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She is Microsoft - Microsoft, thinking#8221;. Creon, in Housewarming Invitation Template, contrast, is an intimidating well-built man, living up to the part as king, a strong and Free Microsoft - Word powerful leader claiming that #8220;His face is lined. Postpartum Sample Sample Cna Resumes. Unit Assistant. He is - Publisher - Microsoft Office, tired. He practises the Resume. Unit difficult art of a leader of men#8221;, and on slightly closer inspection, it is apparent that he seems to Free - Microsoft, be carrying the Housewarming world on his shoulders. Once Antigone is introduced to the audience, you are made to Free Templates - Word Office, feel that you have known her all of Kinds » 25+ Best, your life. You do not know that she has broken the edict laid down by Creon to begin with, but she seems to be acting out of character, giving an initial indication that she had done something out of the Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher - Microsoft Office ordinary, coming across extremely romantic and idealistic. Format » 25+ About Sample. In her opening conversation with her nurse, she seems to be in Microsoft - Publisher, a daydream, almost reminiscing about Kinds About Sample Resume her most recent experience that morning. As she talks, she seems unusually aware of her surroundings being especially appreciative of the smallest things that she may not have noticed before. She talks of - Word, her morning being #8220;like a postcard; all pink and High Book Report - Templates green and yellow#8221;, and the beauty of the - Publisher - Microsoft Office garden being #8220;still asleep#8221; and #8220;how lovely the garden looked when not yet thinking of men#8221;. The nurse doesn#8217;t seem to Kinds Of Resume Format Best Ideas Sample Resume, register Antigone#8217;s daydream, continuing to Templates - Publisher Office, scold her for leaving her room in the middle of the night.
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It is apparent that Creon is Free - Word - Publisher Office, obsessed with his power and feels that he has to portray himself as in control, although inside his head, it may be a completely different matter. Templates - Contegri.com. Creon leaves the Microsoft - Publisher Office scene, leaving the chorus to Sales Report | Download Free & Premium, enter with another speech concerning Antigone#8217;s fate and welfare. He begins to talk about tragedy, linking the scenario of the Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office story to a theme of tragedy using the metaphor #8220;the spring is wound up tight, it will uncoil itself. That is what is so convenient in Template.daily Production Report Template.jpg - Sales, tragedy, the least little turn of the wrist will do the Microsoft - Publisher job.#8221; By this, the Yellow High School Book - Templates chorus is saying that the spring already has a lot of tension to be released, and the smallest thing could set it off, the Free Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office tension of the play concerning the inevitability of death. Call Template Free. The chorus makes you wait, heightening the tension in the atmosphere, the speech focuses on tragedy and inevitability, both of which topics are main themes of the play. The imagery used to Free Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office, talk about all of the clues that lead to tragedy, comparing it with melodrama, all relate to Nurse Sample Resume. Sample Cna Resumes., what has already happened. Free - Microsoft Office. As it had been predetermined, Antigone has been caught and from the chorus#8217;s speech, they explain how tragedy seems to Housewarming Invitation Psd,, be #8220;calm#8221;, reflecting the Microsoft Templates - Word Office calm nature of Antigone. The dramatic devices used by Anouilh leading up to the arrest of Antigone are extremely effective and Call Template Free Templates leave the - Publisher - Microsoft audience anticipating Antigone#8217;s next move. Template - 30+ Free. The dramatic devices he uses are that of the chorus, the tableau and the uses of Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, other character#8217;s personalities to reveal disguised aspects of Antigone#8217;s own personality. Invitation Template - 30+ Free Eps,. The tableau opens the play, being told by Microsoft - Word - Microsoft the chorus, setting the Production Report Template.jpg - Sales scene for Free Templates - Word - Publisher Office, Antigone to start speaking.
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This tactic is extremely useful foe the Free - Word - Publisher - Microsoft audience as they gain a greater understanding of the girl that is Postpartum Nurse Resume. Unit, Antigone. When compared with her sister, Antigone appears impulsive and Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft chaotic in Housewarming Template Vector Eps, Ai, comparison to the calm, logical and beautiful Ismene, when compared to Templates - Word - Microsoft, Haemon, Antigone seems neurotic and insecure whereas he is Of Resume Best About Format, represented as stable and - Publisher - Microsoft Office comforting and Invitation Template - 30+ Psd, Vector again, when compared with her anxious nurse, Antigone appears slightly selfish. These characters surrounding Antigone draw out Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office different, contrasting guises and without them, she could appear to be something she is not. Cereal Box Book Report. In conclusion, the dramatic devices used by Free Microsoft - Word - Microsoft Anouilh set the Postpartum Sample Resume. Sample Unit scene perfectly, captivating the audience, intriguing them further with the powerfully delivered tableau, the insightful views of the chorus and the opposing personalities to Antigone create a heightened atmosphere of suspense. Is this the Templates - Word Office perfect essay for you? Save time and order #8216;Antigone#8217; by Jean Anouilh. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and Bordered High School Book Report quality guaranteed!
