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Proposals to construct large dams have inspired considerable contention in How To Letter the last few decades as political mobilization of nearby residents who will be displaced by the reservoirs they create and of environmentalists concerned with the consequences of large dams for Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse, the river basin and nearby forests, wildlife habitat, or farmland have led to demands for greater public information and participation in project definition and design and greater transparency and Write An Invitation Letter | Chronological accountability in construction, operation, and maintenance. Most dam projects proceed within a single country, meaning that stakeholders have to secure their influence within the national political system using whatever processes for citizen mobilization and input that system allows. Yet, some dam projects have transnational dimensions, either because the project itself involves more than one country or because the government hoping to build the dams needs loans from outside. These transnational aspects sometimes allow stakeholders unable to gain much influence in the national political processes to Spreadsheet Example Inventory Excel Free Warehouse find outside supporters who pressure the government into listening to the previously ignored. This case study looks at Free Creative Designer Psd one of the more famous instances of transnational involvement in Spreadsheet Example Inventory Free Warehouse stakeholder struggles over large dams, the long-running contention over dam construction on the Narmada Rover in India. Most of the controversy has addressed the - Oak size and construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam at Navagam in Gujarat, but the Narmada Project also includes several large dams at Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse various points in Madhya Pradesh as well as medium and small-size dams on the Narmada’s tributaries in Memorial Psd Flyer Template Cover Madhya Pradesh and This case was created by the International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (IDEESE) Project at : Warehouse Excel Warehouse the University of Massachusetts Amherst with support from the National Science Foundation under grant number 0734887. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in Free Psd : Graphic Template Psd By Psd this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
More information about the IDEESE and copies of its modules can be found at http://www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. This case should be cited as: M.J. Peterson. 2010. Example Inventory Excel Free? “Narmada Dams Controversy.” International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. Available www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. © 2010 IDEESE Project. Maharashtra. Though proposals to Instructional build large dams on the Narmada inspired political controversy from the day the first proposals were made in 1947-48, only in Spreadsheet Example Inventory Free the mid-1980s did the controversy take on the transnational aspects for which it is now famous as critics took up the cause of those who would be displaced as the reservoirs created by the dams filled up and raised environmental concerns about the project. Contentions over Write An Invitation To Embassy, the planning or construction of large dams in developing countries provide some of the best documented examples of local stakeholders.
using transnational connections to secure greater influence in the domestic decision-making and implementing processes. Dam projects in developing countries create a number of opportunities for stakeholder efforts to gain influence at Example Inventory Excel Free home by building transnational connections. No government finances a large dam project from current tax collections; these are large physical capital investments with costs beyond the ability of Option4. How To Do A Online For Free Resume Template governments to finance from current taxes given all the other demands on : Warehouse Excel Warehouse, the budget. The governments of industrial countries can easily borrow the Memorial Psd Flyer Template + Facebook » Free money they need for construction from private investors, but the governments of Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse developing countries often find that difficult. The World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) (sometimes also called international financial institutions or IFIs) were established to help developing countries secure loans by acting as an intermediary. The MDBs are owned by the governments of member states, which pay in Free Psd : Graphic Template Psd a certain amount of money (their “quota”) based on their current level of economic prosperity, meaning that the industrial state members pay in more money and hence own more shares – and have more votes on the board – than the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Free developing country members. The MDB uses the paid-in capital as the reserve against which it borrows money on private investment markets that it then re-lends to the developing country members. Because of the industrial state backing and borrower promises to give the MDB priority in loan repayment, private investors are more willing to Free Creative Designer Resume Template buy bonds issued by Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free Warehouse the MDB than bonds issued by an individual developing country. This allows the MDB to charge borrowing countries lower interest rates than they would be able to 2016 Monthly Printable Page,monthly secure on their own.
The World Bank, the Spreadsheet Free largest and most prominent of the MDBs, initially operated only in Internship Program - Ppt Download this fashion. By the late 1950s, however, both development economists and member governments realized that this design was insufficient because the poorest of the developing countries could not afford the interest rates. In response to proposals that the United Nations General Assembly establish a large Capital Development Fund financed through UN budget assessments on member states, the World Bank expanded its lending through establishment of the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse International Development Association (IDA) in 1960. Otmc Internship Program Download? IDA would not sell bonds to private investors; rather, its industrial country members would provide money for re-lending to the developing members on terms significantly less costly than prevailed in private bond markets by charging. approximately 0.5% interest on 30- to : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free 45-year loans rather than a more standard private market rate of 67% and 25-year loans. Like other lenders, MDBs impose certain conditions on borrowers regarding how they use the money. Each MDB has policy guidelines their staffs follow in identifying and selecting projects, recommending that the Instructional Form - Oak MDB make a loan, and monitoring use and repayment of the loan. As long as the MDB can operate with its existing capital and Example Inventory Excel the income it derives from Letter | Chronological loan payments, it is somewhat removed from the domestic politics of member states. When, however, an MDB needs a new infusion of Spreadsheet Inventory money, either to How To Write To Embassy | Chronological increase the reserve or to sustain a loan program financed by Free Warehouse grants of money from the industrial country members, the question of financing can get caught up in the domestic politics of the member states providing the money.
This happened to the World Bank, which until 1993 was a major source of the loans supporting construction of the large dams on the Narmada River, because of the need for periodic replenishment of IDA funds. In the mid-1980s a broad coalition of activists in the Western industrial countries supporting poor and marginalized groups in developing countries (such as urban slum dwellers, landless and other poor rural groups, indigenous peoples, disadvantaged ethnic or religious minorities) began a transnational Multilateral Development Banks Campaign intended to pressure the MDBs, particularly the An Invitation Letter To Embassy World Bank, into adopting policies that would require paying greater attention to mitigating the negative socioeconomic and environmental impacts of projects being funded with MDB loans. : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free? By the late 1980s, they had found political allies in the industrial countries where the Memorial Template » Free legislature had to approve contributions to Spreadsheet Example Inventory Excel the IDA replenishments. These connections were particularly strong in the USA, where the separation of power between the President and Congress allows congressional majorities to adopt policies even over presidential opposition, and the political culture was particularly open to private lobbying on behalf of causes as well as for direct material benefits. This.
influence was institutionalized in Day Weekend Psd Flyer Template » Free the International Development and Finance Act of 1989, which included provisions requiring that: a) the US Treasury use US votes and influence in the MDBs to promote adoption of public access to the pre-lending environmental impact assessments developed by each in Spreadsheet Excel Free the process of considering loans, and Reimbursement Form - Oak b) the Spreadsheet Example Free Warehouse US Director to abstain from voting on a proposed loan if the environmental impact assessment relating to Designer Psd the project for which the loan is sought has not been released to the public at least 120 days before the date of the vote.1 The US government also became the source of much current information the : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free activists could not get from the World Bank itself because activists learned how to Psd : Template Psd By Psd use the US Freedom of Information Act to secure it from the US Treasury Department, which houses the office of the US-appointed member of the World Bank executive board. Campaigners developed a two-part approach: using their connections first to pressure the World Bank and other MDBs into adopting stronger social and environmental policies, and then to ensure that the MDBs required borrowing governments to conform to them. Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse? Simultaneously, MDB Campaign activists worked to Graphic Resume develop a more balanced transnational network by Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse making connections with and providing support to citizen groups in developing countries active in social and environmental causes, an evolution also encouraged as members of the World Bank reacted against pressure from Western-based NGOs and coalitions by requiring that complaints addressed to Psd : Creative Resume Psd By the Inspection Panel established in Spreadsheet Example Inventory Free Warehouse 1994 be made by Do A Resume Do My affected people within the territory of the borrowing country.2 The Narmada River. The Narmada River, the fifth longest in Spreadsheet Example Inventory Free India, begins its 1312 km (813 mile) flow to the sea near the village of Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh state. Option4. Do A Resume Resume Do My? It flows through a relatively narrow basin defined on the north side by the Vindhaya Hills and on Example : Warehouse Excel Warehouse, the south side by the Satpura Hills westward through Madhya Pradesh to a point where it becomes part of the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Free Resume Template Psd? 35 km later it becomes part of the boundary between Maharashtra and Gujarat, and 39 km after that enters Gujarat for the last segment of its run to the Gulf of Khambat, which connects to the Arabian Sea. Its origin point is Example Inventory Warehouse, 1Title. V, International Development and Finance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-240).
Text available at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgibin/query/D?c101:6:./temp/ c101PKqVuC: (accessed 12 Aug. 2010). The act followed a fine line: the provision for abstaining rather than voting against Template Cover, was meant as a signal to improve policy; it also avoided debates over whether member governments may tell MDB Directors how to vote on individual loans, an Example : Warehouse Inventory Free, issue discussed in Bertram S. Brown 1992. The United States and the Politicization of the World Bank: Issues of International Law and How To Letter To Embassy | Chronological Policy (London and New York: K. Paul International), p. 236. David A. Wirth. 1998. “Partnership Advocacy in World Bank environmental reform,” in Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press) p. 68. 1051 meters (3447 feet) above sea level. Just west of Jabalpur it enters a deep channel faced by natural marble rocks 30 meters high on both sides, and then drops over Spreadsheet Example Excel Free Warehouse, the Dhaundhar Falls. The river then descends slowly until it reaches the narrow gorge bound by Reimbursement high rocks lying along the state borders and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Free extending into eastern Gujurat. 2016 Monthly Printable Page,monthly? After leaving this gorge, the waters flow across flat plains to the sea.
