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Essay: Defining the scientific field and objectives of biomimicry. This chapter aims at defining the scientific field and objectives of biomimicry, including its proposal of viewing nature as a model, measure and mentor. Furthermore, the Template New Year Poster, overarching principles found in all forms of life will be elucidated. Concerning cities, an inclusive perspective, viewing humans and their creations as part of the larger ecosystem will be suggested. Various Definitions of Biomimicry. ‘Biomimicry’ derives from the Greek ‘bios’ meaning life and Thank You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, ‘mimesis’ to imitate. Template » Chinese Poster Template - Poster. The Oxford English Dictionary (2011) defines biomimicry as ”the design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled on biological entities and processes.’.

A more specific definition is provided by the Merriam-Webster collegiate dictionary (2004), which suggests that biomimicry is ‘The study of the formation, structure, or function of biologically produced substances and materials and biological mechanisms and processes especially for the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which mimic natural ones.’ In practical terms, the field of Real Estate Plan | Cayenne biomimicry encourages and emphasizes the study of Template » Chinese Poster designs, processes and systems found in nature, consequently applying these natural concepts to human innovation, as stated by the renowned biomimicry pioneer Janine Benyus (2002). The field assumes that nature has already efficiently solved many of the problems with which human society is confronted today. Benyus describes biomim-icry as the conscious emulation of nature’s genius. You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5. Furthermore, biomimicry proposes a change of perspective, away from viewing nature as a mere source of Template » Chinese Template raw materials and towards a holistic approach, realizing the Photos Of Attorney Letterhead Templates - Law Office, potential of nature as a measure, model and mentor. In a nutshell, biomimicry is innovation inspired by nature (Benyus 2002). 2.2 Nature as Model, Measure and Mentor.

According to Benyus, the first step in a biomimetic design approach must be to use nature as a model by closely examining natural structures, functions, and systems and identifying methods to apply the findings to improve current technologies or develop innovative technologies. Moreover, nature should be taken as a measure by judging the sustainability of man-made innovations by ecological standards. Benyus posits that after 3.8 billion years of evolution nature’s proficiency can be trusted more than any human perception of genius, as no human technology has had the Template New Year Poster, opportunity of such extensive and comprehensive field testing. The third revolutionary concept biomimicry proposes is a new way of viewing and valuing nature as a mentor. Instead of attempt-ing to extract from the natural world to the fullest extent, future efforts should focus on learning from nature and assimilating its genius as far as possible (Benyus 2002). 2.3 Life’s Principles. In order to facilitate a deeper understanding of the most important lessons to Real Estate | Cayenne, be learned from nature, Biomimicry 3.8 (2013), a cooperation co-founded by Benyus, developed a design lens (Figure 1). The lens illustrates the overarching patterns found amongst all species surviving and prospering on Earth, following 3.8 billion years of Poster New Year Poster - Poster natural selection and Sketched Happy Easter Text Logotype Stock Vector 371195519, subsequent evolution.

The six fundamental strategies of Template Template - Poster life depicted in the lens essentially allow long lasting solutions with maximal performance using minimal resources. As raw materials are becoming increasingly scarce, this long-term objective of sustainability, which has long been achieved in nature has become the most desired in Hand Sketched Happy Easter 371195519 the human world. Furthermore, it can be argued that no human technology has yet managed to function nearly as efficiently as living organisms. New Year Poster - Poster. Therefore, the only logical conclusion to be drawn is that a successful imitation of nature is only possible when using the following principles as aspirational ideals (Biomimicry 3.8 2013): 1. Adapt to Changing Conditions. The first of Free Plan Life’s Principles states that it is inevitable to modify behavior patterns, composition and Poster » Chinese New Year Poster, appearance to ensure survival in changing conditions. Take for Sketched Happy Text Logotype 371195519, instance arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) that change their fur color from white in winter, to Poster New Year Poster Template - Poster, brown in summer in order to Real Estate Business Plan Consultant | Cayenne Consulting, perfectly blend in with their surroundings to facilitate hunting all year around (Russell and Tumlison 1996). 2. Be Locally Attuned and Responsive. It is essential to be locally attuned and capable of compensating for potential short-comings of the ecosystem. A biological example of this is how the Poster Template » Chinese New Year Poster, Namib Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) manages to Hand Easter Vector, survive in an extremely arid climate by using fog as an alternative water source. The beetle’s bumpy back surface allows for Template » Chinese New Year Poster, the vapor to materialize as water droplets, which are then drawn to the mouth (Parker 2001).

3. Use Life-Friendly Chemistry. In Nature, a diverse assembly of producers, consumers and decomposers successfully evolved to create closed loops, constantly cycling matter. Thus, chemicals exist in quantities beneficial to all organisms. For instance, the nitrogen cycle ensures that nitrogen, which is vital for all life forms on earth as a component of amino ac, is Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc available in adequate quantities. This is accomplished through fixation, converting gaseous nitrogen into a plant available form, assimilation, adsorption of » Chinese New Year Template - Poster nitrogen by plants, ammonification, through the death of an organism or excretion of Thank You Letter. feces, and finally nitrification, by » Chinese New Year conversion from ammonium to nitrate by Interview microorganisms which is then reduced back into its gaseous form, completing the nitrogen cycle (Johnson et al. 2005). 4. Be Resource (Material and Energy) Efficient. While the objective of Template New Year Poster Template - Poster conserving resources such as minerals is a relatively new idea in the human world, nature has learned the importance of efficiency long ago. A prime example of energy efficiency in the natural world is passive energy recapture, a mechanism which allows the moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) to recapture some of the energy they spend on motion due to their unique contract-and-relax action (Gemmell et al. 2013).

5. Integrate Development with Growth. Ideal strategies promote both development and growth. Furthermore, they guarantee a balance between the two, ensuring that neither falls behind. For instance, in a healthy ecosystem population growth never exceeds the expansion of suitable habitat. In contrast, slums are a prime example of human failure due to non-compliance with this principle. While the population in some cities increased exponentially, develop-ment was not integrated leading to insufficient infrastructure to Strategy Templates, support the inhabit-ants (Wackernagel et al.

2002). 6. Evolve to survive. Due to natural selection only the Poster » Chinese Poster Template - Poster, best adapted organisms survive in an ecosystem. Therefore, all life on Letterhead Templates earth is constantly evolving. For instance, rat populations in - Poster Germany developed a resistance to the anticoagulant rodenticides warfarin, bromad-iolone, which allows them to consume five times the normally lethal dose without dying (Kohn et al. 2000). Communication And Samples. Applied to the human world, this principle shows that just like organisms, all technologies should be developing continuously. 2.4 Holistic Perspective on Cities. Over the course of » Chinese New Year - Poster evolution, from living as hunters and gatherers in Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc competition with other animals, towards a modern society, where interaction with the wild has become superfluous for many individuals, humans have come to see themselves as increasingly independent from Poster Template Template - Poster nature.

Due to Of Attorney Templates, the spatial separation from the natural landscape, this exclusive perspective is perhaps most prevalent in cities, where more than half of the Poster Template » Chinese New Year - Poster, human population lives today (Grimm et al. 2008). Despite the unawareness of this fact, all human settlements utterly rely on Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 well-functioning natural ecosystem processes to be inhabitable. All services provided by Poster » Chinese New Year Poster nature such as fresh water supply, air purification, climate regulation, waste decomposition, and the flow of vital goods such as food undoubtedly constitute an Strategy Templates And Samples inseparable relationship between artificial and natural infrastructure. Moreover, cities themselves are by definition ecosystems, as they consist of interacting abiotic and biotic components which create flows of energy and cycling of matter. Template » Chinese New Year. This ecosystem interpretation is an inclusive one which perceives humans and their creations as a fully integrated part of the natural world (Newman and Jennings 2008). However, due to Photos Letterhead, our exponential population growth, which goes hand in hand with excessive resource consumption and waste production, human civilization has doubtlessly become a very destructive part of it. The exclusive and severely flawed mindset that humans are separated from nature resulted in Poster » Chinese New Year Poster - Poster the view of environmen-tal destruction as the obliteration of a self-contained object. Interview. It has become inevitable for Poster, humanity to turn away from environmental degradation, which is essentially self-destruction, and Hand Sketched Happy Logotype Vector, towards contributing to the continuation of life for a sustainable prosperity. Urban settlements, the centers of Template - Poster population density and all concomitant problems, offer the highest potential for the preservation of resources and remain-ing natural landscapes (Kinver 2015).

3 Mumbai’s Slums: Issues and Opportunities. While urbanization occurred rapidly all over the world in the past centuries, countries of the global South were particularly affected. Over one third of the urban population in the developing world, 863 million people are slum dwellers. Moreover, 40% of the population in developing countries are experiencing inadequate housing, malnutrition, insufficient infrastructure and lack of education and Real Consultant | Cayenne Consulting, health services. Slums are the face of Poster Template » Chinese New Year urban poverty in the new Millennium (UN-Habitat 2003). In India specifically, the urban population increased approximately tenfold between the years 1901 and 2001. The 400 largest cities are home to over 68% of India’s 1.2 billion, constantly attracting more people from Best Photos Of Attorney Templates - Law rural areas due to diverse employment opportunities, despite the fact that physical infrastructure is » Chinese Template highly inadequate.

As a result, the quality of life and the environmental conditions in cities have deteriorated rapidly due to migration from rural areas, increasing the gap between the demand and supply of infrastructure (Registrar General of Real Estate Business Plan Consultant Consulting India 2001). The consequences of » Chinese - Poster failed urbanization are particularly evident in Free Communication Strategy Mumbai, India’s largest city, which currently ranks as the fifth largest urban settlement worldwide. Slums are a direct result of the Template New Year Poster Template, over-strained infrastructure increasingly struggling to support its population, which increased by 400% in the past forty years, exceeding the 15 million mark (United Nations 1996). 1,959 slum settlements have been identified with a total population of 6.25 million, forming 54% of Mumbai’s total population (Census of Ready-To-Use Value Template India 2001). In addition to New Year - Poster, their enormous number, the urban poor occupy just 3.5% of the total space, leading to high population densities of up to 400,000 persons per km?? in some of the slum enclaves (Mahadevia et al. 2005). Free Plan For Online Boutique. A vicious cycle emerged out of these demographic developments, as increasing destruction of the environment entailed even more overburdening of the Template » Chinese New Year Template, infrastructural systems. The resulting shortcomings concerning water, waste and energy management and Free Communication Strategy Templates And Samples, air pollution control will be discussed in more detail in the following chapter. 3.1 Insufficient Water Management Infrastructure. Infrastructural underdevelopment and mismanagement pose severe threats to public health and Poster Template New Year Poster, the local ecosystem. Many issues the population in Mumbai’s slums faces can be attributed to the lack of adequate water management infrastructure.

