Change Of Address the courtroom. Consider the Design On Pinterest possibility of testing, through neuroimaging, whether a witness or a juror reacts negatively to particular groups. Already, neuroimaging work is going on that looks for — and Service Agreement - 9 +free Word, Pdf Documents Download, finds — differences in a subject's brain's reaction to 31 Best Images On Pinterest people of & Training Newsletters, different races. If that research is able to associate certain patterns of activity with negative bias, its possible use in litigation could be widespread. As with truth testing, courts would have to decide whether bias testing met Daubert or Frye , whether voluntary test results would be admissible, whether a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter take the Agreement +free Word, test could be admitted into evidence, and whether the testing could ever be compelled.
The analysis on these points seems similar to that for truth testing, with the possible exception of a lesser role for the privilege against self-incrimination. If allowed, neuroscience testing for racial bias might be used where bias was a relevant fact in the case, as in claims of employment discrimination based on race. It might be used to test any witness for bias for or against a party of a particular race. It might be used to test jurors to 31 Best Images On Pinterest ensure that they were not biased against the parties because of their race. | Usgs Store! One could even, barely, imagine it being used to Newsletter | Newsletter test judges for bias, perhaps as part of a motion to disqualify for bias. Jazz Concert Flyer! And, of 31 Best Images | Newsletter Design, course, such bias testing need not to be limited bias based on race, nationality, sex, or other protected groups. One could seek to test, in appropriate cases, for bias against parties or witnesses based on their occupation (the police, for example), their looks (too fat, too thin), their voices (a southern accent, a Bahston accent), or many other characteristics. If accurate truth testing were available, it could make any separate bias testing less important. Witnesses or jurors could simply be asked whether they were biased against Disabled? Store, the relevant group. On the other hand, it is possible that people might be able to answer honestly that they were not biased, when they were in fact biased.
Such people would actually act on Images | Newsletter Design, negative perceptions of different groups even though they did not realize that they were doing so. If the neuroimaging technique were able accurately to I Prove Store detect people with that unconscious bias, it might still be useful in addition to truth testing. Bias testing might even force us to re-evaluate some truisms. We say that the 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design parties to litigation are entitled to unbiased judges and juries, but we mean that they are entitled to judges and juries that are not demonstrably biased in Thank Samples Thank You Letter Job a context where demonstrating bias is difficult. What if demonstrating bias becomes easy — and bias is ubiquitous? Imagine a trial where neuroimaging shows that all the prospective jurors are prejudiced against Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter, a defendant who looks like a stereotypical Hell's Angel because they think he looks like a criminal.
Or what if the only potential jurors who didn't show bias were themselves members of quasi-criminal motorcycle gangs? What would his right to Disabled? | Usgs a fair trial mean in 31 Best Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design that context? Evaluating or Eliciting Memory. The two methods discussed so far involve analyzing (or in Summer Flyer Template the case of 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter, truth compulsion, creating) a present state of mind. It is Forms +free conceivable that neuroscience might also provide courts with at least three relevant tools concerning memory. In each case, courts would again confront questions of the reliability of the tools, their admissibility with the witness's permission, impeaching witnesses for failing to use the tools, or compelling a witness to use such a memory-enhancing tool. The first tool might be an 31 Best Images On Pinterest, intervention, pharmacological or otherwise, that improved a witness's ability to remember events. It is certainly conceivable that researchers studying memory-linked diseases might create drugs that help people retrieve old memories or retrieve them in more detail. This kind of Jazz Concert Template, intervention would not be new in 31 Best On Pinterest litigation. The courts have seen great controversy over the past few years over repressed or recovered memories, typically traumatic early childhood experiences brought back to adult witnesses by therapy or hypnosis.
Similarly, some of the child sex abuse trials over the past decade have featured questioned testimony from young children about their experiences. In both cases, the validity of these memories has been questioned. We do know from research that people often will come to I'm Permanently remember, in good faith, things that did not happen, particularly when those memories have been suggested to them. 39 Similar problems might arise with enhanced memories. 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest Design! 40. A second tool might be the Forms - 9 Word, Pdf Documents Download power to 31 Best Newsletter Design Design assess the validity of a witness's memory. What if neuroscience could give us tools to After Interview You Letter distinguish between true and false memory? One could imagine different parts of a witness's brain being used while recounting a true memory, a false memory, or a creative fiction. 31 Best Design | Newsletter! Or, alternatively, perhaps neuroscience could somehow date memories, revealing when they were laid down. These methods seem more speculative than either truth testing or bias testing, but, if either one (or some other method of testing memory) turned out to be feasible, courts would, after the Concert Flyer Template Daubert or Frye hearings, again face questions of admitting testimony concerning their voluntary use, allowing comment on a witness's refusal to 31 Best Newsletter | Newsletter take the test, and possibly compelling their use. A third possible memory-based tool is still more speculative but potentially more significant.
There have long been reports that electrical stimulation can, sometimes, trigger a subject to have what appears to be an extremely detailed and vivid memory of a past scene, almost like reliving the experience. At this point, we do not know whether these experiences are truly memories or are more akin to hallucinations; if it is a memory, how to reliably call it up; how many memories might potentially be recalled in Change Of Address - Techieblogie.info this manner; or, perhaps most importantly, how to Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter recall any specific memory. Whatever filing system the brain uses for memories seems to be, at this point, a mystery. Assume that it proves possible to Summer Concert cause a witness to recall a specific memory in its entirety, perhaps by localizing the site of the memory first through neuroimaging the Design Images | Newsletter Design witness while she calls up her own existing memories of the event. Letter Employer | Musicre Sumed! A witness could then, perhaps, relive an event important to 31 Best Design Images | Newsletter trial, either before trial or on the witness stand. One could even, just barely, imagine a technology that might be able to read out the Education Newsletters witness's memories, intercepted as neuronal firings, and translate it directly into 31 Best Images On Pinterest Design, voice, text, or the equivalent of a movie for review by the finder of Www.post Office Change - Techieblogie.info, fact.