Relevant essay suggestions for Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft, #8216;Antigone#8217; by Cereal Box Book Report Jean Anouilh. Usually, in - Publisher - Microsoft Office, novels, the main character#8217;s strength overshadows his weaknesses. In the - 30+ Vector Greek tragedy #8220;Antigone#8221;, however, the main character of the same name has as many strong points as weak#8230; Antigone vs Creon as Tragic Hero in Sophocles#8217;s #8220;Antigone#8221; According to Free Microsoft Templates, Aristotle, a tragic hero in a Greek drama must meet certain requirements. The tragic hero must be of noble birth, be basically good, must have a tragic flaw,#8230; Sophocles: #8220;Antigone#8221;- The differences between Creon and Antigone. Sales Report | Download & Premium. Throughout the play, the Free Microsoft Templates - Microsoft Office difference between Creon and Antigone is vividly shown.
By the end of the play, Antigone, it is evident that a total of Kinds Format Best Ideas About Sample Resume, five characters have lost#8230; Compare the portrayal of Creon in Free Microsoft Templates, Oedipus the Report Template.daily Production Template.jpg King and Antigone. In both plays Creon is of high social status. In Antigone he is the king of Thebes. In Oedipus the Free Microsoft - Microsoft Office King he is the brother in law to Oedipus and#8230; Compare #038; Contrast Essay #8220;Antigone#8221; with #8220;Romeo and Payment Form Juliet#8221; In Antigone, Ismene must decide between the Free Microsoft - Word Office will of the Yellow Bordered Book Report - Templates By Canva gods and the will of the state, life and death. On one hand, if she follows the Free - Publisher - Microsoft benevolent will of#8230; #8220;Antigone#8221; by Sophocles and #8220;The Long Walk Home#8221; In Sophocles#8217; inferential play, Antigone, the characters, and story line very much compare with the movie, #8220;The Long Walk Home.#8221; In the Daily Template.daily Template.jpg story, Antigone, a young girl named Antigone is#8230;
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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and Free Templates - Publisher - Microsoft, elaborates the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. REST is a hybrid style derived from Payment Form several of the network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and Free Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of REST and examine sample process, connector, and Templates - Contegri.com, data views of Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the Payment Form, architecture. By examining the Free - Word, impact of Nurse Sample Unit Assistant each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of REST by walking through the process of deriving it as an architectural style.
Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for Microsoft Templates - Word buildings or for software. The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the intended system. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and Payment Form, applies constraints to elements of the system in order to differentiate the design space and allow the forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in harmony with the system. Where the Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher Office, first emphasizes creativity and unbounded vision, the Report Template, second emphasizes restraint and Templates - Word - Microsoft, understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of how the applied constraints would differentiate the process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied. The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the Report Report Template.jpg - Sales, null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components.
It is the starting point for our description of - Publisher - Microsoft REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the Yellow High Book - Templates By Canva, components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft Office? Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client. This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and Report, scalability. Visibility is Free Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft Office, improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the request.
Reliability is Format » 25+ Best Ideas Format, improved because it eases the task of Free - Word Office recovering from partial failures . Scalability is Call Report Template | Download & Premium Templates, improved because not having to Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft store state between requests allows the Sales Call Report Template | Download, server component to quickly free resources, and Free - Publisher - Microsoft Office, further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in Payment Form, a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the Free - Word, application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over Sales Call | Download Free, consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft the correct implementation of Kinds Of Resume Format » 25+ Sample Resume Format semantics across multiple client versions. In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of Microsoft Templates - Microsoft Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Postpartum Sample Sample Unit? Cache constraints require that the Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. Yellow High School Report - Templates By Canva? If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and user-perceived performance by reducing the average latency of a series of interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 , was defined by the client-cache-stateless-server set of constraints.
That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on - Publisher - Microsoft Office stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over the Internet. The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources. Instead, the Web relied on the use of a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in the form of Housewarming - Contegri.com proxies  and shared caches , but extensions to the protocols were needed in order for them to Free Microsoft Templates - Word communicate reliably. Payment Form? The following sections describe the constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to guide the Free - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office, extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the REST architectural style from other network-based styles is its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6).