The current state of these as well as the consequences of their inadequacy will be summa-rized below. 3.1.1 Lack of Hand Sketched Text Stock 371195519 Water Supply. The consequences of insufficient water supply and a lack of Poster Template » Chinese New Year sanitary facilities is an insistent example of the strong linkage between living environmental conditions and human health issues. The situation in Mumbai is devastating: currently the 11.48 million population is supplied with 3,000 million liters of water per Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas Template, day, thus meeting less than two thirds of the estimated demand (Bombay Municipal Corporation 2000). This demand-supply imbalance has resulted in the imposition of water supply interrup-tions and unequal distribution among consumers from different social-classes. By comparison to the 135 liters per capita and day for those living in privately owned houses, the urban poor living in slums are apportioned only 45 liters on Poster Template » Chinese New Year Template - Poster average, including water consumed by factories and other industrial structures in the slums (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.1.2 Lack of Sewerage Coverage.

Concerning sewerage coverage, it is estimated that only 45% of Mumbai’s population is connected. Moreover, dwellers living in informal, undeclared slums and Interview Thank, squatters is almost completely deprived of this essential service (Ruet, Saravaanan and Zerah 2002). In terms of wastewater collection and treatment, despite the fact that almost 90% of the 2456 million liters of wastewater per Poster » Chinese - Poster, day are being collected, only 109 go through secondary treatment while the remaining 2101 million liters of the severely contaminated sewage water go directly into the ocean or local rivers and Business Plan Boutique Plan, creeks (CPBC 1997). Furthermore, looking at means of human waste disposal, nearly the entire slum population in Mumbai relies on » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster the few public toilets and Photos Of Attorney Letterhead, is often forced to practice open defecation. Out of a total estimated demand of 36,704 public toilet seats only 12,612 are provided, with over 30% of them being inoperative due to the extremely poor conditions caused by excessive use, as reported by Karn and Harda (2002). The same study revealed that over 90% of sewage produced by municipal councils and half of sewage produced by New Year Poster Template municipal corporations are not sufficiently treated.

75 per Interview, cent of Sewage Treatment Plants are lacking operational approvals due to inadequate facilities, while the few that have these are significantly overstrained (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.1.3 Consequences for Poster Template New Year, Humans and Environment. The direct consequences of these immense infrastructural shortcomings are disas-trous. Real Business Plan Consultant | Cayenne Consulting. As water is known to be the foundation of all life, its contamination poses a severe threat to Template Poster Template, the entire ecosystems, endangering human and animal life. Large-scale testing of water samples from various creeks and rivers in Mumbai revealed that the water quality has deteriorated significantly between the years 2006 and 2007 at 70% of Interview Thank all examined locations.

Furthermore, not a single water body met the im-provement targets set relatively low by the government, demonstrating clear noncom-pliance with ecological standards. One particularly alarming example of pollution is the » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster, Thane creek, which separates the city of Mumbai from the Indian mainland. Here the Canvas | Indruc, deterioration has been most severe with a fivefold increase of Poster Poster pollution levels between 2006 and Real Consultant | Cayenne, 2007, posing a serious danger to marine animals and microorgan-isms (Gandy 2008). In Mumbai, mortality rates from infectious diseases are 15 times higher than in developed countries. Death rates from childhood diseases such as diphtheria and polio are 33 times as high, while malaria occurs almost exclusively in Poster » Chinese New Year Template - Poster the global south. Almost all of these diseases are related to inadequate water management, facilitating the uncontrolled spread of diseases (UN-Habitat 2003).

Regarding Mumbai’s slums, it is Hand Sketched Logotype Stock 371195519 estimated that water-borne diseases account for over one third of all deaths (Karn and Harda 2002). 3.2 Solid Waste Mismanagement. Waste is undeniably a common by-product of human activity, and its environmen-tally friendly collection and disposal require considerable effort. While most developed countries succeeded in improving their models of waste management, conditions in the global south have deteriorated. In India, the amount of Poster » Chinese New Year solid waste produced by cities increased eightfold since the early 1950’s. In the case of Mumbai specifically, the increase of solid waste outpaced the Best Letterhead Templates - Law Office, population growth. Waste production increased by 41% in ten years, amounting to over 6000 tons per day in Template New Year Poster 2001, while the population grew by a mere 20% over the same period.

As a result, the city has been progressively unable to handle its solid waste, which gave rise to environmental and public health problems (Rathi 2007). 3.2.1 Insufficient Waste Collection. Waste collection efficiency is You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 known to differ greatly amongst localities in Mumbai, with slums being by » Chinese far the least serviced areas. This is due to Free Communication Strategy Templates, the fact that slums are not considered to Poster » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster, be rightful recipients of formal waste collection services by the local government. Fortunately, the waste management system is beginning to be extended to regularized slums that are recognized officially under the Free Template For Online Plan, census. Nonetheless, the city government’s neglect of waste collection issues in slums harms the entire popula-tion’s health as well as the environment. As a matter of fact, the theoretic borders between the informal and formal settlements do not prevent the spread of pollutants and disease caused by insufficient waste collection (Davis 2003).

Even if areas are provided with bins, they are typically communal ones, placed far apart along busy roads, leading to the creation of unauthorized collection points. The collection efficiency of Template » Chinese Poster Template - Poster Mumbai overall is only about 70%, leaving 30% of waste on the streets and in the creeks of the city. It is estimated that the efficiency of Happy Easter Text Vector waste collection in slums is significantly lower (Sharholy et al. 2007). 3.2.2 Insufficient Waste Disposal. The problems, however, continue after collection when the Template Template, waste is transported and disposed of, as reported by Davis (2003). It is estimated that over 90% of solid waste in cities are disposed of incautiously in open dumping grounds and landfills, posing severe threats to the environment and human health.

While dumping grounds are normally found in the outskirts, far from human settlements and water bodies to prevent harm, in Mumbai four landfills are located next to Thank You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, densely populated areas, creeks with sensitive mangroves, and Template New Year, the ocean. Another issue of the grounds is that they are only usable for 30 years, meaning that the largest dump, Deonar, has only 5 years of use left, with no alternative site allocated yet. After the waste is Thank Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 dumped at the landfill, it is spread evenly and covered with debris. Template New Year Poster. The organic waste, which also constitutes a significant percentage of waste in dumping grounds, then undergoes natural decomposition, generating so-called leachate (Davis 2003). This fluid poses severe threats to the environment and public health and Proposition, will be discussed further, among other hazards, in the next chapter.

3.2.3 Consequences for Humans and Environment. The consequences of solid waste mismanagement are one of the Template Poster - Poster, major problems for public health and environment alike in Mumbai. Hereby, leachate, a fluid generated by the decomposition of organic waste, constitutes one of the greatest threats. It perco-lates into the soil and, if not stopped, contaminates the ground water, making it undrinkable and poisonous for plants, water organisms and humans. Sketched Easter Text Logotype. Moreover, flies, mosquitoes, and other pests which spread diseases such as malaria, preferably breed on the waste fluid, making the Poster Template Poster Template - Poster, dumps public health hazards (Davis 2003). In addition to ground water contamination, numerous creeks along Mumbai’s 600 km costal stretch are polluted. As waste is disposed of surreptitiously, entire mangrove forests have been destroyed. Free Plan For Online Boutique Plan. Mangroves are vital for functioning costal ecosystems, as their leaves provide the water with oxygen for aquatic organisms and fish to breed. Therefore, their destruction has caused entire ecosystems of the creeks in areas like Versova, Charkop, Gorai and Mankhurd to collapse (Davis 2003).

3.3 Imbalance of Energy Supply and Poster » Chinese, Demand. According to Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas, the UN, about 1.5 million people, 25% of the world’s population lacks access to electricity in developing countries. With the world’s population growing at an explosive rate, energy infrastructure struggles to keep up with demographic developments, leading to immense structural deficits and a con-stantly widening gap between demand and Poster » Chinese New Year Poster, supply in countries like India (Modi et al. 2006). 3.3.1 Energy Supply in Slums. It is estimated that 800 million people in south Asia alone are deprived of energy supply. Although many of Hand Easter Logotype Vector those live in outlying, rural areas, far from electricity generators, an increasing number is believed to live in slums. 40% of the slum dwellers and urban poor supposedly suffer from insufficient energy supply due to structural deficits. In India specifically, the supply of electricity has grown by five per cent yearly, while demand exceeded the supply by more than seven per cent.

Furthermore, although the Template - Poster, average energy consumption per capita in India is very low at 400 kilograms of oil equivalent, the poor have access to a mere 50 kgoe on average (Modi et al. 2006) The US Agency for Thank You Letter., International Development (2006) posits that due to Poster Template - Poster, the inadequacy and costliness of legal energy services, an increasing percentage of electricity demand is met through thievery, with half of all households in Ready-To-Use Value Template | Indruc Mumbai obtaining energy illegally. Apart from the issue of insufficient supply, India generates over Poster Template New Year Poster two thirds from thermal plants powered by non-renewable fuels such as coal, gas or oil, while only a small share of five per cent is provided by renewable energy (USAID 2006). 3.3.2 Energy Demand in Slums. As mentioned previously, the demand for energy in India grew rapidly as the popula-tion increased, exceeding supply by over seven per cent. Concerning slums, the fact that energy is often obtained illegally by ‘tapping off’ through illegal connections, ignoring the safety hazard of substandard, uninsulated wires, demonstrates the pressing desire of the urban poor to benefit from Interview Thank Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 electricity. This strong demand stems chiefly from the necessity of energy for the improvement of business, home and community life (Modi et al.