Along the way the Narmada is augmented by Spreadsheet Inventory Excel Free Warehouse waters from 41 tributaries – 22 on its southern side and 19 on its northern side. Psd : Graphic Resume Psd? Together the Narmada and Example : Warehouse Inventory Free its tributaries drain 98,796 sq km (37, 542 sq miles) of land. Like all of the other rivers in India the Narmada is an attractive resource for Option4. How To Online For Free, a country facing serious challenges in maintaining year-round water supply. Most of India lies in a monsoon climate zone where rains fall in concentrated periods. Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse? In some areas, half the annual rainfall occurs in less than 20 hours; rain is a bit more spread out in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, but is still concentrated in Internship - Ppt four months of the Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse year: Average rainfall in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (mm) Average Rainfall in Jabalpur, Madhya Predesh (mm) During the monsoon rains, India’s inhabitants must cope with deluges and heavy runoffs; during the rest of the year they draw their water from surface waters like lakes and rivers, from storage tanks, or from groundwater sources augmented by water traps that feed monsoon rains underground. This alternation between flood control and water storage means India has long traditions of constructing waterworks of all types. The contemporary large dams, capable of holding water sufficient to irrigate more than 10,000 hectares of land, are a modern elaboration of Free Resume this tradition.
Contemporary dams can also provide hydroelectric power generation by fitting water channels constructed into the dam and at the heads of any irrigation canals with turbines generating electricity as water flows through. This increases the potential benefits and adds electricity providers and electricity users to the set of stakeholders. 1947-1979: Determining the Features of the Project. Between the Inventory first suggestions for dams on the Narmada made in 1947-48 and the Award of the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal in 1979, disputes about what to construct where, were arguments among three, and later four, state governments within India. Day Weekend Psd Flyer Template Cover? The governments of Example : Warehouse Excel Warehouse Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashta, later joined by the government of Rajasthan, argued about How To Write Letter | Chronological, which. state could build what size dam where, how the : Warehouse Free Warehouse waters made available for irrigation would be divided among them, and what share of Option4. Resume Template Do My electricity generated by hydroelectric power plants built in conjunction with the dams would flow to each. Though the populations and economic situations of the states along the Narmada have changed over Spreadsheet, the decades, their primary concerns about the locations and Decembar Monthly Printable sizes of dams and waterworks on the Narmada have remained constant: primary: secure irrigation and drinking water to compensate for Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse, low rainfall secondary: hydroelectric supply. primary: limit amount of water others are allowed to take. secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. primary: secure hydroelectricity for its energy-short industrial districts secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. secure irrigation waters for its dry southwestern districts.
Disputes between the states have been so protracted because of Memorial Day Weekend Template + Facebook competing ideas about the height of the dam to be built at Navagam. Gujarat favored a. higher dam to maximize water supply, but it would flood out Spreadsheet Example Inventory, a much larger area, extending further into Madhya Pradesh and Maharastha, than the lower dam preferred by the latter two states. When it became involved later, Rajasthan also preferred building a higher dam because that was the only way it would get any Narmada water. The Constitution of India defines construction and maintenance of water development projects as a matter within the authority of the 2016 Monthly Calendar Printable Page,monthly state governments. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory? It also provides that the central government can step in to help resolve disputes regarding projects that would affect the flow of a river crossing state boundaries.3 That was the basis for the central government’s involvement in the lengthy dispute among Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Its first intervention was creation of the Free Resume Psd By Psd Narmada Water Resources Development Committee, a committee of eminent hydrological engineers chaired by : Warehouse Free Warehouse Dr. A. N. Otmc Internship Program? Khosla.
Khosla, then governor of Orissa state and a renowned dam engineer who had been trained at India’s leading engineering school, the University of Roorkee. He and the other engineers on the committee were instructed to help the three states resolve their disputes by developing a master plan for Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse, optimum development.4 They were particularly asked to examine the siting and height of the proposed dam at Navagam in relation to alternative projects, mainly hydroelectric dams, that Madhya Pradesh wanted to Option4. Do A Online Resume build because their feasibility depended on the extent of the reservoir created behind any dam at Navagam. The committee ultimately recommended in favor of the relatively high dam preferred by Gujarat, in part because it would allow extending irrigation systems into the dryer districts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, areas then prominent in politicians’ and officials’ minds because Pakistani troops had intruded into India during April 1965 through one of the dryer parts of Gujarat. Though the Khosla Committee’s report was ultimately rejected, it shaped later discussion by considering the Narmada and : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse its tributaries as one system and arguing for a “national approach” to water resources that would justify extending irrigation canals to areas outside the Narmada basin. Constitution of India, Seventh Schedule, II:7 and I: 56, and Article 262. Government of India, Ministry of Decembar 2016 Monthly Calendar Full Irrigation and Power. 1965. Report of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee (A.N.
Khosla, chair). Cuttack: Orissa Government Press. A combination of failure to resolve the dispute by direct discussions among the state governments involved and serious drought in western India caused by failure of the monsoons in 1965-66 and 1968-1969 led Gujarat, where the drought was particularly severe, to ask for central government involvement. It formally invoked the Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse Inter-State Water Disputes Act 1956 and asked the central government to form a water disputes tribunal to settle the contentions over Narmada projects. Instructional - Oak? The Act specifies that water disputes tribunals are special three-member panels, consisting of a current member of the Supreme Court and two other Supreme Court of High Court judges, whose awards are final when the states involved accept them.5 The Narmada tribunal was announced in Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse May 1969; its members – Supreme Court Justice V. Ramaswami (holder of a master’s degree in chemistry as well as a law degree), Allahabad High Court Justice G.C. Mathur and Option4. Resume For Free Template retired chief justice of Kerala V.P. Gopalan – were aided by a staff of 50 technical advisers and civil servants. The need to address various procedural challenges, mostly from Madhya Pradesh, meant it did not start considering the substantive issues until February 1972. After another delay inspired by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s efforts to mediate the dispute, the : Warehouse Warehouse Tribunal resumed work in August 1974. Between 1974 and December 1979 when it issued its report, the Tribunal held no public hearings or other consultations with any stakeholders (including politicians from the disputing states); such procedures were not the Internship - Ppt Download norm in India at the time and no one raised the issue. Rather, it operated like court, with the states presenting their arguments through lawyers, examination and cross-examination of expert witnesses, and visits to Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse various sites along the Narmada in the company of their technical experts.
The Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal Award (NWDT Award) set out a. plan for construction of 30 major dams, 125 medium dams, and 3000 small dams at various locations on the Narmada or its 41 tributary rivers plus a 532 km (329 mile) canal from the reservoir that would be created by the dam at Otmc Program - Ppt Navagam through Gujarat and into Rajasthan. It accepted construction of a high large dam at Spreadsheet Excel Free Warehouse Navargam, as Gujarat proposed, but determined that it should be 455 feet (138.7 meters) high rather than the 530 feet (162 meters) urged by Gujarat. Other terms of the Tribunal’s Award reflected efforts to balance benefits and costs among the four participating states. Of the 28 million acre feet (maf) of Cover available water flow estimated to be created by the dam construction, Madhya Pradesh would receive 18.25 maf (65.2%); Gujarat, 9 maf (32.2%); Rajasthan, 0.5 maf (1.7%); and Maharashtra, 0.25 maf (0.9%). Example : Warehouse Free? The estimated hydroelectric production would be divided on the formula of 57% to Madhya Pradesh, 27% to Maharashtra, and 16% to Gujarat.
Though on hydrological calculations four fifths of the Narmada’s flow is within Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat was allocated a somewhat larger than proportional share of water on grounds that it needed water much more than Madhya Pradesh or Maharasthra because they can also draw on other rivers whereas Gujarat only had the Narmada. Psd Flyer Cover » Free? Rajasthan, though not along the river, was allocated water on the basis of great need; everyone in India acknowledged that it receives very little rain. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were given larger shares of electricity than their current populations might suggest to Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse make up for Online For Free Resume, the fact that the height of the dam at Navargam would prevent them from building their proposed Jalsindhi hydroelectric dam because the area would be flooded by the reservoir created by the Navagam dam.6. Inter State Water Disputes Act 1956, Section 6 (Publication of Decision of Tribunal) subsection 1 (subsection 2 incorporates the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse 2002 amendment). Text available at http://mowr.gov.in/index3.asp?sslid=385subsublinkid=377langid=1 (accessed 11 August 2010).
6Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal. 1979. Report of the Free Graphic Resume Narmada Water Disputes. Tribunal with its Decision. 5 vols. New Delhi: Controller of Publications. The shorter terms of the Award, dated 7 December 1979, and published in the Official Gazette on 12 December 1979 are available at http://nca.gov.in/forms_pdf/nwdt_finalorder.pdf (accessed 29 July 2010) and reproduced in Appendix 2. To address the uncertainties involved in allocating shares of water, the tribunal included a provision that the water apportionment would be subject to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory review in Memorial Day Weekend Template + Facebook Cover » Free 2025. This would be 45 years after 1980—a baseline picked because the tribunal expected that construction of the 3 largest dams of Madhya Pradesh’s portion of the Narmada Project (Indira Sagar, a combined irrigation and hydroelectric dam 319 km or 198 miles upstream from Navagam; Omkareshwar, with a smaller irrigation reservoir plus hydroelectric capacity; and Maheswar, a hydroelectric flow-through dam) to begin before the end of that year. The review would permit addressing any changes in river flow caused by the climate or the hydrology of the basin and in user needs stemming from Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse demographic changes in the four states. Option4. Do A Resume For Free Resume Template Do My? The 45 years would also provide time to assess the performance of the whole interconnected system of dams and canals and take that into account as well.
Detailed design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Narmada River system would be undertaken by the state governments, each on its own stretch of the river. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh established public corporations for this purpose: Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) in Gujarat and the Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) in Madhya Pradesh. The fact the river flows between states provided the legal basis for Spreadsheet Inventory Excel, the tribunal’s decision to set up the Monthly Full Page,monthly Narmada Control Authority, employing both government of India and Excel Free state engineers and civil servants to coordinate and monitor finance, construction, and resettlement of people whose homes would be flooded by the reservoirs (“oustees”). The central government also had some control over the details of the projects through the Central Water and Power Commission, the Planning Commission, and the. Ministry of Environment and Forests, each of which had authority to grant or withhold clearance for proceeding with various aspects of Instructional Reimbursement - Oak project construction. The NWDT Award did not end all the Excel Warehouse argument – Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh continued to disagree about the Day Weekend + Facebook height of the dam to be built at Navagam, now named the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and Excel Warehouse hence the size of the reservoir to be created. However, those arguments were soon overshadowed by controversies over treatment of the Write An Invitation oustees and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Free environmental impacts of the whole Narmada River project.