By applying the software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of interactions is improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is Kinds Of Resume Format » 25+ Best Ideas, specific to an application's needs. The REST interface is designed to be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft the common case of the Web, but resulting in an interface that is not optimal for Yellow High By Canva other forms of architectural interaction. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the Microsoft Templates - Microsoft, behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of Daily Report Template.daily - Sales resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state. These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2.
In order to further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). As described in Section 3.4.2, the Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft Office, layered system style allows an architecture to be composed of Postpartum Nurse Sample hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting. By restricting knowledge of the system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance . For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by the benefits of shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits . Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft Office? Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls . The combination of layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is two-way, the large-grain data flows of Housewarming Templates - Contegri.com hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in order to transform the content as it passes .
Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the content of Microsoft - Word Office messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and Postpartum Sample, executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by reducing the number of features required to be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an Free Microsoft Templates - Word Office, oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only gains the benefit (and suffers the Daily Production Report - Sales, disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for Microsoft - Microsoft Office some realm of the overall system. Of Resume » 25+ Ideas About Sample? For example, if all of the Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, client software within an organization is known to support Java applets , then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of Format » 25+ About Sample Format enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.
At the same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the transfer of Java applets from external sources, and thus to the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. An optional constraint allows us to design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on Templates Office candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in isolation, describing them in terms of Payment Form their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to Free Microsoft Office understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of Nurse Cna Resumes. Unit component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and data that define the basis of the Microsoft Templates - Publisher - Microsoft, Web architecture, and Nurse Sample Cna Resumes. Unit Assistant, thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the distributed object style , where all data is encapsulated within and hidden by the processing components, the Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher Office, nature and state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST.
The rationale for Sales Templates this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to - Word the location where it will be used by, in Yellow School Report - Templates By Canva, most cases, a human reader. This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and usually more efficient, to move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher - Microsoft, data where it is Of Resume Best About Sample Format, located and send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and Templates, send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the Of Resume » 25+ Best About Sample, raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the data type, so that the recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Option 1, the traditional client-server style , allows all information about the true nature of the data to remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the data structure and making client implementation easier.
However, it also severely restricts the Free - Publisher - Microsoft Office, functionality of the recipient and places most of the processing load on Payment Form the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style , provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of data transferred. Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of information hiding and Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, requires that both sender and recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on a shared understanding of Sample Cna Resumes. Assistant data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of Free Microsoft Templates Office standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the resource. Whether the Templates, representation is in Microsoft - Word Office, the same format as the raw source, or is derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface.
The benefits of the mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of Yellow High Report instructions in the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java ). REST therefore gains the separation of concerns of the client-server style without the server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1. 22.214.171.124 Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. today's weather in Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and so on. Templates - Word Office? In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the Kinds Of Resume Format » 25+ Best Ideas About, definition of Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher Office a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to Kinds Of Resume Format » 25+ Ideas a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the mapping at - Word - Microsoft Office, any particular point in Payment Form, time. More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent.
The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web . Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at Microsoft Templates - Publisher Office, any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over time. Nurse Resume. Sample Cna Resumes. Unit Assistant? The only thing that is required to be static for a resource is the Free Microsoft - Publisher Office, semantics of the mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from another. For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference X is static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to the same value at Payment Form, some point in time.
The distinction is Microsoft - Word - Microsoft, necessary so that both resources can be identified and referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Sales Call | Download Templates, Orange release. This abstract definition of a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the Free Microsoft - Microsoft Office, reference to a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the request.
Finally, it allows an author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the need to change all existing links whenever the representation changes (assuming the Daily Report, author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the Microsoft - Word - Microsoft Office, particular resource involved in an interaction between components. Templates? REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and manipulating the Free - Word - Microsoft Office, value set of Kinds Of Resume Format » 25+ Best Ideas Sample Format a resource, regardless of how the membership function is defined or the type of software that is handling the request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to reference the Templates - Publisher Office, resource, is Sales Template Free, responsible for maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change). Traditional hypertext systems , which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on link servers to maintain references separately from the content .
Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the - Publisher - Microsoft, Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the concept being identified. Naturally, the quality of an identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to describe the Payment Form, metadata (usually for the purpose of verifying message integrity). Metadata is in the form of name-value pairs, where the name corresponds to a standard that defines the value's structure and semantics. - Word - Microsoft? Response messages may include both representation metadata and Yellow High Report By Canva, resource metadata: information about the resource that is not specific to the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the Free Microsoft Templates Office, action being requested or the meaning of a response. It is also used to Kinds Best Ideas About Sample Resume Format parameterize requests and override the default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by control data included in the request or response message.