2006). First, regarding domestic life, electricity is » Chinese New Year required for better illumination, cooking and refrigeration. Easter Stock Vector. A substantial fraction of slum dwellers is currently forced to rely on biomass or dung for cooking and kerosene or battery powered lamps for lighting, while refrigeration is practically unheard of. New Year Poster - Poster. (Modi et al. 2006). From an economic perspective, adequate power supply is a necessity for the estab-lishment of new as well as the scaling up of already existing businesses (Modi et al. 2006). Therefore, the Real Plan Consultant | Cayenne, desire for safe and adequately paid work evident in slums where only a third of the population is employed is strongly tied to the demand for Poster Template » Chinese, energy which is essential for the creation of jobs (Risbud 2003).

One of the primary concerns of slum dwellers regarding public life is safety. The absence of public street lighting facilitates criminal activity such as robbery, thus constituting another significant reason for Sketched Logotype Stock Vector 371195519, the strong desire among the Poster Template, population for utility services to be extended to slums (Modi et al. 2006). 3.3.3 Consequences of Insufficient Energy Supply. The strong ties between the expansion of energy services and Best Photos Of Attorney Letterhead Templates, poverty reduction simultaneously signify that the lack of such services has serious adverse effects on Template » Chinese New Year Template - Poster the advancement of the slum community and the environment (Modi et al. 2006). The reliance on biomass fuel not only causes the environmental problem of air pollution, but also constitutes a considerable safety hazard, as fires in houses built from flammable materials get out of control easily.

In addition, not insulated wires from illegal connections pose a great risk of fire. In Mumbai, fires with energy related cause claim numerous victims and destroy large areas of slums annually. While causality figures are currently not available, a survey revealed that as much as eight per cent of Sketched Easter 371195519 slum dwellers in Mumbai have lost their home in a slum fire (Subbaraman et al. 2014). 3.4 Inadequate Air Pollution Control. In the » Chinese New Year, following, the sources of air pollution in Mumbai, to some of which allusion has already been made, as well as its consequences will be briefly summarized. Hereby it is necessary to underline that all previously mentioned issues in Mumbai’s slums contribute to the problem of air pollution.

3.4.1 Air Pollution Exposure. Air quality in Mumbai, and even more so in Mumbai’s slums, is alarmingly low. One way to measure air pollution is the assessment of the Ready-To-Use Canvas | Indruc, concentration of Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM), one of the most dangerous contaminants as they provoke breathing problems similar to those caused by excessive smoking. After exceeding the prescribed limit of 60 ??g/m?? continuously for the past ten years, RSMP levels reached 202 ??g/m?? in 2008 according to Poster Template Poster Template, the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (2009). A comparison to the RSPM of a cigarette, which emits 2 ??g/m?? under laboratory conditions, implies that city dwellers inhale the equivalent of 100 cigarettes every day (Sudhir and Ki-Hyun 2010). Another important indicator of air quality are nitrogen oxides (NOx), which primarily refers to the toxic brown gas nitrogen dioxide. Due to its contribution to global warming and negative health impact, the reduction of Photos Letterhead NOx emission is deemed to be particularly crucial, thus reinforcing the urgency of lowering NOx levels in Mumbai. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1998). The increase of NOx and RSMP levels from 2005 to 2008 and the prescribed national air quality standards, indicated by Poster Poster the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (2009), are depicted in figure 4. Another approach to the assessment of | Cayenne Consulting air pollutants is the Air Quality Index (AQI), which incorporates various pollutants and measures the concentration the population of an Template Poster - Poster area is exposed to per hour, thereby indicating the risk of respiratory diseases. Estate Business Plan Consultant | Cayenne Consulting. By this measurement, air pollution exposure in slums is Poster Template approximately 16 ??gh m?? compared to less than half in more affluent areas, at 6 ??gh m. Moreover, studies of exposure burden calculated as a product of population and daily exposure revealed that the slum population, which constitutes half of the population, bears 80% of the exposure burden (Srivastava and Kumar 2001).

3.4.2 Sources of Air Pollution. The National Summary Report (2010) of the Central Pollution Control Board conducted a comprehensive study of air quality in Indian cities. Its result with regard to Mumbai will be summarized in Thank the following. According to the study, prominence of sources varies greatly depending on what pollutant is assessed. New Year Template - Poster. Road dust from You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 unpaved roads causes almost a third of » Chinese coarse particles (PM”), which are between 2.5 and 10 micrometers small. Perhaps unsurpris-ingly given that two thirds of the 40,000 factories are classified as hazardous, industry and power plants emits over 20% of PM” (World Bank 1997). Open burning of Interview Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 landfills, the most common method of waste disposal, as discussed earlier, is the third most prominent source of PM” at about eight per cent.

Regarding nitrogen oxides (NOx), industrial activities account for Poster Template » Chinese Poster - Poster, roughly half of Interview You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 all air pollution, area sources for 40% and vehicles for the remaining 10%. As a category of area sources, domestic combustion emits 13% of the Template - Poster, total, while landfill burning contributes less than a per cent. 3.4.3 Public Health Impact. The growing impact of air pollution poses a severe danger to Best Letterhead Office, the environment as well as the citizens of Poster » Chinese New Year Mumbai, already noticeable in the very high incidence of Communication Strategy Templates And Samples chronic respiratory problems (World Bank 1997). Hereby, particulate pollutants like RSPM and Poster New Year, PM” are estimated to be the deadliest form of air pollution, as their small size allows them to penetrate deep into the lungs, causing permanent mutations of genetic material, heart attacks, and Estate Business Plan Consultant, even death (US EPA 2010). A study conducted in nine European countries proves this claim by revealing that in Poster - Poster fact no level of particulate matter is safe, and Hand Easter Logotype Stock 371195519, that with increase of 10 ??g/m’ in PM” the lung cancer rate rises directly proportional by Poster Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template 22% (Raaschou-Nielsen et al. 2013). These numbers are all the more alarming when conveyed to Mumbai, where the level of air pollution is several times higher than in the most polluted European cities. As a result of the disastrous air quality, it is Hand Stock estimated that over 900.000 slum dwellers suffer from asthma, represent-ing almost 10% of the total inner city population. In addition, 220.000 cases of bronchi-tis in children, primarily in slums, were reported (Srivastava and » Chinese Poster Template - Poster, Kumar 2001). 4 A Biomimetic Approach to Slum Redevelopment.

Mumbai’s infrastructure, much like most of today’s major infrastructural systems, was designed by very limited human insight and currently fails to encapsulate the Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc, compre-hensive information provided by nature’s genius. Due to the false presumption of human-designed systems being superior, ingrained since the Industrial Revolution, the impact of this incorrect perception was not recognized as a menace to humanity until the effects of Poster New Year Template environmental pollution and Free | Smartsheet, structural deficits lead to serious socioeco-nomic crisis (Biggs at al. 2008). Mumbai’s slums are a particularly salient example of solely man-made systems’ incapability to Poster Template - Poster, deliver their intended functions in the face of today’s challenges, as described in detail in the previous chapter. As traditional methods of redevelopment have so far failed to improve the poor conditions in Mumbai’s slums, biomimetic technologies, which are inherently economically and environmentally sustainable, show great potential. Following this reasoning, biomimetic approaches which address infrastructural issues pervasive in Mumbai’s slums will be presented as potential redevelopment option below. For the purpose of this paper, the focus hereby will be on Communication water, energy and Template » Chinese New Year Template, waste management infrastructure and the active improvement of air quality by applying biomimetic technologies.

4.1 Bimimicry in Water Management Infrastructure. Appalling conditions like those in the slums of Mumbai undoubtedly necessitate innovative technologies for the sourcing and treatment of water. Many successes in this field reached this goal by looking at nature through biomimicry for inspiration, and could improve the health condition of slum dwellers while simultaneously alleviating environmental issues. Some selected biomimetic technologies which might accomplish this will be described in Office the following. 4.1.1 Biomimicry in Fresh Water Sourcing. The decreasing availability of clean water, a good essential to human and all other life, poses one of the Poster » Chinese Poster Template, most critical challenges facing 21st Century society, in which one-fifth of the world’s population is living in areas where water is in short supply (United Nations). In Mumbai, specifically, lack of drinking water supply is an especially burdensome problem, responsible for Ready-To-Use Value, thousands of deaths due to Poster » Chinese New Year, water-borne diseases and polluted drinking water, as discussed in Hand Happy Easter Logotype 371195519 chapter 3.1.2. One of the most innovative approaches to fresh water sourcing resulted from the study and emulation of the Namibian Desert beetle (Stenocara gracilipes). The beetle is found in extremely arid deserts, where less than one inch of rainfall per year is the norm. These incredibly hostile conditions require a different approach to allow sufficient hydration, which the Namibian Desert beetle has doubtlessly mastered. It does so by Poster Template » Chinese Poster Template - Poster utilizing the frequent morning fog, which is the only reliable water source in Template the desert.

The Stenocara beetle buries itself under the ground during the heat of the day in Poster order to maintain a relatively cool temperature until the night. When the damp morning breeze from the ocean arrives in the morning, it comes out of the sand and climbs to the top of a mound. It positions itself with its body angled at 45. its head facing upwind, and Interview, its hard, bumpy outer wings spread against the humid breeze. Tiny water droplets, only 15 to 20 ??m in diameter, from the Poster Template, fog condense on its wings where they stick to hydrophilic bumps, surrounded by waxy, hydrophobic, water repelling channels. The droplets flatten as they touch the hydrophilic protuberances, creating a larger surface for Free Plan Template Business Plan, other droplets to » Chinese New Year Poster, attach to Canvas Template, and preventing them from being blown away by wind. Accumulation continues until the Template New Year Template - Poster, droplet grows to Best Of Attorney - Law, roughly 5 mm in diameter; at that point the beetle tilts its back and Template New Year Poster Template - Poster, the droplets run down the hydrophobic channels and directly into Business Business its awaiting mouth. (Parker et al. 2001). Inspired by this process, engineers have developed artificial water collectors in various forms which follow the same principle. NBD Nano, a start-up company of four recent college graduates have developed a selffilling water bottle and aspire to improve drinking water availability in developing countries with their inventions (Owano 2012).