1980-2000 Resettlement and Option4. How To For Free Resume Rehabilitation. The environmental issues were fought out under the Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Warehouse terms of the Forest Conservation Act 1980, which gave the central government’s Department of Free Psd Environment (later the Ministry of Environment and Forests) uthority to require environmental impact assessment of development projects and withhold clearance to begin construction until the terms of the Forest Conservation Act were satisfied. The Department used its authority to order both Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to do four things before they could begin their respective dam projects on the Narmada: 1) prepare alternate forest sites to compensate for forests that would be submerged behind the Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse dams, 2) improve the terms of resettlement aid offered to people who would be displaced from Internship Download their homes, 3) create wildlife sanctuaries, and 4) prepare both the catchment and command areas of each dam for that dam’s environmental effects.7 In 1983, when Gujarat submitted the Sardar Sarovar Dam plans and Madhya Pradesh submitted the Narmada Sagar Dam plans the ministry decided that neither state had met the requirements and refused to give clearance. The ministry did not budge until 1987, after several years of drought in Gujarat had created extremely strong pressure to let construction of Sardar Sarovar begin. By then, however, private nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 7 The catchment area is Example Free, all the land where rainfall and other surface waters are drained by a river or stream; the command area is all the land irrigated by waters from reservoir, tank, or canal. working with and advocating for the rural poor were well organized. They immediately recognized that the central government’s concern about environment and displacement would give them leverage to confront the state governments.
The state governments were perceived, with good reason, as more concerned to get the projects built than with what happened to the oustees, many of who were poor and illiterate adivasi (members of Scheduled Tribes still living by An Invitation To Embassy | Chronological their traditional culture). While the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel environmental issues were fought out within the Template + Facebook terms of India’s environmental legislation and permitting processes, issues relating to “rehabilitation and resettlement” of oustees were fought out on terms deriving from the NWDT Award. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse? It made a significant break with previous Indian state and national government policy towards resettlement. Reimbursement? Prior to the NWDT Award, the central and state governments followed rules first established in the Land Acquisition Act 1894 (adopted during British rule) that the people who lose their homes in the course of dam construction are to be given cash compensation. In fact, oustees were often simply expelled and many of : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse those who received a payment ended up becoming landless rural laborers or urban slum dwellers because they were illiterate or unsophisticated; many were fleeced in How To An Invitation Letter phony land deals and other spent the money foolishly. Though Indian public opinion was not yet mobilized on the issue of how oustees were treated in 1974-79 when the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was pursuing its inquiries and preparing its findings, its three members were aware of earlier problems. They acknowledged that oustees would bear a heavy burden for Spreadsheet Inventory Free, the project and deserved decent recompense. The NWDT Award sought to avert earlier problems by stipulating explicitly that compensation should be “land for Otmc Program Download, land” rather than money: each displaced family is to receive land of its choice within the command area of the dam displacing them equivalent in area to what they were losing, or at minimum 2 hectares (4.94 acres). Each male 18 years or older is to be treated as the head of a separate family and allocated land.
The initial terms of the Award suggested that compensation would be provided only for those who held legal title to their land; activists later pressured the Gujarat state government into extending the Spreadsheet Example Inventory Excel Free program to landless people and to “encroachers” (people who had simply set up their houses on government-owned land). The tribunal award required each of the. participating states to prepare its own package of resettlement and rehabilitation benefits, but Gujarat was also required to offer the Program - Ppt same benefits to Example Excel Free oustees of the Sardar Sarovar from Printable Page,monthly Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra if they opted to move to Gujarat as the Tribunal balanced the burden of providing for resettlement with the benefit of the greater water supply Gujarat would secure from the Spreadsheet Inventory Excel high Sardar Sarovar dam. The NWDT Award specified that each resettled family should get a housing plot as well as farmland, and monetary grants in aid to cover the cost of Graphic Designer Resume Template Psd By moving, buying farm implements and draft animals, and insurance. Inventory Free Warehouse? It also specified that resettlement villages should be provided with a primary school, a panchayat (village government council) meeting hall, a medical dispensary, a seed store, a children’s playground, a drinking water well, a village pond, and Letter To Embassy | Chronological a link road. The Tribunal was clearly anticipating that oustees would remain or become rural farmers and seeking to provide them with basic improvements in their material surroundings. The Award did not make any distinction between adivasis and others among the oustees, even though several Indian laws do treat adivasis as a distinct category and provide them with certain legal protections for maintenance of their traditional communal ways of life.
Some two thirds of the oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam were adivasis, and Example Warehouse they became the Write centerpiece of the controversy over oustee resettlement. The NWDT Award was published in December 1979, at the very end of the “Janata interlude” in Indian politics, a short period between two long eras of Congress Party rule. The Congress Party, which had been in Example Inventory Free power continuously since independence in Day Weekend Psd Flyer Template + Facebook Cover » Free 1947, lost the spring 1977 parliamentary elections in a popular rebuke of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s suspension of many civil liberties during Emergency Rule. in 1975-77. However, the coalition that supplanted it was wracked by internal disagreements and soon faced strikes and other civil strife. : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse? This enabled the Congress factions forming Indira Gandhi’s new Congress (I) party to win. the next election and return to power in Psd Flyer + Facebook Cover January 1980.
A significant number of younger Indians who had become alienated from Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free conventional politics during and Resume Online For Free Template Do My after Emergency Rule began to channel their idealism into volunteer activism and work with NGOs. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse? This new generation did not have any direct experience of the pre-1947 nationalist movement, but draw on the same extensive Indian repertoire of civil disobedience actions though adopting ideological stances ranging across socialism, the Gandhian tradition of nonviolence, humanist ideals, and Internship Download feminism. Yet, whatever their disagreements all of the activists were committed to Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse fighting for social justice through grassroots organization, public education, and organized political protest. Much of their discussion was framed in terms of Write To Embassy rights: rights to equality, rights to dignity, rights to be consulted, rights to Spreadsheet Example Warehouse be free from exploitation, and Creative Designer Psd By rights of both future and present generations to an undamaged environment. All of these claims are resonated with those of other groups in : Warehouse Inventory Excel other countries who were also seeking alternatives to the existing political, economic, and social order.
This convergence made it easy for Indian NGOs concerned with the Form plight of the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Narmada project oustees to recruit transnational allies. By the Calendar Printable Page,monthly late 1980s, India was home to one of the most vibrant collection of local civil society organizations and grassroots activism in the world. As John R. Wood observed: It is a matter of considerable debate as to Example Inventory Free whether the Internship Program - Ppt proliferation of NGOs in the 1980s, and into the 1990s and beyond, reflected a failure of Example : Warehouse India’s political system, or rather its success. Option4. How To Online For Free Resume Template Do My? On the one hand, NGOs were taking up responsibilities that were originally thought to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Warehouse belong to the government and which the latter, for reasons of 2016 Monthly Calendar Printable sloth, corruption or unwillingness to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel disturb the status quo, had clearly failed to fulfill. On the other hand, the vigorous voluntarism, outspokenness and self-sacrifice of many NGO activists could only have emerged in an open political system that encouraged democratic participation and valued rights and freedoms. Of course, the response of governments to NGO activism in different parts of India varied greatly. In some states they were encouraged, and others ignored, and in still others are repressed.
Among and within the NGOs also there was considerable disagreement — between those activists who wanted to cooperate with government officials, enlist their support and convert them to new thinking, versus those who saw government officials as the How To An Invitation Letter To Embassy | Chronological main enemy, whose policies and projects calls the injustices that NGOs must fight.8. All of these features of Indian politics and Example Excel Warehouse the NGO and voluntary association scene were prominent in the long campaigns waged against either the Narmada Project in general or the Sardar Sarovar Dam in particular. The voluntary associations, NGOs, and community action groups took up the cause of the oustees first became active in Printable Full Page,monthly Gujarat. Initial organizing was assisted by activists in Lokayan, an Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free, organization founded by social scientists at the Center for the Study of Template + Facebook Developing Societies in New Delhi seeking to link researchers with activists policy makers and ordinary citizens affected by development projects. The Lokayan branch in Ahmedabad, Gujarat was particularly active and other Ahmedabad activists began criticizing the Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel resettlement provisions of the NWDT Award soon after its publication. The Center for Social John R. Wood. 2007. Reimbursement - Oak? The Politics of Water Resource Development in India: The Narmada Dams Controversy (Los Angeles: Sage Publications), 132-133.
Knowledge and Action (SETU in its Gujarati acronym), intended to build leadership within marginalized communities so they could carry out their own struggles, was founded in Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Warehouse 1982 and soon began working on oustee issues. The Center for Social Studies in Surat got involved in Free Designer Psd 1981 when the Gujarat government gave it a contract to monitor the condition of 19 Gujarati villages whose inhabitants would be displaced by the Sardar Sarovar reservoir. The contract was expanded in 1984 to cover all resettlement and rehabilitation for all Gujarati oustees. The surveys done by Center sociologists revealed that the social problems caused by relocation were much larger than anticipated. It was Center researchers who discovered that. many of the oustees were encroachers lacking title to the land they occupied. Example : Warehouse Warehouse? They also realized that a majority of the 2016 Calendar Printable Full Gujarati oustees were adivasi familiar only with sustaining themselves by fishing, hunting, and gathering plant foods in a forest environment. The Center researchers wondered how they would manage to convert from their largely non-monetized economy in the hills to the modern agriculture envisioned for resettlement. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free? They were also concerned about finding enough land to permit the adivasi oustees to move as a village unit so that hamlets of kin groups could be kept intact. By then several organizations were involved in providing services to adivasi villages so were very familiar with conditions on the ground. More NGO activity was galvanized by construction of Option4. Do A Resume Online Resume Do My Kevadia, a town of offices and residences built near the Sardar Sarovar site for engineers and Inventory Free Warehouse workers involved in its construction.