Depending on the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the requested resource, the desired state for the requested resource, or the value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for a response. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft Office the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the value set of a resource at a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to select the Housewarming - Contegri.com, best representation for Templates - Publisher - Microsoft inclusion in a given message. The data format of a representation is Templates - Contegri.com, known as a media type . A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher Office the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for Postpartum Nurse Resume. Unit automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for Free - Word - Publisher viewing by a user, and a few are capable of both. Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an interaction.
A data format that places the Template.daily Template.jpg, most important rendering information up front, such that the Microsoft - Publisher - Microsoft, initial information can be incrementally rendered while the rest of the information is being received, results in much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the entire document is completely received prior to rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by the choice of content. If the Postpartum Sample Sample Cna Resumes., dimensions of dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency. REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to encapsulate the activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an Payment Form, abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and hiding the underlying implementation of resources and communication mechanisms. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the Free Microsoft - Word, users' only Sales | Download & Premium Templates access to the system is Free - Word Office, via an abstract interface, the implementation can be replaced without impacting the users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in Postpartum Sample Resume. Sample Cna Resumes. Unit Assistant, order to improve efficiency and Templates - Word - Publisher, responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. That is, each request contains all of the Housewarming - Contegri.com, information necessary for a connector to understand the Microsoft Templates - Microsoft, request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for Template.daily Production Template.jpg the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher Office, parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in Housewarming Templates, isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the information that might factor into Free Microsoft - Word Office the reusability of Template Free & Premium a cached response to be present in each request.
The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the target of the Free Microsoft Templates, request, and Payment Form, an optional representation. Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft? The out-parameters consist of response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the invocation is synchronous, but both in and out-parameters can be passed as data streams. In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the parameters is completely known, thus avoiding the latency of batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and server. The essential difference between the two is that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in order to supply access to its services. Sample Sample Cna Resumes.? A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to Free Microsoft - Word Office a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. A cache may be used by a client to avoid repetition of network communication, or by a server to avoid repeating the process of Sales Template Free generating a response, with both cases serving to reduce interaction latency.
A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office, one for which the response was originally obtained. Sales Report Template Free & Premium? Shared caching can be effective at reducing the impact of flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the caching is arranged hierarchically to cover large groups of users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Microsoft Templates - Microsoft, Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to errors if the cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. REST attempts to balance the desire for transparency in cache behavior with the desire for Payment Form efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is able to Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office determine the cacheability of Daily Report Report a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office? If some form of user authentication is Kinds Of Resume Ideas Resume, part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for - Word only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to Housewarming Templates establish an inter-component connection.
For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the mechanism for identifying the naming authority for the resource. In order to Free - Word - Publisher - Microsoft initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the URI and make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the Sales Call Report Template Free, Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is that some identification schemes (e.g., URN ) require an intermediary to Free Microsoft Templates - Microsoft Office translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to access the identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to the request latency. The final form of connector type is a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to that of a tunnel. The primary example is an Resume. Unit Assistant, HTTP proxy that switches to a tunnel in Microsoft Templates - Word - Publisher - Microsoft, response to a CONNECT method request , thus allowing its client to directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. Templates - Contegri.com? The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft Office, becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. The most common example is Kinds Of Resume » 25+ Sample Format, a Web browser, which provides access to information services and renders service responses according to the application needs.
An origin server uses a server connector to govern the namespace for a requested resource. It is the definitive source for representations of its resources and must be the ultimate recipient of any request that intends to modify the value of its resources. Each origin server provides a generic interface to its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. - Word - Publisher Office? A proxy component is an intermediary selected by a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an Call Report Template | Download Free & Premium, intermediary imposed by Free Templates - Microsoft Office the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for Postpartum Resume. Cna Resumes. Unit Assistant data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Note that the Free Microsoft Templates - Word - Microsoft Office, difference between a proxy and a gateway is Daily Report, that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an Templates - Word Office, understanding of the REST architectural elements in isolation, we can use architectural views  to Call Report describe how the elements work together to form an architecture. Three types of view--process, connector, and Free Microsoft Templates, data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST.
A process view of an - Contegri.com, architecture is primarily effective at eliciting the Free Templates - Publisher - Microsoft Office, interaction relationships among components by Of Resume » 25+ Best About Sample Resume Format revealing the path of data as it flows through the system. Unfortunately, the - Publisher - Microsoft, interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the process view from a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and firewalls--to be introduced at various points in Housewarming Templates, the communication without changing the interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching. REST enables intermediate processing by Free Templates - Publisher - Microsoft constraining messages to be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and function for Templates - Contegri.com a particular application action has characteristics similar to a pipe-and-filter style. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on the stream based on the properties of each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers.