Less speculatively, one could certainly imagine a drug that would improve a person's ability to retrieve specific long-term memories. While a person's authentic memories, no matter how vividly they are recalled, may not be an accurate portrayal of what actually took place, they would be more compelling testimony than provided by typically foggy recollections of past events. Once again, if the validity of these methods were established, the key questions would seem to be whether to Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter allow the admission of evidence from such a recall experience, voluntarily undertaken; whether to admit the fact of a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to use such method; and whether, under any circumstances, to compel the use of such a technique. 41. Other Litigation-Related Uses. Neuroscience covers a wide range of brain-related activities. The three areas sketched above are issues where neuroscience conceivably could have an impact on almost any litigation, but neuroscience might also affect any specific kind of litigation where brain function was relevant.
Consider four examples. The most expensive medical malpractice cases are generally considered so-called bad baby cases. In these cases, children are born with profound brain damage. Damages can be enormous, sometimes amounting to the cost of round-the-clock nursing care for seventy years. Www.post Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info! Evidence of causation, however, is often very unclear. The plaintiff parents will allege that the defendants managed the delivery negligently, which led to 31 Best Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter a lack of oxygen that in turn caused the brain damage. Www.post Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info! Defendants, in addition to denying negligence, will usually claim that the damage had some other, often unknown, cause. Jurors are left with a family facing a catastrophic situation and no strong evidence about what caused it. Trial verdicts, and settlements, can be extremely high, accounting in part for the high price of malpractice insurance for obstetricians. 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest! If neuroscience would reliably distinguish between brain damage caused by oxygen deprivation near birth and that caused earlier, these cases would have more accurate results, in & Training Newsletters terms of compensating only families where the damage was caused around delivery. Similarly, if fetal neuroimaging could reveal serious brain damage before labor, those images could be evidence about the cause of the damage. (One can even imagine obstetricians insisting on Newsletter Images | Newsletter, prenatal brain scans before delivery in Forms Pdf Documents Download order to establish a baseline.) By making the determination of causation more certain, it should also lead to more settlements and less wasteful litigation. 31 Best Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter Design! (Of course, in cases where neuroscience showed that the damage was consistent with lack of oxygen around delivery, the defendants' negligence would still be in question.)
In many personal injury cases, the existence of intractable pain may be an issue. How Do I'm Permanently! In some of those cases there may be a question whether the plaintiff is exaggerating the extent of the pain. It seems plausible that neuroscience could provide a strong test for whether a person actually perceives pain, through neuroimaging or other methods. Images | Newsletter Design! It might be able to show whether signals were being sent by the sensory nerves to the brain from the painful location on Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info, the plaintiff's body. Alternatively, it might locate a region of the brain that is always activated when a person feels pain or a pattern of brain activation that is always found during physically painful experiences.
Again, by reducing uncertainty about a very subjective (and hence falsifiable) aspect of a case, neuroscience could improve the litigation system. A person's competency is relevant in 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest several legal settings, including disputed guardianships and competency to stand trial. Neuroscience might be able to establish some more objective measures that could be considered relevant to competency. (It might also reveal that what the law seems pleased to regard as a general, undifferentiated competency does not, in 7+ Job Letter From fact, exist.) If this were successful, one could imagine individuals obtaining prophylactic certifications of their competency before, for example, making wills or entering into unconventional contracts. Newsletter Design! The degree of mental ability is also relevant in capital punishment, where the Summer Flyer Template Supreme Court has recently held that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment. 42 Neuroscience might supply better, or even determinative, evidence of mental retardation. Images | Newsletter Design! Or, again, it may be that neuroscience would force the courts to recognize that mental retardation is Service Agreement Forms +free Pdf Documents not a discrete condition. Finally, neuroscience might affect criminal cases for illegal drug use in several ways. Neuroscience might help determine whether a defendant was truly addicted to the drug in question, which could have some consequences for guilt or sentencing. 31 Best Images On Pinterest Design! It might reveal whether a person was especially susceptible to, or especially resistant to, becoming addicted. Or it could provide new ways to Letter | Musicre Sumed block addiction, or even pleasurable sensations, with possible consequences for sentencing or treatment. Again, as with the other possible applications of neuroscience addressed in this paper, these uses are speculative.
It would be wrong to count on Newsletter Design On Pinterest, neuroscience to solve, deus ex machina, our drug problems. 7+ Job Letter From Employer! It does not seem irresponsible, however, to consider the possible implications of neuroscience breakthroughs in this area. 43. I am using these two often conflated terms to mean different things. I am using confidentiality to Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter refer to Office Of Address the obligation of a professional or an Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter, entity to limit appropriately the availability of information about people (in this context, usually patients or research subjects). Privacy, as I am using it, means people's interest in avoiding unwanted intrusions into their lives. The first focuses on limiting the distribution of information appropriately gathered; the second concerns avoiding intrusions, including the inappropriate gathering of information. Neuroscience will raise challenges concerning both concepts. Maintaining —and Breaking — Confidentiality.
Neuroscience may lead to How Do Disabled? Store the generation of sensitive information about Design Images | Newsletter Design, individual patients or research subjects, information whose distribution they may wish to see restricted. Personal health information is How Do I'm Permanently everywhere protected in the United States, by varying theories under state law, by new federal privacy regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 44 and by codes of 31 Best Newsletter Images, professional ethics. Personal information about research subjects must also be appropriately protected under the Common Rule, the How Do I'm Permanently | Usgs Store federal regulation governing most (but not all) biomedical research in the United States. 45 The special issue with neuroscience-derived information is 31 Best Images Design whether some or all of it requires additional protection. Because of concerns that some medical information is more dangerous than usual, physicians have sometimes kept separate medical charts detailing patients' mental illness, HIV status, or genetic diseases. Some states have enacted statutes requiring additional protections for some very sensitive medical information, including genetic information. Because neuroscience information may reveal central aspects of a person's personality, cognitive abilities, and future, one could argue that it too requires special protection.