Six villages were affected by this construction but since none were in the reservoir area and had not been listed in the NWDT Award, they did not qualify for resettlement benefits. The contractors building the town sometimes paid compensation to villagers but more often pressured them into accepting token compensation through agreements they could not read. Their cause was taken up by Option4. How To Do A Resume Online For Free Resume Template Lok Adhikar Sangh (Association for Example : Warehouse Excel, People’s Authority) a civic organization specializing in legal assistance to the poor. It was able to Instructional Reimbursement Form get the Indian Supreme Court to issue a stay order stopping construction while court-appointed investigators determined how the oustees were being treated. This inquiry revealed massive irregularities and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse prodded the Gujarat government into realizing that it needed to follow proper expropriation procedures in Option4. Resume Template Do My all projectrelated construction activity. Two other organizations, Action Research in Community Health and Development (ARCH) and Vahini (short for Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Vahini or Student Your Struggle Force), already engaged in providing social services in adivasi communities, combined their efforts to campaign on the villagers’ and dam oustees’ behalf. A third, the Centre for Social Knowledge and Action (known by its Gujarati acronym as SETU), was formed in 1982 to provide marginalized groups with training and assistance for Spreadsheet, self-mobilization. Though the NGOs and Reimbursement Form other activists were often in conflict with Gujarat government officials, the conflict did not get too intense for several reasons. First, many of the NGOs followed the Example : Warehouse Inventory Gandhian approach to social service and Otmc Program - Ppt Download employed only nonviolent opposition methods. This gave them and Spreadsheet Example Inventory Excel Free their cause legitimacy in Gujarat politics and the government was careful to avoid actions that would make it look bad.
The longer-established NGOs had political and Option4. For Free Resume Template Do My bureaucratic contacts in : Warehouse Excel Free the government, and several senior government officials were sympathetic to the demands they were putting forward. These officials realized fairly soon that they did not have the administrative capacity needed for relocating thousands of people and needed the NGOs’ assistance to avert a social disaster. Finally, the NGOs realized that securing water supply was so important to everyone in Gujarat that all-out opposition to Sardar Sarovar would weaken support for the oustees. These early interactions meant that Gujarat was far more prepared to resettle people of the Internship - Ppt Download 19 villages it was required to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse move under the NWDT Award then Madhya Pradesh was to move the people of its 33 listed villages or Maharashtra to move the people of its 193. NGOs were not active in either state and the. governments did not appear to be getting ready to deal with the problem. This inspired considerable concern within the Gujarati NGOs who understood the dimensions of the problem and SETU in particular began to Form - Oak expand its activity into Madhya Pradesh. The politics of resettlement intensified in Gujarat in March 1984 when massive rallies of villagers from the 19 affected villages got enough publicity to come to the attention not only of the government but also of international aid groups including Oxfam and the World Bank. Oxfam was already funding ARCH’s health programs, and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Warehouse this connection gave it considerable information about the local situation.
The protests also attracted notice of World Bank officials who were then negotiating the terms. of $450 million a startup loan for the Sardar Sarovar Dam. During the project assessment phase of considering the loan, the Otmc Internship - Ppt Download World Bank sent Professor Thayer Scudder, an anthropologist at the California Technical Institute (Caltech) with considerable expertise on involuntary resettlement, to assess the resettlement provisions. Scudder’s report confirmed most of the Spreadsheet Inventory Free Warehouse Gujarati NGOs’ complaints about the How To Do A Resume Online inadequacies of the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Warehouse tribunal resettlement provisions and became an important weapon in Write An Invitation | Chronological ARCH-Vahini’s battle with the Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Gujarat government. Officials at Instructional Reimbursement Form SSNNL quickly realized that ARCH-Vahini and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free the oustees could cause a delay in securing the World Bank loan and thereby slow the project. How To Do A Resume Online Template? After several years of oustee organizing and demonstrations, the Government of Gujarat gave in. In 1987 it offered a revised resettlement package that improved the terms and also included landless and encroachers among the beneficiaries.
Meanwhile the NGO coalition was splitting. ARCH-Vahini was following a pragmatic strategy of combining constant pressure, implied threats of mass unrest, and willingness to cooperate with the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free government if it made significant concessions. Its leaders regarded this as the only strategy that made sense in Gujarat where the urgent demand for water meant there was broad popular support for completing the dam as quickly as possible. The 1987 revised resettlement agreement looked very good on paper; now according to Template ARCH-Vahini, the task was to make sure that it was fully implemented. Others rejected the ARCHVahini approach as too timid. The differences became greater after Medha Patkar, who was affiliated with SETU but somewhat on the sidelines in Gujarat, had begun working with adivasi oustees in Maharashtra. : Warehouse Excel Warehouse? Organizers from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) were already in the villages, and competing effectively with them required her to advance more radical views than prevailed among the Gujarati groups. She attributed her decision to oppose the entire project to a combination of How To Online For Free Resume Template Do My greater awareness of the environmental problems it was causing, belief that the Forest Conservation Act 1980 would restrict the ability to resettle oustee adivasi on Inventory Free Warehouse, forest land, and belief that the project should not have gone forward until after full public consultation with those who would be affected. She became the Write Letter | Chronological central figure in the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Spreadsheet Example Free Warehouse Narmada Movement), which was formed in Maharashtra in 1989 and later spread to include 150 affiliates in other parts of India and organizations of supporters abroad. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) organized village committees in the areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra that would be affected by Sardar Sarovar and Decembar 2016 other dams on the Narmada, and succeeded in maintaining a coalition between adivasis in Maharasthra and western Madhya Pradesh and members of the landowning Patidar caste in the plains.
It registered its opposition to the Narmada Project on human rights and environmental grounds and staged a series of demonstrations, road blockades, and sit-ins against its continuation. The NBA’s success at getting Prime Minister V.P. Singh to Spreadsheet Warehouse agree to reconsider the Narmada Project in March 1990 sparked a fierce counter-reaction in Gujarat, where state government officials and newly formed pro-Project civic organizations mobilized to support construction. January 1991 was marked by a 21-day confrontation between some 5000 NBA activists and supporters on Option4. How To Online Template, one side and Excel Warehouse Gujarat police plus thousands of For Free Resume Template Do My pro-dam demonstrators on the other at Ferkuva on the Gujarat-Madhya Pradesh border, where the NBA group had been stopped before they could reach the Sardar Sarovar site. Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse? Baba Amte, a. Gandhian social worker greatly respected everywhere in India for his longtime work with lepers, set the stage for an extended confrontation by announcing a “dharna (fasting sit-in) unto death” on the 5th.
Medha Patkar and six other NBA activists started their own fasts on the 7th. Standoff ensued until NBA leaders called off their protest and How To Letter | Chronological left the area 21 days later. NBA then began a noncooperation campaign in the Narmada Valley involving refusal to pay taxes and blocking entry to all government officials except teachers and doctors. As Narmada waters backed up behind the partly constructed Sardar Sarovar Dam and threatened Manibeli village in Maharashtra, NBA also organized a confrontation between villagers who did not want to move and police sent to clear the village. NBA initially refused to accept foreign funding, because doing so would open it to one of the most common charges in Indian politics: that it is the agent of outside powers.9 However, it did garner international media. attention, an invitation to testify at a US Congressional hearing,10 and the Right Livelihood Award from the Swedish Right Livelihood Foundation. In the early 1990s, it also had tacit support from the Madhya Pradesh and Maharasthra governments because its opposition to dam construction dovetailed with their concerns about the ultimate height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam and succeeded in triggering debate all around India about the social and environmental impacts of the Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse Narmada River Project and large dams more generally. The broader transnational struggle over Internship Program Download, dams forming part of the MDB campaign began focusing on the Narmada in the late 1980s. By 1989, campaigners were demanding that the World Bank, which was considering additional loans for the Sardar Sarovar Project — $350 million for canal construction and Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse $90 million for environmental measures – either force modification of Memorial Template » Free or refuse to support the project.
Transnational environmentalist and human rights NGO campaigning led several Western governments to indicate doubts about the loans. In response, the Spreadsheet Inventory Free World Bank commissioned an Independent Review of Indian and state government implementation of the resettlement and environmental mitigation aspects of the An Invitation Letter Sardar Sarovar Project. Example Excel Free Warehouse? To placate the NGOs, it consulted them about composition of the review team, a decision that later inspired additional negative reaction from the Indian government and Sardar Sarovar supporters. The review team was led by Bradford Morse, a former US Congressman and UN Development Programme Administrator, and Thomas Berger, a Canadian lawyer who had chaired the Canadian inquiry into the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project and given strong support to indigenous peoples’ rights, and included a group of mainly Canadian engineers, environmental planners and indigenous rights experts. In June 1992 after 10 months of inquiry, it issued a 363-page report criticizing the project for failure to: a) include adequate assessment of the human impact of Reimbursement Sardar Sarovar Dam, involve any consultation with those who would be affected, consider the character of adivasi culture in working out resettlement plans, provide adequate additional resettlement when the height of the dam was increased, pay sufficient attention to environmental factors in the initial project design, and comply with the Free Warehouse stipulations included in the conditional clearance issued by the Indian Ministry of Monthly Environment and Forests in 1987.11. Such charges are frequently raised against others in a debate, regardless of Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse their place on the left-right ideological spectrum, as exemplified below in discussion of the controversy over World Bank funding. 9. US House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Memorial Day Weekend Template + Facebook » Free Technology. 1989.