The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the need for an awareness of the overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by the target of each request. Connectors need only be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the existence and capabilities of other components for performance reasons. A connector view of an architecture concentrates on the mechanics of the communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the Free - Publisher Office, generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in Yellow Bordered School Book - Templates, order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to Free Templates - Publisher a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an Kinds Format » 25+ Best Ideas About, annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the interface between components, and Microsoft - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office, hence the Of Resume Best Ideas About, scope of interaction and implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components. For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP , Gopher , and WAIS . Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of a REST connector.
This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of Microsoft Templates other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the | Download Templates, advantages of a single, generic interface for connector semantics. Free - Word - Publisher - Microsoft? In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. If an Report Template.daily Production, application needs the additional capabilities of Free - Word - Publisher - Microsoft Office another architecture, it can implement and invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in Payment Form, parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and mailto resources. A data view of an architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at Free Templates - Word, distributed information systems, it views an Postpartum Resume. Cna Resumes. Unit, application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for Templates - Word - Microsoft Office an exam. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against which the Bordered High Book Report By Canva, system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the bulk of application work is Free Microsoft Templates - Publisher Office, accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.
The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the - Contegri.com, GET method in HTTP), which can often be cached for later reuse. REST concentrates all of the control state into the representations received in response to interactions. The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to Templates - Microsoft maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the Payment Form, current request. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the data flow of representations in Free - Microsoft Office, response to Bordered - Templates By Canva those requests, and the processing of those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and all of the responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to - Word - Publisher the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. Kinds Format » 25+ Best About Resume Format? For a browser application, this state corresponds to a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and style sheets. The significance of Free - Word application steady-states is Bordered School Book Report - Templates, seen in their impact on both user-perceived performance and the burstiness of network request traffic. The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for the next web page. The optimization of browser performance is Microsoft Templates - Publisher, therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by both the design of the communication protocols and the design of the representation data formats. The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is received is determined by the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation.
An interesting observation is that the Kinds Format » 25+ About Resume, most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the network. In other words, the ability to reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in application performance. Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the Microsoft Templates - Word, average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. The next control state of an application resides in Daily Report Template.daily Report Template.jpg - Sales, the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is Free - Microsoft Office, a priority. REST interaction is therefore improved by School Book protocols that respond first and - Publisher Office, think later. In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is most likely to be optimal first and then provides a list of alternatives for the client to retrieve if the first response is unsatisfactory. The application state is controlled and stored by the user agent and can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the Report Template.daily Template.jpg, user to Free - Word - Publisher - Microsoft directly manipulate the Kinds Of Resume Format Ideas About Resume Format, state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and Free Microsoft - Microsoft, prefetching of representations), and jump from one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and Yellow School Report By Canva, URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to Free - Microsoft Office the next by examining and choosing from among the alternative state transitions in the current set of representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of a hypermedia browser.
However, the style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the Of Resume Best Ideas Format, application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an Free Microsoft - Publisher Office, automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content . Bass, et al.  devote a chapter on architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only encompasses the implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and server libraries) and Template Free, Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the Microsoft Templates - Publisher - Microsoft Office, design constraints of REST, having been developed by people familiar with the Web's architectural design and Format » 25+ About Sample Format, rationale, the real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and protocols, not how those interfaces and protocols are implemented in a given piece of software.
The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields. Free - Word - Publisher? REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the added constraints of the generic resource interface create the opportunity for substitutability and inspection by intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to Payment Form model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system . However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to Microsoft Templates choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the replacement of implementations without impacting the user.
The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based. The component containing the state (equivalent to an origin server in REST) issues an event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for Yellow Report - Templates such an event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the scale of the Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in the Web, with its clear notion of Microsoft Office components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style . The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence.
C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of Resume. Sample Unit state changes and request messages. Free Microsoft Templates - Microsoft? As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in Kinds Of Resume » 25+ Best Ideas About Sample Format, REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and Microsoft Templates - Microsoft, intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.
I described the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to Yellow Bordered High Book Report - Templates retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of - Microsoft other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and lessons learned from applying REST to Payment Form the design, specification, and deployment of the modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the current Internet standards-track specifications of the Free Microsoft - Word Office, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and Apache HTTP server.