This technology could alleviate the issue of contaminated drinking water and push back water-borne diseases in slums, as Mumbai’s humid climate is likely to allow for the harvesting of the maximum amount of Poster New Year - Poster three liters per Free Communication Templates And Samples | Smartsheet, hour, the bottle is Template » Chinese New Year Poster - Poster capable of. Moreover, the same technology could potentially be integrated into buildings for Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, more efficient, large-scale application. Another approach to fresh water sourcing is the Template New Year - Poster, desalination of ocean water. As only 2.5% of all water on earth is drinkable fresh water, with reserves declining, desalina-tion technologies which remove dissolved salts from saline water are estimated to rapidly gain importance. However, current technologies are energy and cost intensive, and thus do not yet provide a real alternative to traditional water sources. Especially when compared to biological membranes, their inferiority and inefficiency becomes apparent. (Kaufman and Freger 2011). Therefore, scientists have sought to accomplish a similarly fast and selective water transport as found in cell membranes by imitating their design, with considerable success. Biomimetic membranes for water purification have proved to enable higher salt rejection and a faster water flow at Strategy And Samples | Smartsheet, significantly lower driving pressures than traditional, non-biomimetic membranes, reducing the otherwise high cost of desalina-tion. Applied on a larger scale, it is estimated that biomimetic membranes would cost up to 88% less than currently implemented methods, representing potential savings of about $ 1.5 million p.a. for a desalination plant with a capacity of 100 ML/day. These reduction of cost make this biomimetic method of fresh water sourcing especially promising for Mumbai, which must take economic aspects into Poster Poster - Poster account as well. Moreover, the millions of cubic meters of Best Photos Letterhead ocean water surrounding the coastal city of Mumbai provide the ideal conditions for desalination (Rempe 2011).

4.1.2 Biomimicry in Poster Template » Chinese - Poster Waste Water Treatment. Regarding the Free Template Plan, treatment of sewage water, another serious shortcoming in Mumbai’s slums, riparian forests along stream sides which act as natural filters by absorbing sediments and transforming excess nutrients and other pollutants. For instance, up to 90% of nitrogen and up to Poster » Chinese New Year Poster Template, 50% of phosphorus are removed (Klapproth et al. Free Business Plan Business. 2009). Australian scientists have sought to imitate the complex interaction of organic and Poster » Chinese New Year Poster, inorganic compounds responsible for the water purification in the form of a more efficient, biomimetic sewage treatment system. The result of their observations is a tank containing an | Smartsheet ecosystem of beetles, worms and microbes which transfer solid waste into humus that is Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster subsequently used to filter wastewater.

Unlike traditional sewage facilities, the Biolytix system does not necessitate aeration devices, which are normally used to pump oxygen, vital for the microorganisms which break down the pollutants in the wastewater. Real Estate Business Consulting. Therefore, by letting a natural ecosystem purify sewage water, the operating energy cost is reduced by over 90%. Moreover, Biolytix tanks only require one annual service versus three to four in traditional wastewater systems, reducing the costs and facilitating maintenance. Concerning the installation of Biolytix, initial investment is low as well, with a cost reduction of 50% in comparison to typical gravity sewerage systems (Fermanian Business and Economic Institute 2010). With regard to the suitability of Biolytix for Mumbai’s slums, it can be noted that the construction of an adequate traditional sewer system is estimated to be difficult, due to ocean water corroding metal pipes and the enormous effort and Poster Template » Chinese New Year - Poster, cost it would entail in such densely populated areas. Therefore, the fact that the Biolytix system can be installed on Real Estate Business Plan | Cayenne Consulting site and Poster » Chinese New Year Poster - Poster, function decentralized without the need for a highly complex system of pipes is an additional advantage (FBEI 2010). Altogether, it can be said that the low initial investment and running cost of the Biolytix System make it a credible biomimetic alternative to traditional methods to improve the sewage situation, alleviating environmental and public health issues. 4.2 Biomimicry in Solid Waste Management. While the adaptation of specific biomimetic technologies would presumably prove satisfactory in the fields of water and energy infrastructure redevelopment as well as air pollution control, the failed system surrounding the production and disposal of waste necessitates a complete revolution, as demonstrated by the poor conditions it caused in Mumbai’s slums. A crucial step towards a successful redevelopment of waste management is to move away from narrow, partial analysis and towards a holistic, system perspective.

A biomimetic way of achieving this is industrial ecology, which analyses non-human, natural ecosystems as models for industrial activity. Instead of viewing industrial firms and enterprises as the main destructors of the Proposition Canvas Template, environment, their potential to act as agents for environmental improvement is recognized. Industrial activity is brought out of Template » Chinese Poster Template isolation and placed in Estate Business | Cayenne the context of its surrounding, larger ecosystems. Industrial ecology, in a nutshell, endeavors to unite industry, which possesses immense techno-logical expertise, highly valuable for the environmentally informed production of goods and design of processes, and New Year, the genius of natural ecosystems to achieve resilience and sustainability (Ayres R. U. and Strategy Templates And Samples | Smartsheet, Ayres L. 2002). Benyus (2002) sees one of the primary factors which differentiates the human economy and the natural ecosystem in the fact, that in nature, the augmentation of biomass is » Chinese New Year Poster - Poster proportional to Best Of Attorney Letterhead Templates - Law, the creation of more recycling loops, in order to » Chinese Template, prevent the Free Business Business Plan, system from collapsing on itself. By contrast, anthropogenic production lines solely convert virgin raw materials to unusable waste.

As resources are limited and will be exhausted eventually, she identifies an urgent need to transform the current cradle-to-grave system to an industrial ecosystem and a zero waste economy by mimicking the way natural systems’ reuse of Template Poster - Poster all materials. In accordance with the principle of industrial ecology, Benyus (2002) advocates an approach which prefers the creation of comparatively larger amounts of ‘wanted waste’ over the production of less, but unusable waste which must be burned or landfilled. While the human economy currently operates primarily linear, nature’s diverse assembly of producers, consumers and decomposers successfully evolved to Hand Sketched Easter Logotype 371195519, create a constant cycling of matter. Therefore, the current system of producers and consumers must be supplemented with a sufficient amount of Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster composers to close the Photos Of Attorney Letterhead Templates - Law Office, cycle and » Chinese Poster - Poster, ultimately create a system where waste does not exist. What sounds rather utopian, is already fully implemented in the city of Kalundborg, Denmark, where an industrial ecosystem was developed in the 1960s. Estate Business Plan Consultant | Cayenne Consulting. Enterprises cooperate by buying and selling waste products from and to each other forming a closed cycle of industrial production. » Chinese New Year Poster. The local thermal power plant pumps its waste steam to Ready-To-Use Template, the nearby refinery and a pharmaceutical plant, where the slightly lower heat sufficiently powers their engines. Subsequently, another pipeline supplies 3,500 homes with the remaining waste steam for heating. In addition to the cycling of waste steam, the power plant provides a fish farm with its now adequately warm cooling water, while nitrogen-rich slurry, a byproduct at the pharmaceutical plant, serves as fertilizer for wheat fields (Benyus 2002). Mumbai, where 40% of Indian domestic production originates and which is frequently labeled as the commercial capital of India, is predestined to adapt a similar model.

In the slums specifically, several waste producing enterprises, such as the large chemi-cals and » Chinese New Year Template, pharmaceutical industry, thermal power plants, and basic engineering and metal producers are located in immediate proximity (Risbud 2003). Hence, ideal preconditions are given for Easter Vector 371195519, a collaboration modeled after the industrial ecosystem in Kalundborg, significantly alleviating the problems discussed in Poster Template Template chapter 3.3. 4.3 Biomimicry in Energy Infrastructure Systems. The improvement of Mumbai’s energy infrastructure has an especially high priority, as it serves as a gateway for further socioeconomic developments (Modi et al. 2006).

In order to successfully develop a sufficient energy infrastructure system, it is crucial to establish a balance between the demand and Photos Of Attorney Templates - Law, supply of energy by increasing productiv-ity and usage efficiency simultaneously. Renewable energy provides an effective and environmentally resilient mean to accomplish this. In recent years, engineers have gone even further by not only imitating nature’s idea of renewable energy, but also attempted to imitate natural structures in order to generate and consume electricity more efficiently. Some of the most promising biomimetic technologies which could significantly alleviate the problems of insufficient energy supply in Mumbai’s slums will be presented below. 4.3.1 Increasing Energy Efficiency. Before identifying methods to generate energy in accordance with nature, it is essential to identify ways to improve domestic and Poster Template, industrial energy efficiency, in Free Templates | Smartsheet order to reduce demand. One biomimetic way to accomplish this is the imitation of the design of a termite mound to create passive cooling buildings, greatly reducing the Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template, need for energy consuming air-conditioning. Termite mounds are equipped with a series of strategical-ly placed vents that produce convection currents which help maintain a temperature between 30 and 32 degrees Celsius.

This concept was integrated into buildings in hot climate around the world, as it allows significant energy savings. Thank You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5. The most famous example is the Poster Template New Year Template, Eastgate center in Harare, which is known for consuming less than a tenth of an equally sized conventional building, due to Value, natural ventilation inspired by termite mounds being its primary cooling method (cf. Holbrook et al. 2010). While the maintenance of a bearable temperature indoors might not appear to be the most pressing of » Chinese issues faced by slum dwellers at first glance, a report released by the U.S.

Agency for International Development (2006) lists fans as one of the priority uses of Communication Strategy | Smartsheet electricity in Indian slums. This is necessitated by the need for repelling mosquitoes, which transmit malaria and other dangerous diseases, in hot seasons. 4.3.2 Biomimetic Energy Generation. Concerning the improvement of energy generation and supply, the Poster » Chinese New Year Poster, U.S. Agency for International Development (2006) supports the Real Estate Business Plan Consulting, thesis that on-site distributed genera-tion in slums is more economically feasible than the expansion of traditional services would be. Renewable energy lends itself excellently to the implementation of distrib-uted power systems, as it can be easily generated modularly and decentralized, as the following examples of biomimetic technologies will demonstrate. Contrary to human civilization which predominantly generates energy from non-renewable, ‘cradle-to-grave’ resources like fossil fuels, the primary source of Template » Chinese Template energy in the natural world is sunlight.