Sardar Sarovar Dam Project: Hearing before the Subcommittee on : Warehouse Inventory, Natural Resources, Agricultural Research, and the Environment. 101st Congress, 1st Session. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the Independent Review. 1992. Ottawa: Resource Futures International. The Independent Review Report recommended that the World Bank suspend the loans until the Option4. Do A Online For Free Template Governments of India and of the states involved complied with the Example Excel Free standards for resettlement and environmental protection that they had themselves adopted or accepted. How To An Invitation Letter To Embassy? However, it did not offer any recommendations regarding how the project could be fixed or how the Example : Warehouse Free governments of Instructional Form - Oak India and the states should proceed. The Independent Review’s report was shaped by the terms of reference given to the review team.
It was asked to assess resettlement and environmental issues, not to offer alternative project designs. Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse? However, lack of comment about how the How To Write Letter project might be modified intensified the political controversy that arose in : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse India after the Decembar Page,monthly report was released. The Gujarat and Indian governments both reacted angrily to what they regarded as a “partisan” and unfair report, and were additionally perturbed that NGO activists were able to Spreadsheet get copies faxed to them by Do A Online For Free Do My foreign supporters before the government received its copy from the World Bank.12 Some project supporters even suggested that the Independent Review was part of a conspiracy to block India’s development.13 Official government remarks were more restrained, but did criticize the Report for an incomplete survey of the situation, ignoring several Indian studies, and failing to take account of conditions in India rather than subconsciously applying North American standards. ARCH-Vahini, which regarded the report as too heavily influenced by NBA views, produced a point-by-point critique and lamented that Review Commission had not provided an objective review but had been biased against the project.14 The report simultaneously buoyed the anti-dam campaign in India and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Free around the world. NBA increased its pressure against the whole Narmada Project by demanding that the World Bank withhold the loans and Instructional - Oak that India stop construction of Sardar Sarovar, calling on supporters to undertake “direct action” if the Bank did not announce a withholding by July 15th, and condemning the World Bank for promoting neocolonialism through its financing of the Project.15 The World Bank Initially reacted by indicating continued support for the loans and sending a staff team to India to reappraise the resettlement program and environmental concerns and report directly to the World Bank’s Executive Board. : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse? Its report, released by the Bank in September, rejected several of the Independent Review’s conclusions but did agree with the Independent Review on Monthly Calendar Printable, the need to improve resettlement provisions and said that Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra should offer the Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse same resettlement aid as Gujarat.16. The World Bank faced strong pressures on Decembar Monthly Calendar Full Page,monthly, both sides. There were several reasons to approve the loans: the project was underway, it was clear that the governments of India and the states involved wanted it to happen, and.
some Gujarat officials were saying openly that the loans amounted to only 10% of the total. See “Morse Commission Report Condemned,” Times of India (Ahmedabad), 20 June 1992. “Morse Commission report condemned,” Hindustan Times, 24 June 1992. Anil Patel and Ambrish Mehta. 1997.
The Independent Review: Was it a search for truth?” in William Fisher, ed., Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling over the Narmada River (Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications), 381-417. 14. by NBA leader Mehda Patkar, as reported in “3 CMs to : Warehouse Inventory Excel meet on Narmada,” Times of India (Ahmedabad) 2 July 1992. 16Terms summarized in World Bank. 1995. Project Completion Report P009829, India – Narmada River Development – Gujarat, pars. 6.11 (p. Decembar Monthly Calendar? 27) and 7.39 (p.
45). Available at http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/03/29/000009265_3980625173028/Rendered/PDF/multi _page.pdf (accessed 11 August 2010). cost and the state would proceed with construction no matter what the World Bank did. In addition, Bank management realized that refusing the loans would mean losing all leverage India or the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Free states. Yet, there were reasons. to deny.
Local groups were campaigning stridently for the World Bank to withdraw the loans and appeared to have considerable local as well as transnational support. Internship - Ppt? Bank management was aware that the Bank’s own record on the project was fodder for NGO efforts to Example Inventory Excel Free Warehouse cast it as a proponent and encourager of projects violating human rights and harming the environment, and that these campaigns were intensifying because of the upcoming replenishment of IDA funds. European campaigners persuaded the Swedish and European Parliaments to recommend that European Community (now European Union) member governments use their votes in the Bank Executive Board to stop the How To Write To Embassy | Chronological loans. Japanese groups organized an International Narmada Symposium in Tokyo, which inspired 20 members of the Japanese Diet (parliament) to demand the World Bank and the Japanese government (which was a co-financier) to cancel their loans.17 27 transnational NGOs organized a “Stop Sardar Sarovar” campaign in the USA18 and threatened to campaign actively against the 10th IDA replenishment. World Bank President Lewis Preston told the Executive Board that most of the Independent Review objections were being addressed and the project should continue. Morse and Berger countered with a letter to Board members saying Preston was ignoring most of the Independent Review findings. The Board split along industrial country-developing country lines, then patched up a compromise giving India six months to comply with certain conditions. Example Warehouse? However, this was not much of a compromise because it would have been very difficult to meet them all within six months. The political embarrassment of Free Resume having to accept such publicly stated and detailed outside conditions was more than the Indian government was willing to accept. It was also aware that the loans were a small part of the finance needed and that only $250 million was coming on the IDA terms of 0.5% a year with repayment over 45 years; the other $170 million would carry more standard terms of 7 percent with repayment over 25 years.19 The governments of Example Inventory Excel India and of the Internship Program - Ppt three states resolved to move ahead without World Bank loans.20 This affected the Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse political balance in a number of ways.
ARCH-Vahini lost influence among adivasi, now fired up by NBA. It also lost leverage over the government of Write An Invitation Letter To Embassy | Chronological Gujarat because it would not be able to use the World Bank as a prod. NBA built on the prestige gained by Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Excel Warehouse having “chased away” the World Bank to expand its work and found a new organization, National Alliance of People’s Movements, to amalgamate all opponents of the. project into one group. It also upped its political demands by Option4. calling for complete removal of the existing 61- meter high Sardar Sarovar Dam and urging all supporters to engage in jal samarpan (“self-sacrifice by water”) by refusing to move as flood waters covered their dwellings during the monsoon season already underway. Indian Prime Minister Narashima Rao, leading a factionalized Congress Party (I) after Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated during the 1991 election campaign, was facing greater opposition from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which was actively stoking Hindu nationalism. Excel Warehouse? This helped Gujarat, Wirth 1998, p. 63. See full page ads in the New York Times, 21 September 1992, the Financial Times 21 September 1992, p. 6, and How To Resume Online Template the Washington Post, 21 September 1992,. terms noted in “World Bank and Narmada Project,” India Abroad, 16 April 1993.
20 Stefan Wagstyl 1993. “India to drop World Bank Dam Loans: Government refuses to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse meet Stiff Conditions on Download, $3 billion Project,” Financial Times, 20 March 1993, p. 6. where the BJP mobilization was threatening to Inventory Free Warehouse cut into Congress Party support. The Indian government ignored BNA demands and assured Gujarat of funding while looking for a way to address anti-dam opinion by convening another review, by what became known as the Five Member Group. However, its terms of Decembar 2016 Monthly Calendar Full reference were limited to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse “reappraising the project, and the state government of Gujarat further limited its activities by refusing to allow it. to visit sites within the state. Continued disagreements, including a call by the new first minister in Madhya Pradesh for lowering the final dam height from 455 to 463 feet to Reimbursement Form exclude 67 villages and 38,000 people from the reservoir area,21 created further uncertainty. Example : Warehouse Excel? In May 1994, Narmada Bachao Andolan sued in the Indian Supreme Court to prevent further construction, technically by asking the question of whether the terms of the NWDT Award and related agreements regarding resettlement were being carried out.22 It responded in Otmc January 1995 with a stay order restricting construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam to the already-attained 80.5 meter (263.3 feet) height for five years to provide additional time for resettling oustees. During this period work did continue on the hydroelectric powerhouse, located – meters downstream of the Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse dam, and the irrigation canal that would supply water to dry parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
At the same time, discussions about dam projects in India and around the world were redefining the contention. Debates about Technology Choice. As political instability swept the center, and politics in the states was also affected by the strong CongressBJP competition that led to Otmc Program Download 4 parliamentary elections between 1996 and 1999 when a BJP-led coalition was able to secure a comfortable majority. Indian courts, particularly the Supreme Court, became more active on social and economic justice by encouraging class action suits on : Warehouse Excel Free, social and economic questions. In the 1980s, the Option4. Resume Do My Supreme Court’s rulings on social issues were admired by social and economic justice advocates tired of seeing the politicians ignore them but criticized by others who thought the Inventory Excel courts were being overambitious, litigation delays lengthening, and An Invitation some courts losing the reputation for impartiality and integrity on which their authority rested. Globally, the concerns about dams were reframed by Spreadsheet Inventory Free Warehouse adoption of the notion of “sustainable development.” Though vague and attracting detractors, the How To To Embassy | Chronological concept was used to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse organize discussions where proponents and opponents of large infrastructure projects found ways to talk despite their often diametrically opposed preferences.
The most notable change at the international level was expressed in the meetings and report of the Free Psd : Graphic Resume Template Psd World Commission on Dams. It originated at Spreadsheet Excel Free Warehouse an April 1997 workshop on Large Dams in Switzerland organized by the World Bank and the International Union or the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) where participants drawn from 18 countries and + Facebook having opinions across the spectrum attempted to Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free develop consensus on “whether dams have a role to Decembar Full play in land, water, and energy development and how particular dams should be designed, constructed, and : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free operated.”23 The workshop led to appointment of Decembar 2016 Calendar Printable Page,monthly a World Commission on. The Madhya Pradesh government acknowledged that this would lower the hydroelectric potential, and agreed to forego its share of the electric power, while arguing that Gujarat could still meet its water needs with the lower dam. 21. Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse? Union of India and Others, Writ Petition (C) No. Reimbursement Form? 319 of 1994. IUCN-The World Conservation Union and the World Bank Group. Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free? 1997. Large Dams: Learning from the Otmc - Ppt Past, Looking to the Future: Workshop Proceedings.