Consideration of such special status would have to weigh at least five counter-arguments. First, any additional recordkeeping or data protection requirements both increase costs and 7+ Job Employer Sumed, risk making important information unavailable to physicians or patients who need it. A physician seeing a patient whose regular physician is on vacation may never know that there is a second chart that contains important neuroscience information. Second, not all neuroscience information will be especially sensitive; much will prove not sensitive at all because it is not meaningful to anyone, expert or lay. Third, defining neuroscience information will prove difficult. Statutes defining genetic information have either employed an almost uselessly narrow definition (the result of DNA tests) or have opted for a wider definition encompassing all information about Images On Pinterest Design, a person's genome. The latter, however, would end up including standard medical information that provides some information about a person's genetics: blood types, cholesterol level, skin color, and family history, among others.
Fourth, mandating special protection for a class of information sends the message that the 7+ Job Letter From Employer Sumed information is Design Images especially important even if it is not. Education & Designs! In genetics, it is argued that legislation based on 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest, such genetic exceptionalism increases a false and harmful public sense of Of Address, genetic determinism. Similar arguments might apply to neuroscience. Finally, given the many legitimate and Newsletter Design, often unpredictable needs for access to Newsletters | Templates & Designs medical information, confidentiality provisions will often prove ineffective at keeping neuroscience information private, especially from the 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Design health insurers and Thank Interview, employers who are paying for 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest Design the medical care. This last argument in particular would encourage policy responses that ban bad uses of sensitive information rather than depending on keeping that information secret. Laws and policies on confidentiality also need to consider the limits on confidentiality. In some cases, we require disclosure of otherwise private medical information to third parties. | Usgs! Barring some special treatment, the same would be true of neuroscience-derived information. A physician (including, perhaps, a physician-researcher) may have an On Pinterest Design, obligation to report to a county health agency or the Centers for Disease Control neuroscience-derived information about a patient that is linked to a reportable disease (an MRI scan showing, for example, a case of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human version of mad cow disease); to a motor vehicle department information linked to loss-of-consciousness disorders; and to a variety of governmental bodies information leading to a suspicion of child abuse, elder abuse, pesticide poisoning, or other topics as specified by statute. In some cases, it might be argued, as it has been in genetics, that a physician has a responsibility to Www.post disclose a patient's condition to a family member if the family member is at Newsletter Design | Newsletter higher risk of the 7+ Job Letter From | Musicre same condition as a result. Finally, neuroscience information showing an imminent and serious threat from a patient to a third party might have to be reported under the Newsletter Design Images Tarasoff doctrine.
46 Discussion of the confidentiality of neuroscience-derived information needs to take all of these mandatory disclosure situations into account. Privacy Protections Against Mental Intrusions. Privacy issues, as I am using the term in this paper, would arise as a result of neuroscience through unconsented and Service Forms - 9 +free Pdf Documents, inappropriate intrusions into a person's life. The results of 31 Best Images | Newsletter Design, a normal medical MRI would be subject to confidentiality concerns; a forced MRI would raise privacy issues. Some such unconsented intrusions have already been discussed in dealing with possible compulsory truth, bias, or memory interventions inside the litigation system.
This section will describe such interventions (mainly) outside a litigation context. Intrusions by Forms - 9 +free, the government are subject to Newsletter | Newsletter Design the Constitution and its protections of I Prove I'm Permanently Store, privacy, contained in and emanating from the Newsletter On Pinterest Design penumbra of the Bill of Rights. Whether or not interventions were permitted in the courtroom, under judicial supervision, the government might use them in other contexts, just as polygraphs are used in Agreement Forms +free Pdf Documents security clearance investigations. All of these non-litigation governmental uses share a greater possibility of abuse than the use of such a technology in Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter a court-supervised setting. Presumably, their truly voluntary use, with the informed consent of a competent adult subject, would raise no legal issues. Situations where agreement to take the test could be viewed as less than wholly voluntary would raise their own set of sticky problems about the degree of coercion. You Note After Interview Samples You Letter Job! Consider the possibility of truth tests for those seeking government jobs, benefits, or licenses. Admission to a state college (or eligibility for government-provided scholarships or government-guaranteed loans) might, for example, be conditioned on 31 Best Design On Pinterest Design, passing a lie detection examination on You Note After Samples Thank After, illegal drug use. Frankly compelled uses might also be used, although they would raise constitutional questions under the 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest Design Fourth and I Prove I'm Permanently Store, Fifth Amendments.
One could imagine law enforcement officials deciding to interrogate one member of a criminal gang under truth compulsion in violation of Miranda and of the Newsletter Images Fifth Amendment (and hence to forego bringing him to trial) in order to get information about his colleagues. Even if a person had been given a sufficiently broad grant of immunity to avoid any Fifth Amendment issues, would that really protect the interests of Interview Samples Thank You Letter Job, a person forced to undergo a truth compulsion process? Or would such a forcible intrusion into one's mind be held to violate due process along the lines of Rochin v. Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Design! California ? 47. Of course, even if the Education & Training interrogated party could bring a constitutional tort claim against the police, how often would such a claim be brought? And would we — or our courts — always find such interrogations improper? Consider the 31 Best Design Images interrogation of suspected terrorists or of enemy soldiers during combat, when many lives may be at stake. (This also raises the interesting question of Thank You Note After Samples Thank You Letter After Job, how the U.S. could protect its soldiers or agents from similar questioning). Although more far-fetched scientifically, consider the Newsletter Design Images possibility of less intrusive neuroscience techniques.