Mumbai, with its over 2500 hours of sunshine per year, would be ideal for Hand Sketched Happy Easter Logotype, the use of solar power (Indian Metrological Department 2008). Attempts have been made to extract energy from this inexhaustible source using various methods including the Poster Poster, photovoltaic panels as well as tracking systems that follow the sun’s course, mimicking the Hand Sketched Happy Text Stock Vector, way the sunflower maximizes its energy generation (Riechers 2012). One of the nature’s most efficient means of energy production, photosynthesis, a process which involves the separation of water into hydrogen and oxygen atoms allowing for efficient harvesting and storage of solar energy, is deemed to be the most desirable to Template New Year Poster - Poster, replicate. However, despite strong efforts to recreate this process for human use, no technology has yet accomplished enough efficiency to allow large-scale application (Benyus 2002). But that might soon change, as scientists at Stanford have developed materials to help make hydrogen, a gas which has the potential of replacing fossil fuels.

The process, again copied from plants, uses sunlight to induce a chemical reaction that creates the gas, which is derived from water and materializes to pure water again when burned as a fuel. The newly developed materials are the first to split water into hydrogen and oxygen successfully, but unfortunately corrode quickly. Hand Happy Text Stock. Therefore, although it is Poster Template » Chinese New Year more efficient than anything comparable before, the Hand Sketched Easter Logotype, system will not be economical until it will be operable for at least five years (Bullis 2013). Another source of renewable energy is the Poster Template » Chinese New Year Poster, ocean, as the waves are in constant motion which can be converted to electricity. Unfortunately, all currently operational Wave Energy Converters, which cope with this task, encounter difficulties in Interview Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 stormy sea. Poster Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster. The enormous force of the water masses often damages the wave power plants, rendering their performance uneconomic. The Australian company BioPowerSystems, however, has designed innovative wave converters called bioWAVE, mounted on Value Proposition Canvas Template sea beds, which manage to overcome this problem through biomimicry.

Inspired by marine vegetation such as giant kelp, the system avoids extreme wave conditions by changing into a sheltered position horizontal to the ocean floor. Thereby potential dangers are eliminated, granting high durability for an economically and environmentally sustaina-ble method of biomimetic energy harvesting (Australian Trade Commission 2010). This biomimetic technologies, too, would be applicable in » Chinese - Poster Mumbai, which is surrounded by the Indian Ocean. In fact, the location is ideal for wave energy generation, as the problem of Communication Templates And Samples | Smartsheet storage and transportation of Poster Template » Chinese New Year electricity would be eliminated with such a large consumer right at the coast. Increasing the Best Photos Of Attorney, efficiency of Poster Template already common renewable energy technologies is another major point of interest, capable of improving living and Business Plan Template For Online Boutique, environmental conditions in Mumbai’s slums, which could be accomplished by Template Poster looking at nature as a measure, model, and mentor. An example where the application of biomimetic principles significantly increased efficiency was the development of more efficient aero-dynamic wind turbines, inspired by the fins of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The upper edge of the whale’s flipper is framed by a series of bumps that allow it to make very tight turns due to outstanding fluid dynamics compared to smooth edged flippers. Engineers have applied this concept to Ready-To-Use Canvas, wind turbines achieving more reliability when winds are light, better performance in turbulent weather and an increase in efficiency by almost half (Fish 2011). Wind energy, especially in Poster Template » Chinese New Year Template - Poster the form of improved biomimetic generators, is especially suitable for application in a distributed power system, as it can be produced by small-scale wind turbines on site. This theory was successfully put into practice in an isolated community called EL Alumbre in Peru, as described by Ferrer-Marti et al. (2010).

As the dispersed nature of El Alumbre prohibited the Photos Templates - Law, extension of the general electrical grid to supply its population, a micro electrification system served as an Poster Template New Year Poster Template excellent alternative. Sketched Logotype Stock Vector 371195519. At $US 3, the monthly tariff for each household equipped with a 100 W turbine was 60% lower than the previous expenditures for other energy source like kerosene or candles. Although the slums in Mumbai might not be isolated in terms of distance, the immense infrastructural deficits and their reasons, discussed in chapter 3.3, similarly hinder the expansion of traditional grid systems. Thus, adapting an on-site distributed generation system comparable to the one in Peru, but with the inclusion of solar and wave energy in order to meet the higher demand, would presumably solve the problem imbalance between demand and supply in Mumbai’s slums. 4.4 Biomimetic Air Quality Improvement. Although the biomimetic technologies addressing problems of Poster Template - Poster infrastructure misman-agement, presented above, would certainly entail a significant improvement of air quality, the extent of air pollution in Mumbai’s slums would presumably require active air purification. Two methods of achieving this, bioremediation which exploits micro-organisms in order to reduce environmental pollution, and its biomimetic successor, an Template For Online Boutique Plan imitation of these processes imbedded in cement, will be discussed in the following. 4.4.1 Bioremediation of Air Pollution. Bioremediation is an application of biotechnology which describes the process of exploiting biological agents to reduce the environmental burden of toxins caused by human activity. Poster Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template. Hereby, pollutants serve microorganisms, which are used primarily in bioremediation, as nutrients and energy source (Srivastava and Kumar 2011).

While this biological treatment process has found wide-scale application in solid waste and sewage water treatments for centuries, efforts devoted to the control of You Letter. air pollution are relatively new. Stringent regulations of emissions have forced industries around the world to Poster » Chinese New Year Poster - Poster, develop expensive technologies like carbon adsorption. The need for more efficient and cost-effective alternatives to these traditional methods has led to Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, the development of biochemical processes similar to those employed in solid waste and waste water treatment. Biofiltration, one of Poster Template » Chinese New Year Template those innovative technologies, relies on microbial reactions for the transformation of toxic pollutants into environmentally harmless substances (Devinny, Deshusses Webster 1998). Despite sounding good in Interview You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 theory, biofiltration would presumably be subject to Template - Poster, major constraints with regard to its application in slums.

This is due to the fact that biofilters must be installed directly in factories or plants, thus only reducing air pollution from industrial activities (Devinny, Deshusses Webster 1998). In Mumbai, however, various sources are responsible for the poor air quality, as discussed in chapter 3.4., rendering a process which only addresses industrial emissions unsuitable for sufficient air pollution reduction. 4.4.2 Biomimetic Cement for Active Air Pollution Reduction. Unlike biofiltration, the biomimetic cement does not directly employ microbes, but instead mimics their ability to store or dispose of toxic substances by Thank Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 modifying their oxidation state through catalysis. Template » Chinese New Year Template - Poster. The so called TX Active cement, developed by the Italcementi Group, contains titanium dioxide (TiO’) particles, which acts as a photo-catalyst (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009).

When exposed to sunlight, the titanium dioxide catalyzes the Photos - Law Office, transformation of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and several other pollutants into environmentally harm-less substances. These subsequently precipitate on the concrete surface and are removed by the next rain (Beeldens 2006). The photocatalytic cement offers numerous usage possibilities, including sound barriers, pavements, road surfaces, roof tiles and fa??ade elements on houses. This broad spectrum enables significant air quality improvement due to Poster Template New Year Poster - Poster, the feasibility of wide-scale application (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009). Concerning the potential for implementation in Ready-To-Use Value Canvas | Indruc Mumbai’s slums, it is interesting to note that calculations based on results from Poster Template New Year studies conducted in Italian urban areas, suggest that photocatalytic cement is most efficient in highly polluted air. Further-more, these prediction estimate that the resurfacing of only 15% of roads and Ready-To-Use Value Template | Indruc, houses in heavily polluted cities would lead to an air quality improvement of 50% (Barbesta and Schaffer 2009). Hence, TX Active appears to be a particularly promising approach to air pollution control in Mumbai, given the urban predicament. Moreover, Mumbai offers ideal conditions due to Template New Year Poster Template - Poster, currently high pollution levels and solar irradiation. An additional benefit of surfacing the Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc, roads with photocatalytic cement, especially in Poster slums, would presumably be that the air pollution from dusty, presently unpaved roads would be significantly mitigated. The objective of this thesis was the study and analysis of Interview Thank You Letter. biomimicry as a potential tool for slum redevelopment, focusing on the identification and evaluation of biomimetic designs capable of potentially alleviating issues pervasive in Mumbai’s slums. The starting point of the thesis was the premise that biomimetic technologies offer solutions to various man-made problems, which implies that some of these could be conveyed to slums.

By looking at nature as a measure, model, and mentor it was established that human innovation should follow the overarching principles found in all forms of life on earth, which emphasize the Poster Template » Chinese New Year Template, importance of maxims like the integration of development with growth and resource efficiency. Stock Vector 371195519. The necessity of acknowledging that there is no partition separating the human from the natural world was stressed, rendering the paradigm shift towards sustainability an obligation/inevitable. Template » Chinese Poster. Subse-quently, Mumbai’s slums, a particularly salient example of noncompliance with biomimetic principles, were introduced as potential area of application. Structural deficits regarding water, waste and Plan Template For Online Plan, energy infrastructure as well as poor air pollution control and their impact on public health and environment were analyzed in order to validate areas of greatest needs. From the Poster Template Poster, scientific literature research that has been carried out, suitable solutions to each of the previously identified issues were submitted and evaluated in the light of the human and physical geographical context of Mumbai’s slums. For instance, the redevelopment of waste management in accordance with the emulation of closed loops found in Hand Happy Vector natural ecosystems was proposed.

The concept, already implemented in Kalundborg, Sweden, enables the Poster Template Template - Poster, creation of a no waste system, as the waste of one industry serves as the Plan Template Boutique Business, fuel of another, assembling closed loop cycling of Poster Template » Chinese - Poster matter. This approach was deemed to be exceptionally promising for Interview, Mumbai’s slums, as a vast amount of waste-intensive industries are located in close proximity. Poster Template » Chinese Template - Poster. Furthermore, Biomimetic water collection through fog harvesting mimicking a desert beetle and desalination inspired by cell membranes were suggested as potential solutions to drinking water scarcity. Based on the results, it can be concluded that biomimicry offers a wide range of Hand Sketched Happy Text Logotype 371195519 suitable solutions to infrastructural and air pollution control issues, prevalent in Mumbai’s slums, of which some have been presented, without claiming to be exhaus-tive. Moreover, further research on New Year Poster Template biomimetic technologies conveyed to slum redevelopment would be desirable and necessary, as a particular urgency to alleviate man-made problems is evident there.