Gland Switzerland: IUCN and Example : Warehouse Excel Washington: The World Bank Group. 2016 Monthly Printable Full Page,monthly? 22. Dams, which produced a report circulated on the Internet and on CD-ROM.24 Indian participants were prominently involved. NBA leader Medha Patkar and Spreadsheet Excel Warehouse former India Planning Commission member L.C. Jain were 2 of the 12 members of the Commission, and the government of Psd : Creative Template India was invited to contribute a country report about its experiences with large dam projects. The Commission concluded that many large dam projects undertaken in the past were not viable but that dam building could be improved to cause less suffering by people living in river valleys and Spreadsheet Example Free Warehouse minimize negative environmental impacts.
Thus, the Commission came into Free Psd : Creative Resume Psd By Psd, line with emerging development thinking placing greater stress on Example : Warehouse Inventory Free, sustainability, choice of technology attuned to. local conditions, and the need for greater consultation and reliance on “bottom-up” processes of project definition. Contentions over dams spread to Write Letter | Chronological Madhya Pradesh in 1997 when that state began work on : Warehouse Warehouse, the dams at Bargi, Mann, and Maheshwar. Write An Invitation Letter To Embassy? When the private Indian firm S. Kumars Ltd. began work on the dam at Maheshwar, local residents opposing the dam and NBA activists pressured the Madhra Pradesh government into suspending construction and undertaking an additional investigation of the dam’s likely impact. In early 1998, before the investigating team could report, Kumars indicated that some “safety work” needed to be done to Spreadsheet Warehouse protect the already-built portion of the foundation. The government accepted the argument and Free Psd : Creative Graphic Designer Resume Psd allowed Kumars to Spreadsheet Inventory Excel Warehouse go ahead. The NBA saw the move as a way to re-start construction and mobilized members to demonstrate at Psd Flyer Template + Facebook the site. The Madhya Pradesh government invoked Section 144 of the Indian Penal Code to issue orders banning assembly of more than four persons at Example Inventory Excel Warehouse any place and Do A For Free Resume Do My begin arresting the Spreadsheet Example Excel Free Warehouse protesters. Instructional Reimbursement Form - Oak? NBA believed that 76% of the project costs would be covered by foreign investors in the project and Spreadsheet was able to use its transnational supporters to deter a number of foreign corporations from becoming involved. However, NBA’s continuing resistance to Day Weekend Template + Facebook » Free any dam construction was beginning to get out of : Warehouse Inventory Free phase with Indian opinion.
This became more obvious in the summer of 1999 when novelist Arundhati Roy, well known after her The God of Small Things won the Booker Prize in Day Weekend Psd Flyer » Free the UK, wrote a series of essays on the Sardar Sarovar Project. These emphasized the suffering of the oustees in eloquent terms but paid no attention to the water management issues. Their publication coincided with the second year of failed monsoons and severe drought in Gujarat, and they became the target of criticism by others – and Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse even of public burning during pro-dam demonstrations in Ahmedabad.25 Opinion shifted even more as the state governments involved improved services for oustees. Gujarat offered to provide the same financial aid to Sardar Sarovar oustees in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra who wanted to settle near their original homes rather than move to Reimbursement Form Gujarat. Gujarat also established a special Grievance Redressal Authority (GRA) for Sardar Sarovar Affected Persons giving oustees who had moved to new homes in Gujarat a place to go. to get complaints resolved as the resettlement process moved forward. Its head, former High Court Judge P.D. Desai, secured strong guarantees of autonomy from the Gujarat government and instituted processes through which the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse GRA simplified procedures and worked mainly through roving investigation teams who went to the oustee’s new villages.
NBA praised its work, and Free Creative Designer Psd Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra created their own Grievance Redressal Authorities modeled on it in 2000. World Commission on Dams. 2000. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making (London: Earthscan. 25 Wood. 2007, p. 175. Example? This inspired an additional commentary from Memorial Psd Flyer Template + Facebook Cover her.
See “My argument is not anti-Gujarat: Roy,” The Indian Express 31 July 1999. The impact of all these changes was foreshadowed in the Indian Supreme Court’s February 1999 decision to permit raising the Sardar Sarovar Dam from 80.3 to 85 meters (278.8 feet). NBA was unhappy to see the project given new life, pro-dam opinion was unhappy to see that the height was short of the 110 meters (360.8 feet) needed to Example Inventory Excel Warehouse create a reservoir high enough to fill the canal. Instructional Reimbursement? It became clearer in October 2000 when a three-member bench26 of the Indian Supreme Court ruled on the case Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Others. 27 In a two-to-one decision, it invoked the common law doctrine of latches to rule that the NBA had failed to raise its objections in Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Free a timely manner, that the Court was not going to review issues related to design of the dam itself but only the fundamental rights of the oustees guaranteed by Article 21 of the Calendar Printable Constitution, and reminded the parties that the decision of a Water Disputes Tribunal could not be challenged by private parties once it became binding on the states involved. Inventory Warehouse? The decision rejected NBA claims that the Ministry of How To To Embassy Environment and Spreadsheet Excel Forests decision to grant conditional clearance of the project in 1987 was itself a violation of. Article 21 because it was taken on political grounds rather than after taking full account of the environmental impacts. Rather, the establishment of a Narmada Management Authority with an Decembar 2016 Calendar Page,monthly, environmental sub-group having authority to recommend stopping work to address negative environmental impacts and imposition of the Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Free pari passu condition that resettlement must precede successive raisings of the dam height, indicated to the majority that the decision was based on serious consideration of the environmental and social impacts.
The majority made extensive reference to the need to balance benefits and burdens and to India’s growing need for reliable water supplies in concluding that Sardar Sarovar and How To Write Letter To Embassy other dams in the Narmada Project should be built. The minority dissent argued that the 1987 clearance had been contrary to then-existing Indian law because it was based on a woefully inadequate set of data about environmental impact. Inventory Warehouse? It suggested that the Government of India should be required to do a full environmental impact assessment before further work on the Sardar Sarovar Dam.28. The majority decision left the Instructional Form control institutions established by the NWDT – the Narmada Control Authority and Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse the 6-member NCA Review Committee consisting of the chief ministers of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan plus the India ministers of Water Resources and of Environment and Forests – in place. It concluded the ruling with these directions: 1) Construction of the dam will continue as per the Award of the Tribunal. 2) As the Relief and Decembar Calendar Full Rehabilitation Sub-group have cleared the construction up to 90 meters, the same can be undertaken immediately. Further raising of the height will be only pari passu with the implementation of the relief and rehabilitation and on the clearance by the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group.
The Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-Group will give clearance of further construction after consulting the three Grievances Redressal Authorities. 26 The Indian Supreme Court consists of Excel Free a Chief Justice and 26 Justices; particular cases are heard by Benches of three, five, seven, nine, or eleven Justices depending on the subject matter. See Supreme Court of India. Instructional Form? 2010. Practice and Procedure: A Handbook of : Warehouse Free Warehouse Information.
3rd ed. How To Resume Template? New Delhi: Supreme Court of India. Available at http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/handbook3rdedition.pdf (accessed 28 July 2010). 272000 AIR 3751; 2000(4) Suppl.SCR 94. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 28. The dissent does not appear on Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Excel Warehouse, the Supreme Court website. Its terms are summarized from Wood 2007 187-188. 3) The Environment Sub-group under the Secretary, Ministry of Environment Forests, Government of India will consider and give, at each stage of the construction of the dam, environment clearance before further construction beyond 90 meters can be undertaken. 4) The permission to raise the dam height beyond 90 meters will be given by the Narmada Control Authority, from time to Online For Free Do My time, after it obtains the above-mentioned clearances from the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Warehouse Relief and - Ppt Rehabilitation Sub-group and the Environment Sub-group.
5) The reports of the Example : Warehouse Warehouse Grievances Redressal Authorities, and of Madhya Pradesh in particular, shows that there is a considerable slackness in the work of identification of land, acquisition of suitable land and the consequent steps necessary to be taken to How To To Embassy rehabilitate the project oustees. We direct the States of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat to implement the Award and give relief and rehabilitation to the oustees in terms of the packages offered by them and Spreadsheet Excel these States shall comply with any direction in How To An Invitation this regard which is given either by the NCA or the Review Committee or the Grievances Redressal Authorities. 6) Even though there has been substantial compliance with the : Warehouse conditions imposed under the Decembar Monthly Calendar Printable environment clearance the NCA and the Environment Sub-group will continue to monitor and ensure that all steps are taken not only to protect but to Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse restore and improve the environment. 7) The NCA will within four weeks from today draw up an Action Plan in relation to Instructional Reimbursement - Oak further. construction and Inventory the relief and rehabilitation work to be undertaken. Creative Template Psd? Such an Action Plan will fix a time frame so as to ensure relief and Inventory Excel Free Warehouse rehabilitation pari passu with the increase in the height of the dam. Each State shall abide by the terms of the action plan so prepared by the NCA and in the event of any dispute or difficulty arising, representation may be made to the Review Committee. However, each State shall be bound to comply with the directions of the NCA with regard to the acquisition of land for the purpose of relief and rehabilitation to the extent and Program - Ppt within the period specified by the NCA.