What if the government developed a neuroimaging device that could be used at a distance from a moving subject or one that could fit into the arch of a airport metal detector? People could be screened without any obvious intrusion and Office Of Address, perhaps without their knowledge. Design Images On Pinterest Design! Should remote screening of airline passengers for violent or suicidal thoughts or emotions be allowed? Would it matter whether the airport had signs saying that all travelers, by their presence, consented to Concert Flyer such screening? Private parties have less ability than the government to 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest compel someone to undergo a neuroscience intervention - at How Do I'm Permanently Disabled? least without being liable to arrest for assault. Still, one can imagine situations where private parties either frankly coerce or unduly influence someone else to 31 Best Newsletter Design Design take a neuroscience intervention. If lie detection or truth compulsion devices were available and usable by laymen, one can certainly imagine criminal groups using them on their members without getting informed consent. Employers might well want to You Note Samples Job test their employees; parents, their teenagers. If the Design Images | Newsletter Design intervention requires a full-sized MRI machine, we would not worry much about private, inappropriate use. I Prove Disabled? | Usgs Store! If, on the other hand, truth testing were to require only the equivalent of headphones or a hypodermic needle, private uses might be significant and would seem to require regulation, if not a complete ban.
This seems even more true if remote or unnoticeable methods were perfected. A last form of neuroscience intrusion seems, again, at the edge of the scientifically plausible. Imagine an intervention that allowed an outsider to control the actions or motions, and possibly even the speech, emotions, or thoughts, of a person. Already researchers are seeking to learn what signals need to be sent to trigger various motions. Dr. 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter Design! Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University has been working to determine what neural activity triggers particular motions in rats and in monkeys and he hopes to be able to stimulate it artificially. 48 One goal is to trigger the implanted electrodes and have the monkey's arm move in a predictable and Newsletters, controlled fashion. The potential benefits of this research are enormous, particularly to people with spinal cord injuries or other interruptions in their motor neurons. On the other hand, it opens the 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest nightmarish possibility of someone else controlling one's body — a real version of the Imperio curse from Harry Potter's world.
Similarly, one can imagine devices (or drugs) intended to control emotional reactions, to prevent otherwise uncontrollable rages or depressions. One could imagine a court ordering implantation of such a device in sexual offenders to prevent the emotions that give rise to their crimes or, perhaps more plausibly, offering such treatment as an option, in place of a long prison term. Castration, an old-fashioned method of accomplishing a similar result, either surgical or chemical, is already a possibility for Www.post Office Change Of Address convicted sex offenders in some states. Various pharmacological interventions can also be used to | Newsletter Design affect a person's reactions. These kinds of interventions may never become more than the ravings of victims of paranoia, though it is at least interesting that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) is providing $26 million in support of Nicolelis's research through its Brain-Machine Interfaces program. 49 The use of such techniques on consenting competent patients could still raise ethical issues related to enhancement. Their use on Agreement - 9 +free Word, Download, convicts under judicial supervision but with questionably free consent is troubling. Their possible use on unconsenting victims is terrifying.
If such technologies are developed, their regulation needs to be considered carefully. Advances in neuroscience will certainly raise legal and policy questions in intellectual property law, particularly in patent law. 50 Fortunately, few of those questions seem novel, as most seem likely to parallel issues already raised in Design genetics. In some important respects, however, the Service Agreement Forms +free Word, issues seem less likely to Images On Pinterest | Newsletter be charged than those encountered in genetics. Two kinds of neuroscience patents seem likely. The first type comprises patents on drugs, devices, or techniques for studying or intervening in living brains. MRI machines are covered by many patents; different techniques for using devices or particular uses of them could also be patented. So, for example, the first person to use an MRI machine to search for a particular atom or molecule might be able to patent that use, unless it were an obvious extension of existing practice.
Similarly, someone using an MRI machine, or a drug, for the purpose of Jazz, determining whether the 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter Design subject was telling the truth could patent that use of that machine or drug, even if she did not have own a patent on the machine or drug itself. The second type would be a patent on a particular pattern of Newsletters & Designs, activity in the brain. (I will refer to these as neural pattern patents.) The claims could be that this pattern could be used to Design | Newsletter Design diagnose conditions, to Summer Jazz predict future conditions, or as an opportunity for an intervention. This would parallel the common approach to patenting genes for diagnosis, for prediction, and for possible gene therapy. Neuroimaging results seem the obvious candidates for this kind of patent, although the patented pattern might show up, for example, as a set of gene expression results revealed by microarrays or gene chips. I will discuss the likely issues these kinds of patents raise in three categories: standard bioscience patent issues, owning thoughts, and medical treatments. Standard Bioscience Patent Issues. Patents in the biological science, especially those relating to genetics, have raised a number of different concerns. Newsletter | Newsletter Design! Three of the Education issues seem no more problematic with neuroscience than they have been with genetics; three others seem less problematic. Whether this is 31 Best Newsletter | Newsletter Design troublesome, of course, depends largely on one's assessment of the current state of genetic patents. My own assessment is relatively sanguine; I believe we are muddling through the issues of genetic patents with research and treatment continuing to thrive. I am optimistic, therefore, that none of Agreement +free Download, these standard patent issues will cause broad problems in neuroscience.
Two concerns are based on the fact of the patent monopoly. 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter! Some complain that patents allow the patent owner to restrict the Service +free Pdf Documents Download use and 31 Best Newsletter Design, increase the price of the patented invention, thus depriving some people of its benefits. 51 This is, of course, true of all patents and How Do I Prove Disabled? | Usgs, is a core idea behind the 31 Best Images Design patent system: the time-limited monopoly provides the economic returns that encourage inventors to invent. With some bioscience patents, this argument has been refined into a second perceived problem: patents on research tools. Control over & Training Newsletters | Templates, a tool essential to Design On Pinterest the future of a particular field could, some say, give the patent owner too much power over the field and could end up retarding research progress. This issue has been discussed widely, most notably in the 1998 Report of the National Institutes of & Training Newsletters | Templates & Designs, Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools, which made extensive recommendations on the subject. 52 Some neuroscience patents may raise concerns about monopolization of basic research tools, but it is not clear that those problems cannot be handled if and as they arise. A third issue concerns the effects of Newsletter Design | Newsletter, patents on universities.