In essence, it was elucidated that biomimicry provides exceptional approaches and solutions to various modern-day problems of civilization. Placed in a wider context, the conscious emulation of nature’s genius has considerable potential to Plan For Online Boutique Plan, effect the paradigm shift towards sustainability, which has become inevitable, as the current issues in Mumbai’s slums clearly indicate. Only the acknowledgement of the fact that protection of self and protection of the planet are analogous, entailing the refrain from environmental degradation, can lead to long-term prosperity, as the hypothetical application of biomimicry in Mumbai’s slums demonstrated. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to Poster » Chinese New Year - Poster, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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computer usage essay Version Date: December 30, 1994. Abstract: This article discusses the use of computer software (from word processing to specialized applications) as an aid in analyzing literature by finding, counting, graphing, and analyzing texts available in electronic format. The personal computer is not a new tool to most undergraduate students of literature. Most students probably use word processors, together with their built-in grammar and spelling checkers, to write and edit papers.

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When searching for a theme, the student can develop a search list of related words that the author uses (or might use) when treating the theme and then search sequentially for the occurrences of each word. Template New Year Poster - Poster. The location, context, frequency, and clustering of occurrence can all play a significant role in Hand Happy Text Logotype the working out of the theme. Equipped with this information, the Poster » Chinese New Year Template - Poster, student can construct an evidence-rich argument about a thematic feature of Value Canvas interest. It is important to note that a major benefit of computer-aided analysis of this sort is » Chinese New Year that the student often discovers a much fuller set of empirical data for supporting (or rebutting) interpretive claims than would be found by looking back through the work at notes and underlinings. For initial assignments, the Free Business Boutique, professor may wish to provide some guidance and Template Template - Poster ideas to the student. Sometimes a hint will suffice: What do you make of the repeated occurrence of the word joy in Robinson Crusoe ? And what about those words closely associated with it? Here the student, who may vaguely remember one or two occurrences of the word, can look through the novel and find them all, together with their contexts, both immediate and wider. From this starting point, some good inductive thinking can proceed. To give students several ideas about the kinds of things they might look for, as well as to Happy Easter Text 371195519, supply them with topics should their own creativity fail, a longer assignment might be helpful.

Here, for example, is Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template a computer analysis homework assignment from a course in The Novel, where students were given electronic copies of The Red Badge of Courage: Red Badge of Courage Computer Homework Use your computer's search capability to locate something of Interview Thank You Letter. thematic significance in Red Badge. If some image or word or phrase seems to you to have occurred several times in » Chinese New Year Poster - Poster an interesting way, look for that and see what you find. Best Photos Of Attorney Letterhead Templates. If you are at a loss, here are some suggestions: 1. Search for a color and determine how it is used. For example, in what context does red seem to be most often used? What about yellow ? Other colors to look for in context include white, crimson, brown, light, black, dark, green, blue, orange, purple, gray . Do different colors signal different events or moods? Discuss. 2. Template New Year - Poster. Search for the words like and as to find similes. The book is filled with similes, so you will find many. Perhaps you could make a list to copy for the class. What generalizations or interpretations can you make about Crane's use of similes?

3. The army is described as a snake. Look for snake, serpent, serpentine , and analyze what you get. 4. Communication Strategy Templates And Samples | Smartsheet. Look for the use of religious words as metaphors. For example, prophet, mystic, devotee, cathedral, sacred . Are these words used in their straightforward sense, or has their meaning been transferred? Explain. Poster » Chinese Poster. 5. Look for a word that occurs repeatedly in significant passages. Some possibilities include laugh, laughter, faded, run, glory, grass, mother, fantastic, rumor, flag, spirit, outcast, fear, oath, panic, hero, hate, hatred. 6. Thank. Be creative and look for whole phrases of interest or other words you are curious about. Look for synonyms and antonyms of the term(s) you are interested in. Plan to report to the class on Poster » Chinese New Year Template, the significance of what you find. Provide some statistics (This word occurs 12 times while its opposite term occurs 5 times) together with some analysis of meaning or significance.

Write up a one-page report to pass out to the class. It is interesting to note that for Best Of Attorney, a computer analysis assignment like this, students will often search for Poster Poster Template - Poster, words or phrases that did not necessarily appear to them to be significant when they initially read the book; instead the students become curious and conjectural when the Strategy, ability to search becomes available. For the assignment above, one student looked for Poster Poster Template - Poster, the role of women in the novel, and eventually reported on the relative occurrence of words referring to men and women, having discovered that Red Badge is an overwhelmingly male-focused novel. Thus, the computer search provides a new tool for the curious and the creative, a helpful way to examine a text and to uncover the data for a deeper and better analysis. Some other examples for searches of various kinds would include these: 1. Search for a subset. Example: Study the epic similes in Milton's Paradise Lost . Hand Sketched Happy Text Stock Vector 371195519. Many begin with as when , but others begin with only as , so the researcher can find a reduced set or the full set.

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By searching for the question mark in the first four chapters of the Poster New Year, novel, we can see that Jane is the object of questions 89 percent of the time; of Of Attorney Templates all the questions asked, her questions about others amount to only one in ten. Other characters show their power over Jane by constantly demanding answers-demanding, in effect, that she explain her existence. She even questions herself a substantial amount. The number of questions each character asks could be graphed in a pie chart to » Chinese Poster Template, create a visual result. An effective way to count the number of occurrences of a feature is to use the word processor's find and Value Proposition replace mode.

While the Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template, find command in Free Strategy | Smartsheet most word processors do not count occurrences, most replace commands do. Therefore, the user can tell the word processor to find the Poster Template, word or mark of interest and replace it with itself and another mark. (See Inserting Fireworks under Specialized Searches, below.) 4. Distinguish between uppercase and Best Letterhead Office lowercase. Poster Template New Year Poster Template. Most search functions offer the Real Estate Business Plan Consulting, user the ability to Poster, choose whether or not to Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas, match case. Choosing to match case would enable a search for initial-word questions, such as Who or What . The case match will find Who but not who. 5. Search for an exact match. Example: Search for heavy weather in Richard Henry Dana's Two Years Before the Mast . Search set: storm, rain, gale, wind . At first this seems straightforward, with storm yielding 32 hits; rain , 108; gale , 75; and wind, 345 hits. But unless an exact match is specified, a search for wind will find windlass , windward , and tradewinds as well, while a search for rain will also locate strained, restraint, and drain . An exact match on rain now shows 62 hits, while wind shows 201. Searches over wider areas can now be made also, a process that would be enormously difficult to perform without the aid of the computer. Here are some examples: 1. Search for Shakespeare's use of conceive through all the plays, and Template New Year Poster Template discuss his play upon literal and intellectual conception.

2. Search selected novels of Fielding, Defoe, and Swift for thief and Best Photos Of Attorney Letterhead Templates Office thieves to see the Template New Year Template, varied focus the writers have toward those people. A fuller search set might include rob and steal as well. 3. Search all the Sherlock Holmes stories and novels to prove that the expression, Elementary, my dear Watson, appears nowhere in Doyle, even though elementary and my dear Watson do occur several times. 4. Edgar Allan Poe's fondness for phantasm has been often remarked. Search through all his works for phantasm and phantasmagoric to see how frequently and in what context he uses these words. For example, in Real Consulting his well-known article, Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences, Mark Twain alleges the following: Another stage-property that he [Cooper] pulled out of his box pretty frequently was his broken twig. He prized his broken twig above all the rest of his effects, and Poster Template » Chinese New Year worked it the Thank Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, hardest. It is Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster a restful chapter in any book of his when somebody doesn't step on a dry twig and alarm all the reds and whites for two hundred yards around. Every time a Cooper person is in peril, and absolute silence is worth four dollars a minute, he is sure to step on Free Communication Strategy Templates And Samples | Smartsheet, a dry twig. (Twain 634) To see whether Twain was accurate or exaggerating, students can search for twig or even branch or stick in Deerslayer or Last of the Mohicans and examine both the number and context of the occurrences. Once again, to help students get started, the instructor may wish to Poster Template New Year Template, provide some theories for testing. Here is an Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc, example assignment for Gulliver's Travels : Computer search for Gulliver's Travels Directions: Test one of the following theories by developing a search list of appropriate words or phrases and then by using your search program to locate them.

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For pedagogical purposes, not all the theories in Hand Sketched Text Vector an assignment should be supportable or stated in precisely accurate terms. The students should be encouraged to support, revise, or rebut the Poster » Chinese New Year Poster, theories they work with, depending on what they discover in the text. Two or more themes can be measured and plotted simultaneously to reveal the relationship, if any, between their ebbing and flowing. Does one theme rise as another falls, or do they track one another, or are they completely independent of one another? The rising and falling of theme-related words could also be traced against the perceived rising and falling of the action of a work. 1. Inserting Sectional Markers. The beginning and ending of speeches, passages of Thank description, crucial scenes, subplots, or other text portions can be marked by Poster New Year Template - Poster unusual characters (such as angle brackets: section 6) and then the words between the Hand Sketched Happy Text Logotype Stock Vector, markers can be studied-counted, searched for thematic nuances, and Poster Template » Chinese Poster so on. For example, the number of words spoken by each of several characters could be counted quickly (spelling checkers usually count words as part of their activity) and the results analyzed. Is one character dominating the conversation of the work? Are some characters indulging in Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 long speeches while others speak only in bursts?

2. Inserting Fireworks. To enable the student to locate and Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template compare the Hand Sketched Easter Text Logotype Vector 371195519, proximity of two or more words or phrases of interest, the latter can be marked prominently for subsequent location by glancing through the text. A large repetition is not needed: three or four unusual symbols in a row will stand out from the text sufficiently. For example, in the issue mentioned above about passages relating to Template » Chinese Poster Template, heavy weather in Two Years Before the Mast , the search words could be marked for easy location near each other. Here is a sample paragraph thus marked: Giving up all attempts to Letterhead Templates, collect my things together, I lay down upon the sails, expecting every moment to hear the cry of all hands ahoy, which the approaching ###storm### would soon make necessary. I shortly heard the Poster » Chinese New Year Template, $$$rain$$$-drops falling on deck, thick and fast, and Free Boutique Business Plan the watch evidently had their hands full of work, for I could hear the loud and repeated orders of the mate, the trampling of feet, the creaking of blocks, and all the accompaniments of a coming ###storm###. In a few minutes the slide of the hatch was thrown back, which let down the noise and tumult of the deck still louder, the » Chinese New Year Template, loud cry of All hands, ahoy! tumble up here and take in sail, saluted our ears, and Hand Sketched Happy Easter Logotype Stock 371195519 the hatch was quickly shut again. When I got upon deck, a new scene and a new experience was before me. Template » Chinese New Year Template - Poster. The little brig was close hauled upon the @@@[email protected]@@, and lying over, as it then seemed to me, nearly upon her beam ends. Free Business Plan Template For Online. 3. Marking Individual Features. The student can read through a text and mark certain features of interest as they occur by adding a special character (such as an @ or # or %), or by using angle brackets or braces (as in zeugma).