8) The Review Committee shall meet whenever required to do so in : Warehouse Inventory the event of there being any unresolved dispute on an issue which is before the NCA. Otmc Program? In any event the Review Committee shall meet at Example : Warehouse Excel Free least once in three months so as to oversee the progress of Letter To Embassy construction of the dam and implementation of the Inventory Free Warehouse RR programmes. If for any reason serious differences in implementation of the Award arise and the same cannot be resolved in the Review Committee, the Committee may refer the same to Internship Program the Prime Minister whose decision, in respect thereof, shall be final and binding on all concerned. 9) The Grievances Redressal Authorities will be at liberty, in case the need arises, to issue appropriate directions to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Free the respective States for due implementation of the RR programmes and in case of nonimplementation of its directions, the GRAs will be at liberty to Printable Full Page,monthly approach the Review Committee for appropriate orders. 10) Every endeavor shall be made to see that the Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse project is completed as expeditiously as possible.29.
As the dam builders resumed work, the Do A Resume Online For Free Template Do My value of Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free Warehouse such large projects had come. under intense scrutiny in India and elsewhere. Reevaluation had begun before the World Commission on Dams first met, but was strongly reinforced by its report and by the growing global interest in Reimbursement finding more ecologically sensitive ways of building physical infrastructure. In India, reconsideration was greatly advanced by advocates of “human scale” development who looked to both traditional Indian practices and new ideas from around the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel world.30 The Centre for Science and Environment, an “alternative development” think tank, issued a very comprehensive study of traditional technologies in different parts of India that highlighted their small-scale, relatively low cost, and Otmc - Ppt Download reliance on : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse, local management.31 Growing awareness that the groundwater resources being tapped by drilled wells were declining revived interest in finding ways to conserve water, improve capturing of monsoon water, and increase recharging of groundwaters. The Government of India issued a new National Water Policy in 2002, and combined two preexisting programs – the National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas and the Watershed Development Project – plus other water-related projects into How To An Invitation | Chronological, one set of water development activities under a common set of Hariyali (“Greening”) Guidelines in 2003. These replaced the previous practice of promoting water project work in villages through central government programs providing food in return for work, which quite important in the 1960s when frequent drought meant India often depended on food imports including large amount of food aid from the USA under its Public Law 480 program. The Guidelines specified that village water projects would be run by the Panchayati Raj (council rule) institutions of Spreadsheet Inventory Free local government, which had been given new, more open, rules and expanded tasks in 1992.32 The village, block, or district panchayat (council) would serve as the coordinating body, and initiate projects after the people in the village, block, or district had been consulted about and agreed to How To Write An Invitation Letter the proposed project. Example : Warehouse Free Warehouse? This put project design, management, and maintenance at the local level. This ran across longstanding efforts by many Indian NGOs using a participatory development approach emphasizing the promotion of local leadership and activity that had been working on rural water projects.33 Feared that the change would inhibit their ability to Option4. Do A Resume Online For Free Do My run truly bottom-up projects even though the Spreadsheet Example Inventory Warehouse Guidelines do allow a local council to select an NGO as the “Project Implementation Agency” coordinating.
construction and Creative Psd By maintenance of the particular flood control and Spreadsheet Example Free water retention facilities the villagers select. In parallel with the new projects to construct water-control and storage facilities in villages, there was also a significant revision to management of Download irrigation systems in India. By the mid-1990s, both the Union government in New Delhi and most state governments recognized that many of the state-run irrigation systems were failing. Farmers were complaining that many of them were inefficient, poorly maintained, and often failed to deliver expected water to farms at any distance from the canal because farmers closer to the canal would tap the pipes to get extra. At the same time, water management officials complained that water rates were too low to cover the costs of managing and maintaining current irrigation systems, much 30 Such as Vandana Shiva.
1990. : Warehouse Free? Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts over Natural Resources in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications and Tokyo: United Nations University Press or Alka Srivastava and Janaki Chundi. Option4. How To For Free? 1999. Watershed Management: Key to Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse Sustainable Development. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute.
Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain. 1997. Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall, and Potential of India’s Traditional Water Harvesting Systems. New Delhi: Centre for How To Do A Online For Free Resume Template Do My, Science and Environment. Constitution of India, Amendment 73. 33 A significant literature on participatory development indicating best practices existed by the mid 1990s. E.g., Robert Chambers.
1997. Whose Reality? Putting the First Last (London: Intermediate Technology Publications); less add to them. In some parts of the country, including Gujarat, the. farmers poorly served by irrigation systems were so desperate to get water in time to grow their crops that private suppliers emerged to fill the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse demand. An individual farmer with his own tube well could sell surplus water to neighbors, supplying it through plastic tubes extending as far as 5 km (3.1 miles) away from the well. Though the private water sellers tend to charge high rates, and some farmers had to pay for their irrigation water before they received any,34 farmers, worried that their whole investment in Otmc Internship Program a crop may be lost because they will not get the irrigation water in time, will pay extra for the certainty of supply from the well. Gujarat was heavily affected by these problems. The extent of the situation is indicated by Example : Warehouse Inventory Free a study done in Gujarat that determined that water rates were covering about 8% of the cost of actually delivering water to Decembar 2016 Monthly Printable Full farmers.35 The government realized, however, that increasing water prices would be very difficult. Senior officials in the Gujarat Water Resources Department decided in 1995 to address the problem with a new program of Participatory Irrigation and Management. Water Users Associations consisting of farmers using a particular set of irrigation pipes were given responsibility for planning, managing, and maintaining them.
The canals and water distribution pipes would continue to be owned by the government, which would also continue to provide technical and financial assistance. Participatory Irrigation Management was extended to all parts of India after 2002, though it had been suggested in the 1987 National Water Policy references to Inventory Excel Warehouse involving farmers in managing and maintaining irrigation systems. Because water is a state level responsibility, each state has discretion to 2016 Monthly Printable Page,monthly develop its own version of Participatory Irrigation Management; the Ministry of Water Resources in New Delhi has been active in encouraging the sharing of best practices and comparing actual progress in the various systems. The World Bank and the Ford Foundation have also provided the : Warehouse Excel Free Government of India with money to send state irrigation officials and staff from NGOs working on water works or other village programs to other countries where participatory irrigation is more established, including the Philippines, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Turkey, to How To An Invitation To Embassy | Chronological learn about projects there.36 The resulting state Participatory Irrigation Management schemes vary considerably. In 1997 the government of Andhra Pradesh introduced a version of PIM in all parts of the state simultaneously. Other states have used more. incremental approaches, starting pilot projects in a few villages and then extending the more successful schemes to others. John R. Wood, a Canadian water expert, suggests that these efforts to : Warehouse Excel Warehouse establish participatory irrigation project design and Day Weekend » Free management have had mixed success. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Warehouse? In most areas they have led to better maintenance of the system, but their impact on social relations and distribution of resources within villages has often been small. He does note, however, that the requirement to establish a Water Users Association means that farmers with large landholdings have to work together with their less-prosperous neighbors having small landholdings, and that all farmers are moved towards thinking on a village rather than an individual scale. However, the overall social effects of participatory irrigation depend on the extent to which the Write An Invitation Letter | Chronological poor and Example Excel Warehouse traditionally marginalized groups like dalits (untouchables; “scheduled castes” in How To Do A Online For Free Template Do My the language.
Wood 2007, p. 205 notes that pre-payment was the rule in Gujarat except in drought years. Ecotech Services. 1996. The Policy Review of the Land and Water Sector in Gujarat (New Delhi: Royal Netherlands Embassy), p. 32. 36 For instance, Nirmal Sengupta. 1991. Managing Common Property: Irrigation in Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse India and the Philippines. Write An Invitation To Embassy | Chronological? Indo-Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications. of Indian law) are included in village activity.
In areas where traditional hierarchies remain strong, they remain outside.37. The small-scale technologies being used in the projects will allow villages receiving enough rain during the monsoons to move towards self-sufficiency in water. However, those solutions do not address all the needs of drier areas of the country, of cities, or of industry. Thus, the small-scale village water projects will always coexist in national water plans with larger-scale projects. This is foreseen in Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free the Narmada River Project, with its connected network of Otmc Program Download small, medium, and large dams coordinated by computer to provide both hydroelectric generation and water supply. These local projects will coexist with large projects supplying water and hydroelectric power to India’s urban and industrial areas simply because those areas are growing. As India’s economy has developed, there is greater appreciation of the multiple purposes to which large dams can be put.
The lesson came to Madhya Pradesh in a different way, when it lost a considerable portion of its potential electricity supply as 16 districts in the southeast, where much of Madhya Pradesh’s coal and thermal power generation capacity was located, were split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh. With power blackouts increasing in Bhopal, its largest city, the state government began to Spreadsheet Example Excel regard building Sardar Sarovar Dam to Reimbursement Form the full height of 138.68 meters (455 feet) as essential to meeting electricity demand. Madhya Pradesh also became more anxious to Example Free speed up construction of the dams and hydroelectric power houses along its stretch of the Narmada, so anxious that it agreed to have construction work taken over by Program the central government’s National Hydro-electric Power Corporation when the private contractors hired initially ran into Spreadsheet Example Excel Free, financial difficulties. Speeding up a dam construction also required speeding up the process of resettling people. This was complicated in Psd Flyer + Facebook some places by the seasonal pattern of river flow. Significant additional areas of “drawdown” land — land that is underwater for part of the year but reemerges in the dry season as the reservoir empties and can be used to grow a vegetable or watermelon crop in Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Warehouse that season – made it harder to define who should be counted as an oustee because owners of that land often wanted to How To Write An Invitation Letter | Chronological hold on to it.38 The continuing severity of demand for water in Gujarat meant that as soon as the Supreme Court handed down its judgment in 2000 construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam resumed. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory? It quickly reached the authorized 90 meters; and permission was sought to raise it further. It stood 95m high by - Ppt Download the end of 2002 and 100. meters high in 2003.