Under the Bayh-Dole Act, passed in Www.post Change Of Address - Techieblogie.info 1980, universities and other non-profit organizations where inventions were made using federal grant or contract funds can claim ownership of the resulting inventions, subject to certain conditions. Bayh-Dole has led to the growth of technology licensing offices in universities; some argue that it has warped university incentives in unfortunate ways. Neuroscience patents might expand the number of favored, money-making departments in Newsletter Design Images Design universities, but seem unlikely to make a qualitative difference. Just because neuroscience patents seem unlikely to pose the first three patent problems in any new or particularly severe ways does not mean those issues should be ignored. Individual neuroscience patents might cause substantial problems that call for Service Agreement - 9 +free Word, Pdf Documents Download intervention; the cumulative weight of neuroscience patents when added to other bioscience patents may make systemic reform of Newsletter Design, one kind or another more pressing. But the outlines of the problems are known. Three other controversies about genetic patents are unlikely to be nearly as significant in neuroscience. They seem relevant, if at Summer Jazz Concert Template all, to neural pattern patents, not to 31 Best Newsletter Design device or process patents.
Two of the controversies grew out of Jazz Concert Flyer | Mycreativeshop, patents on DNA sequences. In 1998 Rebecca Eisenberg and Michael Heller pointed out the tragedy of the anti-commons, the concern that having too many different patents for DNA sequences under different ownership could increase transaction costs so greatly as to foreclose useful products or research. 53 This issue was related to a controversy about the standards for granting patents on DNA sequences. 31 Best Newsletter Images | Newsletter Design! Researchers were applying for tens of thousands of patents on 7+ Job Employer | Musicre, small stretches of DNA without necessarily knowing what, if anything, the DNA did. Often these were expressed sequence tags or ESTs, stretches of DNA that were known to 31 Best Newsletter Images Design be in genes and hence to play some role in the body's function because they were found in transcribed form as messenger RNA in cells.
It was feared that the Www.post Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info resulting chaos of patents would make commercial products or further research impossible. 31 Best Newsletter Images Design! This concern eventually led the Patent and Trademark Office to issue revised guidelines tightening the utility requirement for Agreement Word, gene patents. However strong or weak these concerns may be in genetics, neither issue seems likely to be very important in neuroscience (except of Design On Pinterest Design, course in & Training | Templates neurogenetics). There does not appear to Images | Newsletter Design be anything like a DNA sequence in neuroscience, a discrete entity or pattern that almost certainly has meaning, and potential scientific or commercial significance, even if that meaning is How Do I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs Store unknown. The equivalent would seem to be patenting a particular pattern of brain activity without having any idea what, if anything, the pattern related to. That was plausible in genetics because the sequence could be used as a marker for 31 Best Design | Newsletter Design the still unknown gene; nothing seems equivalent in Education & Training | Templates & Designs neuroscience. Similarly, it seems unlikely that hundreds or thousands of different neural patterns, each patented by different entities, would need to be combined into one product or tool for commercial or research purposes. The last of these genetic patent controversies revolves around exploitation. Some have argued that genetic patents have often stemmed from the alleged inventors' exploitation of individuals or indigenous peoples who provided access to or traditional knowledge about medicinal uses of living things, who had created and maintained various genetically varied strains of crops, or who had actually provided human DNA with which a valuable discovery was made. 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design! These claims acquired a catchy title — biopiracy — and a few good anecdotes; it is not clear whether these practices were significant in number or truly unfair. Neuroscience should face few if any such claims.
The main patterns of the research will not involve seeking genetic variations from crops or other living things, nor does it seem likely (apart from neurogenetics) that searches for patterns found in unique individuals or distinct human populations will be common. Patents on human genes have been extremely controversial for Newsletters a wide variety of reasons. Some have opposed them for religious reasons, others because they were thought not to involve true inventions, others because they believed human genes should be the common heritage of 31 Best Newsletter Images, mankind, and Www.post Office - Techieblogie.info, still others because they believe such gene patents commodify humans. 31 Best Design On Pinterest! (Similar but slightly different arguments have raged over the patentability of other kinds of human biological materials or of non-human life-forms.) On the - Techieblogie.info surface, neural pattern patents would seem susceptible to some of the same attacks as hubristic efforts to patent human neural processes or even human thoughts. I suspect, however, that an Newsletter Images, ironically technical difference between the two kinds of Www.post Office Of Address - Techieblogie.info, patents will limit the controversy in neuroscience. Patents on human genes — or, more accurately, patents on DNA or RNA molecules of 31 Best Design Design, specified nucleotide sequences — are typically written to claim a wide range of conceivable use of those sequences. A gene patent, for example, might claim the use of a sequence to predict, to diagnose, or to | Templates treat a disease. But it will also claim the molecule itself as a composition of matter. The composition of matter claim gives the owner rights over any other uses of the sequence even though he has not foreseen them. Newsletter Design On Pinterest! It also seems to give him credit for inventing a genetic sequence existing naturally and that he merely isolated and identified. It is the composition of matter claims that have driven the controversy over gene patents.
Few opponents claim that the researchers who, for example, discovered the gene linked to cystic fibrosis should not be able to Change patent beneficial uses of that gene, such as diagnosis or treatment. It is the assertion of ownership of the thing itself that rankles even though that claim may add little value to the other use claims. Neural pattern patents would differ from gene patents in that there is Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest Design no composition of How Do I Prove Disabled?, matter to be patented. The claim would be to certain patterns used for certain purposes. Design Design! The pattern itself is not material — it is not a structure or a molecule — and & Training | Templates, so should not be claimable as a composition of matter. Design Images | Newsletter Design! Consider a patent on a pattern of neural activity that the brain perceives as the color blue. A researcher might patent the use of the pattern to tell if someone was seeing blue or perhaps to allow a person whose retina did not perceive blue to see blue.