For example, in a long poem, mark each Alexandrine line, or each triplet, or each enjambed line with a marker and then search for these markers to » Chinese - Poster, discover patterns not otherwise visible. II. Using Grammar and Style Checkers. Students may wish to compare average sentence lengths across multiple authors or across a single author's works. For example, Dreiser's Sister Carrie averages about 12 words per sentence (partly because of the substantial amount of short dialog), while Swift's A Modest Proposal averages about 31. B. Analyzing the Particulars of Discourse. Frequency plot of fear, dread, fright, terror, feared fearful, fears, afraid, dreadful, frightened, scared alarming, alarmed, represents the Communication | Smartsheet, motif fear, which occurred 128 times. Each row represents 500 lines. While some modules of MTAS have file size limitations (mentioned below) the Word Distribution Graph function had no trouble searching for references to New Year - Poster, Miss Westen and Sophia in the 340,000-word Tom Jones (a file size of just under two megabytes), so the program should handle most novels without a problem. Another program, BE.EXE , calculates the percentage of Happy Easter Text Stock 371195519 words in Basic English, the 850-word vocabulary defined by Template » Chinese C. K. Ogden.

Readability Plus provides a display of mortar and Free Business Plan Template Boutique bricks, the relationship between the number of words in the text that match one of the Poster » Chinese New Year, most commonly used words (a list of 2450) and the number that do not match. Communication Strategy Templates And Samples | Smartsheet. Since most prose draws about 80 percent of its words from the most commonly used list, comparisons can be made to Poster » Chinese Poster Template - Poster, determine whether the text under study departs from this figure. Information provided by these programs can be used along with that from other text analysis programs to study vocabulary richness and uniqueness. The program Micro-Eyeball, while designed for use on relatively small text samples , produces a large set of Plan | Cayenne Consulting statistical descriptions useful for Template New Year Template - Poster, linguistic analysis (Ross 2). The ratio of adjectives to nouns, the average length of subordinate clauses, the relative usage of nouns to verbs, and the average length of prepositional phrases are some of the kinds of data produced. These calculations allow the student to Communication And Samples | Smartsheet, compare various texts with each other, to discover significant differences between texts. Studies of authorship or comparison of writing styles are just two possibilities. For example, a student might ask, How does the style of the eighteenth-century novel differ from Poster Poster, that of the twentieth-century novel? Or how does diction vary between early and late Shakespeare, or between two plays?

Computer tools, like other literary tools (such as concordances or even the OED), provide aids for Happy Easter Logotype Stock 371195519, student research. Coupled with some creativity, they open up new possibilities, they stimulate curiosity, and they create excitement through discovery. A student can explore a question or an idea and trace themes and connections wherever interest or insight may lead. Template New Year Poster - Poster. The search or the graph or the printout is never the end result. Instead, each one enables the student to Interview Thank, return to the text to examine, compare, and think. Several hundred novels, poems, plays, philosophical works, and Poster other prose writings, from ancient Greece through the 19th century, are readily available for scholarly research. Texts of 20th century works are more problematic because of copyright restrictions. Templates Office. Academics should consult with the » Chinese Poster, copyright holder of any modern work before making copies of it available to students for Communication And Samples, research. For works in the public domain, the most efficient and least expensive way to obtain a large number of texts is Poster Template Template - Poster with a CD ROM disc. The professor can choose one or more works from the disc and copy them onto floppy disks for distribution to students.

Several dozen novels, poems, and Interview You Letter. plays are available on Poster Template New Year Template - Poster, the disc, Desktop Bookshop , from WeMake CD's, Indianapolis, Indiana. These files are in ASCII format and can be searched by virtually any word processor or search program on Macintoshes and IBM PC's. Another source of ASCII-format texts is Template Project Gutenberg, whose 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994 collections are available on a single CD-ROM from Walnut Creek CD-ROM, 1547 Palos Verdes Mall, #260, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. The publisher intends to update the disc every six months to add the new titles issued by the Project. As of this writing, the most recent disk is November, 1994. Files are also available directly from the Project over the Internet. Andromeda Interactive (1050 Marina Village Pky. Ste. 107, Alameda, CA 94501) produces the Oxford University Press Complete Works of Shakespeare and the Classic Library.

This latter title contains 60 novels, 40 plays, 600 poems, and 144 short stories, together with a graphical interface and Template New Year Template search capability. World Library (2809 Main St., Irvine, CA 92714) has several CD-ROM products available for Windows, in its Library of the Free Business Plan Template Boutique Plan, Future series. While the Template Template, files are not stored in ASCII format, searching software accompanies the disc and individual works can be saved to ASCII files on hard or floppy disk. Mary Mallery has recently published a list of electronic text archives (292-322). Finally, scanners with optical character recognition software are now affordable for many departments, so it is possible to scan one's own texts for research and teaching. If the work you wish to use is copyrighted, be sure to check with the copyright holder before disseminating copies of the e-text to students. Sources of Specialized Software. MTAS and Strategy | Smartsheet TACT are available from The Centre for Computing in the Humanities, Robarts Library, 14th Floor, 130 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A5.

Micro-Eyeball is available from Donald Ross, English Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Readability Plus is Poster Template » Chinese New Year available from Scandanavian PC Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 3156, Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3156. Mallery, Mary. Directory of Electronic Text Centers.

Text Technology 4(1994): 292-322. Ogden, C. K. Of Attorney Templates - Law. The System of Basic English . New York: Harcourt, 1934. Ross, Donald and David Hunter. Template Poster. Micro-EYEBALL: An Interactive System for Ready-To-Use Value Proposition Template | Indruc, Producing Stylistic Descriptions and Comparisons. Template Template. Computers and the Humanities 28(1994):1-11. Smith, John B. Computer Criticism. In Rosanne G. Business Plan. Potter , Literary Computing and Literary Criticism: Theoretical and Practical Essays on Theme and Rhetoric . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989. (13-44). Twain, Mark. Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offences. In Charles Neider, ed.

The Complete Humorous Sketches and Tales of Mark Twain. New York: Doubleday, 1961. (631-642). » Chinese New Year. VirtualSalt Home. w w w . v i r t u a l s a l t . c o m About the author:

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How to Create a Family Photo Essay. The way your son wraps his little arms around your leg to hug you. The way your daughter leaves little notes for you around the house. How it feels to snuggle, dance, and play. His crooked smile. Poster » Chinese Poster Template - Poster. Her knobby knees. Eyelashes. Elbows. | Indruc. Ankles sticking out from socks. As parents, these are the little moments that we live for, the Poster » Chinese New Year Template ones that make our hearts swell, the ones that reflect the spirit of the people we hold most dear.

And yet, as photographers, these are the very moments that we tend to Happy Easter Logotype Stock, gloss over in their familiarity. We’re drawn to that moment that makes us feel something. It’s often what leads us to pursue photography in the first place. Reminding ourselves why we love this art form so much, how it connects us to the world around us and brings our experiences to life, places it into a larger context. Enter the family photo essay! The family photo essay puts your technical know-how to work in service of telling an Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster, emotional and Communication | Smartsheet, meaningful story. You see articles on family life in parenting magazines, but in them everything and everyone looks so perfect and polished. And yet, you know that real life looks nothing like that.

Your kids go to Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template - Poster, school with un-brushed hair, mismatched socks, and cream cheese on Thank You Letter. Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, their faces. Your floors need sweeping, your dishes need washing, and your laundry needs folding. And that’s ok. That’s real. New Year Poster Template. That’s true. That’s you. You don’t need to vacuum the Real Estate Consulting carpet in order to find beauty in » Chinese New Year Poster Template your everyday life. In many ways, the most important story is the perfectly imperfect one you live every day. Turning your lens toward home to create a photo essay of your family allows you to capture not only Canvas | Indruc, what you look like, but also what it feels like to be you, belonging to your family, at this moment in time. And in this way, you can literally show your loved ones just how much they mean to Template » Chinese Poster Template, you. There are three stages to creating an effective photo essay: photography, selection, and Happy Easter Text Logotype Vector 371195519, structure.

Here’s what to focus on in each stage of the process. This is the time to ignore the old saw about Poster Template “picture takers” and “picture makers” and give yourself permission to shoot A LOT. Yes, be intentional, be careful, be thoughtful. But also let yourself experiment. Let yourself play. Take a different angle than you do in Hand Sketched Happy Easter Text Logotype Stock your other styles of work. Create a diverse body of work from which to draw: close ups, details, wide angle. The more variety in Poster Poster - Poster your images, the Proposition Canvas Template more complete your story will be. Life moves quickly.

Life is messy. Poster » Chinese New Year Poster Template. Kids don’t sit still. It’s ok to let go of the pressure to Ready-To-Use Value Canvas | Indruc, create the “perfect” shot in the service of capturing real life. What to look for: “Photographers deal in things which are continually vanishing and when they have vanished there is no contrivance on earth which can make them come back again. We cannot develop and print a memory.” As you move through your day with your family, pay close attention to Poster Template » Chinese Template, your rituals and routines, the things you do every day with each other. Take a step back from habit and mine these moments for your story. Value Proposition Canvas Template | Indruc. When people are actively engaged in Poster Template Poster Template - Poster something that matters to them their essence shines through. The messes, the tears, the comforts and Free Plan Business, the strugglesthese are the Poster Poster - Poster things that make our real lives so beautiful. These are the moments that matter.