I cannot see how a patent could issue on Thank You Note Interview Thank You Letter After, the pattern itself such that a person would own the idea of Newsletter Images | Newsletter, blue. Education | Templates & Designs! Similarly, a pattern that was determinative of schizophrenia could be patented for that use, but the patentee could not own schizophrenia or even the pattern that determined it. If a researcher created a pattern by altering cells, then he could patent, as a composition of matter, the altered cells, perhaps defined in part by the pattern they created. 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest Design! Without altering or discovering something material that was associated with the Agreement - 9 +free Download pattern, I do not believe he could patent a neural pattern itself. The fact that neural pattern patents will be patents to uses of the 31 Best Design | Newsletter Design patterns, not for the patterns themselves, may well prevent the I Prove I'm Permanently | Usgs Store kinds of controversies that have attended gene patents. Patents and Medical Treatment. Neuroscience pattern patents might, or might not, run into a problem genetics patents have largely avoided: the 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design Ganske-Frist Act. In September 1996, as part of an Thank You Note Interview Thank, omnibus appropriations bill, Congress added by amendment a new Section 387(c) to the patent law. This section states that. With respect to a medical practitioner's performance of Images | Newsletter, a medical activity that constitutes an 7+ Job From Sumed, infringement under section 271(a) or (b) of this title, the provisions of sections 281, 283, 284, and 285 of this title shall not apply against the medical practitioner or against a related health care entity with respect to such medical activity. 54.
This section exempts a physician and her hospital, clinic, HMO, or other related health care entity from liability for damages or an injunction for Newsletter Design Images Design infringing a patent during the performance of a medical activity. The amendment defines medical activity as the performance of a medical or surgical procedure on a body, but it excludes from that definition  the use of a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in violation of such patent,  the practice of a patented use of a composition of matter in violation of such patent, or  the practice of Agreement +free Pdf Documents, a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. 55 The statute does not define a biotechnology patent. Congress passed the Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest Design amendment in reaction to How Do I'm Permanently an ultimately unsuccessful lawsuit brought by an ophthalmologist who claimed that another ophthalmologist infringed his patent on performing eye surgery using a particular v shaped incision. Medical procedure patents had been banned in many other countries and had been controversial in the United States for over a century; they had, however, clearly been allowed in the United States since 1954.
56. Consider a neural pattern patent that claimed the use of a particular pattern of brain activity in the diagnosis or as a guide to Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design the treatment of Of Address, schizophrenia. 57 A physician using that pattern without permission would not be using a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in Newsletter On Pinterest | Newsletter Design violation of How Do I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs Store, such patent. Nor would she be engaged in the practice of a patented use of a composition of 31 Best Newsletter Design Design, matter in violation of From Employer Sumed, such patent. With no statutory definition, relevant legislative history, or judicial interpretation, it seems impossible to tell whether she would be engaged in the practice of a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. Because molecules, including DNA, RNA, and proteins, can be the subjects of composition of 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, matter patents, most genetic patents should not be affected by the Ganske-Frist Act. 58 Neural pattern patents might be. It is, of course, quite unclear how significant an influence this exception for patent liability might have in neuroscience research or related medical practice. If even a small fraction of the issues discussed above come to pass, neuroscience will have broad effects on our society and our legal system. The project to which this paper contributes can help in beginning to Jazz Flyer sift out the likely from the Newsletter Design merely plausible, the unlikely, and the bizarre, both in the expected development of the science and in the social and You Note After Samples Thank You Letter, legal consequences of that science.
Truly effective prediction of upcoming problems — and suggestions for Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest viable solutions — will require an extensive continuing effort. How to create a useful process for managing the social and legal challenges of neuroscience is not the least important of the many questions raised by neuroscience. * C. Wendell and Edith M. Carlsmith Professor of Law; Professor,, by courtesy, of Genetics, Stanford University. I want to thank particularly my colleagues John Barton, George Fisher, and Tino Cuellar for their helpful advice on Education & Training Newsletters & Designs, intellectual property, evidentiary issues, and neuroscience predictions in the criminal justice system, respectively. I also want to 31 Best Design | Newsletter Design thank my research assistant, Melanie Blunschi. Back. 1. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene 4 (1606). Back. 2. The source of this common saying is surprisingly hard to & Training Newsletters & Designs pin down, but Bohr seems the most plausible candidate. See Henry T. Greely, Trusted Systems and Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, Medical Records: Lowering Expectations , 52 STAN.
L. REV. 1585, 1591 n. 9 (2001). Back. 3. See, e.g., Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing, Enhancing the Oversight of Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the SACGT , National Institutes of Summer Jazz Concert Flyer | Mycreativeshop, Health (July 2000), report available at http://www4.od.nih.gov/oba/sacgt/reports/oversight_report.htm; Holtzman, N.A.; Watson, M.S. (eds.) Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1997); and Barbara A. Newsletter Design On Pinterest | Newsletter! Koenig, Henry T. Greely, Laura McConnell, Heather Silverberg, and Thomas A. Raffin, PGES Recommendations on Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility , JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH 7:531-545 (June 1998). Back.
4. Prosecutors also make predictions in Service Agreement Forms - 9 +free Pdf Documents Download using their discretion in charging crimes and in 31 Best Newsletter Design On Pinterest plea bargaining; the police also use predictions in deciding on which suspects to focus. My colleague Tino Cuellar pointed out to me that neuroscience data, from the present prosecution or investigation or from After Interview Samples Thank You Letter, earlier ones, might play a role in those decisions. Back. 5. The implications of neuroscientific assessments of a person's state of mind at the time of the crime for criminal liability are discussed in Professor Morse's paper. The two issues are closely related but may have different consequences. Newsletter Design On Pinterest Design! Back. 6. See Brunner, H.G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X.O., Ropers, H.H., Oost, B.A. van, Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A. , SCIENCE, 262:5133-36 (October 22, 1993), discussed in Virginia Morrell, Evidence Found for I Prove I'm Permanently Store a Possible Aggression Gene , SCIENCE 260:1722-24 (June 18, 1993); and 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter Design, Avshalon Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Craig, Alan Taylor, Richie Poulton, Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Education & Training Newsletters | Templates, Violence in Newsletter Images Maltreated Children , SCIENCE, 297:851-854 (Aug.
2, 2002), discussed in Erik Stokstad, Violent Effects of I Prove Store, Abuse Tied to Gene , SCIENCE 297:752 (Aug. 2, 2002). Back. 7. See the discussion of the Newsletter Images On Pinterest | Newsletter four unsuccessful efforts to use XYY status as a defense in criminal cases in Deborah W. Denno, Human Biology and Jazz Flyer Template, Criminal Responsibility: Free Will or Free Ride? 137 U.Pa. L. Rev.
613, 620-22 (1988). Back. 8. See two excellent recent discussions of these cases: Stephen J. Design Design! Morse, Uncontrollable Urges and | Usgs Store, Irrational People , 88 VA. L. 31 Best Newsletter Design | Newsletter Design! REV. 1025 (2002); and Peter C. Pfaffenroth, The Need for Coherence: States' Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders in the Wake of Summer Jazz, Kansas v. Design On Pinterest | Newsletter! Crane , 55 STAN. L. REV. 2229 (2003). Back. 9. Kan. Stat. Ann. §59-29a02(a) (2003).
Back. 10. 521 U.S. 346, 360 (1997). Back. 12. 534 U.S. 407 (2002). 7+ Job Letter Employer! Back. 14.
For a representative sample of views, see Kathy L. Hudson, Karen H. Rothenberg, Lori B. Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, and Design Images On Pinterest Design, Francis S. Letter Sumed! Collins, Genetic Discrimination and Health Insurance: An Urgent Need for Reform , 270 SCIENCE 391 (1995) (broadly favoring a ban on discrimination); Richard A. Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination: Old Responses to New Technology , 74 B.U. L. Newsletter Design Design! REV. 1 (1994) (opposing a ban on the use of genetic information in Summer Jazz Flyer employment discrimination); Henry T. 31 Best | Newsletter! Greely, Genotype Discrimination: The Complex Case for Some Legislative Protection , 149 U.PA.L.REV. Letter From Employer! 1483 (2001) (favoring a carefully drawn ban, largely to 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter combat exaggerated fears of discrimination); and Colin S. Diver and Jane M. Cohen, Genophobia: What Is Wrong with Genetic Discrimination? , 149 U. PA. Service - 9 +free Word, Download! L. REV. 1439 (2001) (opposing a ban on its use in health insurance). Back. 15. For the most up-to-date information on state law in this area, see Ellen W. 31 Best Design Design! Clayton, Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomic Medicine , 349 NEW ENG.
J. MED. 542 (2003). Back. 16. After considering, but not adopting, similar legislation since 1997, in October 2003 the Senate passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, S. 7+ Job Letter From | Musicre Sumed! 1053. Newsletter On Pinterest Design! The vote was unanimous, 95-0, and the Bush Administration announced its support for the measure. A similar bill is currently awaiting action in the House of Representatives. See Aaron Zitner, Senate Blocks Genetic Discrimination, Los Angeles Times, Section 1, p. 16 (Oct. 15, 2003). Back. 17.
Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences Launches First Neuromarketing Research Company , press release (June 22, 2002) found at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2002/6/prweb40936.php Back. 18. It seems conceivable that MRI results of a fetal brain might ultimately be used in Education conjunction with prenatal neurosurgery. Newsletter Images On Pinterest Design! Back. 19. Summer Jazz Template | Mycreativeshop! See, e.g., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , 268 U.S.510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Back. 20.
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , 516 U.S. 869; 116 S. Ct. 189; 133 L. Ed. 2d 126 (1993). 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest Design! Back. 21. Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. 46, 293 F. Office Change! 1013 (1923, D.C. Cir.) Back. 22. A National Academy of Sciences panel examining polygraph evidence dated the birth of the Newsletter Design Design polygraph machine to Disabled? William Marston between 1915 and 1921.
COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION at 291-97 (Mark H. Moore and Anthony A. Braga, eds. 2003). Marston was the polygraph examiner whose testimony was excluded in United States v. Frye . Back. 23. 31 Best Newsletter Images! See the discussion in United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. Change - Techieblogie.info! 303, 310-11 (1998). 31 Best Newsletter On Pinterest! At that point, most jurisdictions continued the traditional position of excluding all polygraph evidence. Forms Word, Download! Two federal circuits had recently held that polygraph evidence might be admitted, on a case by case basis, when, in the district court's opinion, it met the Daubert test for Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design scientific evidence.
One state, New Mexico, had adopted a general rule admitting polygraph evidence. Back. 24. Justice Stevens characterized the state of the scientific evidence as follows in his dissent in Www.post Office United States v. Sheffer : There are a host of 31 Best Design Design, studies that place the reliability of polygraph tests at 85% to 90%. While critics of the polygraph argue that accuracy is much lower, even the studies cited by the critics place polygraph accuracy at 70%. Moreover, to the extent that the polygraph errs, studies have repeatedly shown that the polygraph is | Templates & Designs more likely to 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter find innocent people guilty than vice versa. Letter From! Thus, exculpatory polygraphs — like the one in this case — are likely to be more reliable than inculpatory ones. United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. Images! 303, 333 (1998) (Stevens, J., dissenting)(footnotes omitted) A committee of the National Academy of Sciences has recently characterized the evidence as follows: Notwithstanding the limitations of the quality of the empirical research and the limited ability to generalize to Concert | Mycreativeshop real-world settings, we conclude that in populations of Newsletter Images On Pinterest Design, examinees such as those represented in the polygraph research literature, untrained in countermeasures, specific-incident polygraph tests can discriminate lying from truth telling at rates well above chance, though well below perfection.
COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH at 4. Back. 29. 532 U.S. at 312-13. Back. 32. I owe this useful insight to Professor Fisher. Back. 33. 410 U.S. 284 (1973). Back.
35. A constitutional right to After Interview Thank You Letter After Job admit such evidence might also argue for a constitutional right for indigent defendants to have the 31 Best Newsletter Images | Newsletter Design government pay the cost of such truth testing, which might be small or might be great. 7+ Job From | Musicre! Back. 36. 396 U.S. 868 (1969). Back.
37. 342 U.S. 165 (1952). Back. 38. Uniting and 31 Best On Pinterest, Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of Office, 2001, Pub. 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter Design! L. No. 107-56 (2001).
Back. 39. As with bias detection, truth testing could limit the need for such memory assessment when the witness was conscious of the falsity of the memory. Memory assessment, however, could be useful in cases where the witness had actually come to believe in the accuracy of a questioned false memory. Back. 40. It is quite plausible that researchers might create drugs that help people make, retain, and retrieve new memories, important in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. One can imagine giving such a drug in advance to someone who you expected to witness an important event — although providing such a person with a video-recorder might be an easier option. Back.
41. Although it is not relevant to judicial uses of the technology, note the possibility that any such memory recall method, if easily available to individuals in unsupervised settings, could be used, or abused, with significant consequences. A person might obsessively relive past glorious moments — a victory, a vacation, a romance, a particularly memorable act of lovemaking. A depressed person might dwell compulsively on How Do | Usgs Store, bad memories. For either, reliving the past might cause the same interference with the 31 Best Design Images On Pinterest | Newsletter present (or the future) as serious drug abuse. Back. 42. Education & Training | Templates! Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2003). Back. 43.
At the same time, neuroscience could give rise to 31 Best Newsletter | Newsletter Design other drugs or drug equivalents. A neuroscience-devised trigger to pleasurable sensations — say, to cause powerful orgasms — could function effectively as a powerful drug of abuse. Back. 44. 45 C.F.R. You Note After Interview Samples After! §160;.101, et seq. Images | Newsletter! (2003). Back. 45. Each federal agency's version of the Common Rule is codified separately, but see, e.g., the How Do I Prove I'm Permanently Disabled? | Usgs version of the Newsletter Design On Pinterest Design regulation adopted by After Interview Thank You Letter, the Department of Health and Human Services at 45 C.F.R. §§ 46.101-46.409 et seq. (2003). Back. 46.
Tarasoff v .Regents of University of Design Images On Pinterest, California, 17 Cal.3rd 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1976). This influential but controversial California decision has been adopted, rejected, or adopted with modifications by various state courts and legislatures. For a recent update, see Fillmore Buckner and Www.post Change, Marvin Firestone, Where the 31 Best Newsletter Design Images On Pinterest Design Public Peril Beings: 25 Years After Tarasoff , 21 J. 7+ Job Letter From | Musicre Sumed! Legal Med. 187 (2000). Back. 47.
See the discussion supra at note 34. Back. 48. See Nicolelis, M.A.L., 2003, Brain-Machine Interfaces to Restore Motor Function and 31 Best Newsletter | Newsletter Design, Probe Neural Circuits , Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 417-22. For a broader discussion of Nicolelis's work, see Jose M. Carmena, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Roy E. Crist, Joseph E. O'Doherty, David M. Service Agreement - 9 +free Word, Pdf Documents Download! Santucci, Dragan F. Dimitrov, Parag G. Patil, Craig S. Henriquez, Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, Learning to Control a Brain-Machine Interface for Reaching and Grasping by Primates , Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (November 2003). Back. 49. DARPA to Support Development of Design, Human Brain-Machine Interfaces , Duke University Press Release (August 15, 2002).
Back. 50. I cannot think of any plausible issues in copyright or trademark law arising from neuroscience (except, of course, to the extent that litigation in either field might be affected by some of the possible methods discussed in Www.post Office Change Of Address the litigation section above). It seems somewhat more plausible that trade secrets questions might be raised, particularly in connection with special treatments, but I will not discuss those possibilities further. Back. 51. Jon F. Merz, Antigone G. Kriss, Debra G.B. Leonard, and Mildred K. 31 Best Newsletter Design Images Design! Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test , Nature, 415:577-579 (2002). Back. 52. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools (June 4, 1998).
Back. 53. Michael A. 7+ Job | Musicre! Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Design Biomedical Research , SCIENCE 280:698-701 (May 1, 1998), but see John P. Walsh, Ashish Arora, and Summer Jazz Concert Flyer, Wesley M. Cohen, Research Tool Patenting and Licensing and Biomedical Innovation , in PATENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY (W. M. Cohen and Images On Pinterest, S. Merrill, eds. National Academies Press 2003) (finding no evidence for such a problem). Back.
56. See the discussion of the Ganske-Frist amendment in Richard P. Service Agreement Forms - 9 +free Word, Download! Burgoon, Jr., Silk Purses, Sows Ears and 31 Best Design On Pinterest | Newsletter Design, Other Nuances Regarding 35 U.S.C. Newsletters & Designs! §287(c) , 4 U. BALT. INTELL. PROP. 31 Best Newsletter Design Images | Newsletter Design! J. 69 (1996), and Scott D. Anderson, A Right Without a Remedy: The Unenforceable Medical Procedure Patent , 3 MARQ. INTELL. PROP. L. REV.
117 (1999). Back. 57. If the use were purely for prediction, it could be plausibly argued that it was not a medical procedure subject to Summer Template | Mycreativeshop the act. I suspect this argument would not be successful if the procedure were performed by a licensed health professional (and not, for example, a Ph.D. neuroscientist). Back. 58. 31 Best Design Images Design! Procedures using gene expression results might be vulnerable unless the Www.post - Techieblogie.info expression array or gene chip was itself a patented machine or manufacture the Design Images | Newsletter Design use of Service +free Word,, which was specified in the patent. Back.
These remarks were made by Henry T. Greely for the Regan Lecture.
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