These are the moments that we look back on and wonder, “Where did the time go?”. Let yourself slow down. Pay attention. When the moment arises, keep shooting all the way through it. Interview Thank You Letter.. Your attention is an act of love, and as you let the Poster Template » Chinese Poster - Poster love well up inside you, you’ll find that the moment becomes clear. Shape is often the thing that helps bring the moment into Interview Thank Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, focus in a beautiful way. Poster Template Poster. Often, when discussing photography the discussion centers around the Best Of Attorney Letterhead Templates - Law Office general term “composition”, but when I think about it as “shape,” it helps me really see what I’m looking for.

That moment when her head tilts ever so slightly. The moment when he jumps in Poster » Chinese New Year Poster - Poster the air and Real Business Consultant | Cayenne Consulting, his feet lift off the ground. Shape and moment are almost inextricably intertwined. Shape is what gives the Poster Template - Poster moment form, interest, impact. As you look through the viewfinder, look for shapes between people, shapes between kids and their environment, the shape of their body as they lay on Free Business Template For Online Boutique Business, the floor reading. Diagonals, s-curves, c-curves, trianglesshape is what gives an image it’s life. “There’s a lot of » Chinese New Year - Poster, beauty in ordinary things. Isn’t that kinda the point?” Pam, from the final episode of The Office. One of the struggles of documentary photography is Sketched Easter Text Stock, how to get your subject to stand out from all the Poster » Chinese Template other stuff around you. Remember that the camera is only a tool; it can only see what you tell it to see.

As you compose your image, look for simplicity and harmony between subject and environment. Can you frame your images in such a way that the Ready-To-Use Proposition Canvas background and surroundings add to the story you’re telling? Don’t be afraid to move your feet. Notice how the environment also impacts the meaning of your image. New Year Poster Template. Your home, even on its messiest days, holds so much love. The way your kids interact with their surroundings says so much about Free Templates And Samples who they are as people (not to mention gives you a reminder of just how big, or small, they are at this moment in time). As the Poster Poster Template photographer, you get to choose what to focus on. You get to show us what’s important to Estate Plan | Cayenne, you. You get to show us how you see the world, your unique view on your unique life.

NOTE: For those of you whose kids are old enough, I highly recommend getting them involved in this project. Get them access to a camera and let them show you what they see. And that way, images of you will be included in the essay as well. After you finish gathering your images, sift through them and see what stands out to you. What do you notice? Are there moments that feel like they “sing”? Moments, themes, or attitudes that recur throughout your collection? You’ll begin to see what matters, what you value.

Look for patterns and Poster New Year Poster - Poster, through lines in Best Templates your images. Look for moments that take your breath away or that “just feel right.” The images to include in your essay are the Poster Template » Chinese Template images that tell a story, reveal a truth, capture an essence, or evoke an emotion. Who is this person? What is their essence? What matters to them? For each image you select ask yourself why it’s important. What story does it tell?

And then ask again, why is that story important? You may also enjoy writing these stories down and adding them to Of Attorney Letterhead - Law Office, your final product. Phase three deciding on structure. Once you’ve created and selected your images, it’s time to give them structure. There are several ways to Template » Chinese Template, go about this depending on the story you’re trying to tell:

A day in Real Plan Consultant the life The same event over time A theme that emerged that represents what matters to you A focus on each member of your family and the things that make them special. How you choose to structure your images may change from project to project, but the most important thing is to make a tangible copy. Poster New Year Template. Print it, bind it, collage it, but make it a living document you share with your family and not just something that sits on your hard drive. A family photo essay will grow to be a cherished part of Free Business, your family’s legacy, giving your children a sense of belonging. Your story does indeed matter. It’s time to reclaim the Template » Chinese Template - Poster art of the family snapshot. Please share any other tips or comments you have below, as well as your family photo essay images. Have you done a project like this? Tell us about Easter Text Logotype it.

Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Miki DeVivo is a lifestyle photographer, family story chronicler, and creator of The Book of Love. She is passionate about collecting and tending stories, capturing moments of everyday tenderness and Poster Template » Chinese Template - Poster, beauty, and Sketched Happy Text Stock, reflecting back to » Chinese New Year, people the Ready-To-Use Value very best parts of themselves. When not behind the camera, she plays nerdy board games, reads everything she can get her hands on, and knits soft things. She lives in Phoenix with her two kiddos and her hubby.

Connect with her at Miki, on Template New Year Poster - Poster, Pinterest, and on Instagram. Love this! Thanks for sharing. Fabulous. I love the emphasis on Being Real as opposed to matching shirts and forced smiles. #128578; Thanks Colleen. Glad it resonated with you =) Thank you Karen.

That is my very favorite part as well =). There is Ready-To-Use Value Canvas, something so beautiful that happens when we can be real with each other. I adore this. Such great info! Thanks Illana. So glad it was helpful =) Hallelujah for photography tips for Real People! I know I love my family, but too many other discussions of photographing children in the Right Way, with Just Enough Contrived Whimsy leave me feeling as if I can’t possibly capture that affection with the camera. This piece gives me hope that my grandkids will be able to » Chinese - Poster, see how much I enjoyed raising their parents. #128578;

Would love a followup post on Value Proposition Canvas, how to shoot a family essay when you’re the photographer. » Chinese New Year. I love the ideas here, but am tired of my family looking like I’m not part of it because I’m always behind the camera! Love Turban Dad! It’s like a focused version of Sketched Happy Easter Logotype Stock, a family snapshot album. Great suggestions on how to weave them together to create a flow. Oh I so know what you mean.

And yes, it is Template New Year Template - Poster, so important that you are a part of it as well. Ready-To-Use Proposition Template. If you’re kids are old enough, or another family member is Template » Chinese, interested, try handing over the camera (or buying some disposable ones if the kiddos are still on the younger side). I’m always fascinated by what other people see when looking at the exact same scene. Another thought would be to set your camera on a tripod and set the Thank You Letter. timer and then jump in and join the play. It might yield some fun results. Let me know what you try.

I’d love to hear about it. Poster Template » Chinese. And I’ll mull it over more as well. Oh Mariko, isn’t he the best! I really love this type of photography because it allows for so much room to play. I think the word “snapshot” has gotten a bit of Photos Of Attorney Letterhead Office, a bad rap these days, but I know that when we were kids this was how our lives were documented. Poster Template Poster - Poster. Not always perfect, but so special to have. Thank you so much. Learning fundamentals is Hand Sketched Easter Text Stock 371195519, a great place to start, and as a mom, sometimes even the blurry ones are more meaningful to me than a shot that I’ve “nailed”. It’s those real moments that I’m going to want to relive one day. Poster Poster Template. And yay for Real People!

Indeed, glad you enjoyed this one! This is wonderful, wonderful, wonderful. Thank you, thank you =). Glad you enjoyed it! If you want to delve deeper into photographing family, check out this publication Glad you’ve shared this tips. Estate Consultant | Cayenne Consulting. Applause! applause! applause!

FYI when I try to link to this on FB i get a “page not found” preview. Hi Ingrid. Thanks for wanting to Poster New Year Template, share it. I had the Thank Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5 same issue when I tried to cut and paste the link into FB. Poster Template New Year Poster Template - Poster. But when I used the share buttons here or dPS it was able to work. Hope that helps. And maybe Darelene can let the tech ninjas know? Thanks yes we know about this issue.

Try using the share buttons on the side of the site instead of pasting the article link directly. If that doesn’t work either you can just “delete thumbnail” from Plan Template For Online Business Plan Facebook as the link does work it’s just saying it doesn’t for some odd reason and we’re working on it. I started one with my husband and » Chinese New Year Template - Poster, our granddaughters- catching them at tender moments, showing his softer side even though he looks like a big, bad biker! LOL I try to get pictures at different stages in their lives and will put them in a book either for Business Boutique Business Plan, high school graduation or wedding haven’t decided yet (the oldest is only 3!) Here are 5 of them. What a sweat pea. These will be a treasure when ever you decide to give them to her.

I particularly like the last one with the light on his face and her in Template Poster Template silhouette. So glad that they were helpful to Estate Consultant, you. Thank you, thank you =) Thanks very much (from a relatively new grandparent). I sometimes hand the camera over to Poster Template » Chinese Template, a family member so they can take a few photographs with me in it. This is Strategy Templates And Samples, great Miki! Thanks to you, I’ve recently been snapping photos of » Chinese Template, my family when they are busy doing other things, and Communication Templates And Samples | Smartsheet, noticed how evocative these turn out Poster Template New Year Template - Poster, (even if they are a little out of focus or underexposed). Easter Text Logotype Stock. When I look at the posed shots versus the snaps of my daughter’s recent 21st celebrations, it’s the snaps, the unposed, that tug at Poster Template » Chinese New Year Poster, my heart. The one where my son caught me in the act and poked his tongue out. The one where the girls were in fits of laughter. And the Real | Cayenne Consulting one where I caught my son looking at his fiance, so tender… My heartfelt thanks for all your tips. x.

Miki! So nice to see you here. What a beautiful article. To me, it is all about “receiving” those imperfectly perfect moments. (Kim from Abby Tami’s class). Congratulations on your recent grandparent-hood. How exciting!

And yes, handing over Template New Year Poster Template the camera is a great idea. It’s always fascinating to see what others see in the same situation. And also important for you to Interview Nurse-Interview-Thank-You-Letter-5, be a part of the family’s visual document. Mmmm. How lovely to be able to experience your family in this way. I am so very glad to know that it is helping you to - Poster, see the Business Plan essence of your family. What a beautiful way to capture and Poster, honor the milestone. Thank you.

Hi Kim! Nice to Communication And Samples, see you here as well =). You are so right, it is a gift, for both us and our families, to be able to see and be seen in this way. We all want to be seen and New Year Poster - Poster, loved for who we are. Love this idea. Estate Business Plan Consultant Consulting. More recently my family photographs are more portrait type or days out, but capturing everyday is really appealing and something you could keep repeating. Yes! The on-going nature of a project like this is something that I really love. Template » Chinese New Year Poster Template. I imagine the photo albums of my childhood being recreated for this generation.

this is really good well done i’m doing one for my english assignment so yep i’ll use some of Business Plan Template For Online Boutique Business Plan, your shot angles well done #128578; Brilliant article and fantastic idea. Cheers. Thanks Scott. Hope it inspires some fun and meaningful projects. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips.

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