The 100-meter height created a reservoir high and long enough to Inventory Excel Free Warehouse fill the irrigation canal. An Invitation To Embassy? By the end of Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse 2005 that canal was complete almost to the Gujarat border, with construction of the extension into Rajasthan under way. As construction of Form Sardar Sarovar’s additional height and Example Inventory Excel Warehouse of upriver dams in Madhya Pradesh proceeded, more disputes broke out about treatment of oustees from those projects arose. Allegations that Madhya Pradesh was failing to 2016 Monthly Calendar Printable provide “land for land” were rife; the state government claimed that many oustees preferred money to land. Villagers from Jalsindhi petitioned the Supreme Court for a review, and its March. Wood 2007, Chapter 9. The question of how many people are affected has been controversial from the start, with BNA and Spreadsheet Example Inventory Free others citing higher numbers and the state governments lower ones. Even the World Bank acknowledged numbers varying from 67,340 to Memorial + Facebook Cover » Free 127,446 for Sardar Sarovar alone between 1985 and Inventory Excel 1994. Jonathan A. Fox.
1998. “When does reform policy influence practice?” in Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), Table 9.1, p. 324. 2005 ruling reaffirmed the “land for land” requirement.39 However, later reports suggested that the state was still offering monetary compensation.40 In 2006, NBA complained that Madhya Pradesh was persisting in ignoring the land for land principle and failing to provide resettlement in advance of construction. Madhya Pradesh officials contended in Write | Chronological return that most of the oustees wanted money rather than land. The same issue that had triggered the. initial NBA activism — fair treatment for those whose homes would be lost to rising waters — was still very much alive despite all the changes in Indian politics and in Indian policy regarding water management over the more than 20 years of Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse contention. Similar contentions swirl around construction of the Psd Flyer other large Narmada dams.41.
Lessons for scientists and engineers. The Narmada Dams controversy provides apt demonstration of the ways that large physical infrastructure projects can generate strong contentions among their many stakeholders. It also demonstrates how changing political culture can have severe impacts on project design and execution. The idea of building a dam at Navagam on the Narmada River inspired controversy from the beginning, even when the only stakeholders included in : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse the discussions were the governments of the three states through which the river flows: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. All three wanted to tap the river’s potential as a source of drinking and Memorial Day Weekend Psd Flyer » Free irrigation water and of hydroelectric power, but they disagreed about the Example : Warehouse Excel Warehouse most effective way to How To Do A Resume For Free Do My harness the river with dams. Though India is a federal country in which states’ governments rather than the Union government deal with water-related infrastructure, the fact the river was shared allowed the central government ministries, agencies, and ultimately the Indian Prime Minister to play roles in defining the project.
In 1947-65, when early versions of the Narmada Project were being considered, it was commonplace in its ambitions though Gujarat’s proposals would make the Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Free Sardar Sarovar Dam one of the largest concrete gravity dams in the world.42 The project was designed to rely on centralized, large-scale infrastructure to meet the challenges of Instructional supplying water and electricity to a large area of a country with facing stiff challenges in water management because it receives its annual rainfall in two highly concentrated periods and possessing few fossil fuel resources. Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Free? The procedures for defining and designing the project followed the usual path of such projects in democratic countries: elected officials defined the broad parameters of the project; civil servants and government-employed experts in hydrology, dam design, canal design, and construction of such projects worked out the How To Do A Resume Online For Free Resume Template details. The. broad needs of users were considered, as were Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Ors, Writ Petition (Civil) 328 of 2002, decided March 2003. 2005 AIR 2994, 2005(2) SCR 840. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory search utility at Option4. How To Resume Resume Do My http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 39. “Cash not land on offer for : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse, oustees,” The Hindu 1 December 2005. E.g., Eric Yep, “The Maheshwar Dam – A short-lived victory?” India Real Time, Wall Street Journal Digital Network, 10 May 2010 at Reimbursement http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2010/05/10/the-maheshwar-dam-a-short-lived-victory/ (accessed 4 August 2010); Suchandana Gupta, “Maheshwar Dam: PMO lifts ban on work,” Times of : Warehouse Free India, 9 May 2010 at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5908453.cms (accessed 4 Ag. 2010).
41. 42 Central Water Commission. 2004. Memorial Day Weekend Template Cover? Water and Related Statistics. (New Delhi: Central Water Commission, May 2004), p. Inventory? 60 says that Sardar Sarovar is the third largest such dam, after the Soufengyng Dam in China and the Grand Coulee Dam in the USA. those of persons whose homes would be flooded in the course of the project were considered. Psd Flyer + Facebook Cover » Free? That those whose homes would be flooded received brief consideration is not surprising. They were politically immobilized populations having relatively small numbers (in a country the size of India or in comparison to the number who would benefit from the water and electricity to be supplied) of Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse low social status living in remote areas. How To Resume Do My? Before the 1980s, they had no influential advocates whereas the people who would benefit from the water and the electricity did have such advocates. Yet, it is important to remember that the oustees were not entirely ignored.
The basic notion of monetary compensation for land had been institutionalized in 1894 under British rule and carried forward at independence. Individual project managers, civil servants, and members of the political elite did realize that the system of payment for land often failed oustees, particularly unsophisticated and often illiterate rural dwellers. The judges named to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal were cognizant of that history, and 2016 Monthly Calendar Printable Full determined to do better by ordering that oustees be compensated with land somewhere else in Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Free Warehouse the area to Psd : Graphic Designer Template be irrigated by waters of the Example Inventory Excel Free Warehouse reservoir that would inundate their original homes. Yet, unlike later advocates of Calendar Printable Full Page,monthly indigenous peoples, who would take up the cause of adivasi oustees in the 1980s, members of the tribunal made no provision for adivasi to move as villages and re-create their traditional modes of living; they believed that everyone displaced would be better off in the modern farming villages to be created. Though the environmental and social impact criticisms of the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and the Narmada Project as a whole were raised simultaneously in the late 1980s, resettlement was the primary basis of Spreadsheet Example Inventory Warehouse local challenge and transnational advocacy coalition activity. The most active Indian advocates for the oustees, the Narmada Bachao Andolan, raised three issues: compliance with the NWDT Award requirement of “land for | Chronological, land,” making provision for adivasi to Spreadsheet Example Excel Free continue their traditional ways, and lack of consultation with all stakeholders, including those who would be displaced, during initial consideration of the project. The first was a demand that government authorities do as they had been ordered by a special tribunal.
It refers to the Indian government’s own standards and failure of the Otmc Internship governments involved to follow through in ways the advocacy groups desire has inspired continued mobilization and contention. The second and third issues involved demands to Spreadsheet Free Warehouse apply newly emerged standards to an already begun activity. Here, the Psd Flyer Template + Facebook Cover advocacy groups encounter greater opposition because a lot of money has been spent and the larger numbers of stakeholders anticipating benefits from water use and/or hydropower generation are growing impatient with the long delays stemming from the controversies. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Excel Free? The term “indigenous peoples” denoting distinct populations living in traditional ways who should have. their right to maintain those ways protected was initially applied to native peoples living in an area colonized by Europeans – like Aboriginals in Australia, Maoris in New Zealand, and the many groups variously called “Indians,” “First Nations,” and “Native Americans” in the Western Hemisphere. In the Psd Flyer Template » Free 1990s, it was expanded to include any relatively isolated group, somehow ethnically distinct from the rest of the Spreadsheet Example Excel Free Warehouse population of a country that continues to live in its traditional ways. This expanded definition included the adivasi and How To Write To Embassy | Chronological similar groups in Africa and other parts of : Warehouse Inventory Asia.43 Though Indian legislation has provided certain legal protections for adivasi, the Government of India has resisted the notion that they should be regarded as “indigenous” and covered by Decembar Monthly Calendar Printable Full Page,monthly UN definitions of Example distinct indigenous rights. There is less opposition to the demand that discussions broaden to include all stakeholders.
Since the How To Resume Resume Template efflorescence of Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Free NGOs and | Chronological advocacy groups in the 1980s, the Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Warehouse notion of “bottom up” project planning emerging in development and Option4. Do A For Free Template Do My public policy literatures and 43Notd. in J. K. Das. 2001. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples (New Delhi: APH). practice around the world has won a wider following in India. Yet, this sentiment often coexists with support for large projects when it can be shown that operating only at Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse a small local scale will not fully address some particular need. The environmental challenges to Sardar Sarovar and Template Psd the whole Narmada Project were strengthened in Spreadsheet : Warehouse Warehouse the 1990s as concepts of ecological sustainability and sustainable development became more widely accepted. The World Commission on Dams marked the transition from old to new visions of water management at Instructional Reimbursement the international level, but its work drew on and helped reinforce reconsiderations already underway in many countries, including India. These challenges did not affect the basic design of Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse Sardar Sarovar Dam, which was set by Decembar Calendar Printable Full Page,monthly 1980, or the basic parameters of the Narmada project. However, they did inform project management techniques, and the organization of the.
irrigation systems tied to Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse the canal supplying Narmada waters to Gujarat and Rajasthan. Transnational advocacy had three intertwined but distinct effects on the Narmada Dams: adding to Memorial Day Weekend Psd Flyer Cover » Free the weight of oustee advocates in India, encouraging new visions of Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free water management in How To Online Template all of India, and persuading major shareholders of the World Bank to stop Bank involvement in lending for Sardar Sarovar Dam. The broad coalition of oustee advocates ranging from the moderate ARCH-Vahini to the increasingly radical SETU, were able to use transnational contacts with development organizations like Oxfam and with environmentalist groups to mount a transnational challenge. Rather than focus on the Indian government or the state governments involved, this coalition focused on what it thought was a weak point in the project: dependence on World Bank financing. The World Bank and other MDBs were already being criticized for failure to pay sufficient attention to the social and ecological impacts of their projects; it was easy to add the Spreadsheet Example Excel Narmada Project as another example. This transnational advocacy did raise the issue internationally and helped build support for the oustees, but was not enough to settle the issue in India. The pari passu requirement that oustees must be resettled before the next increment of height is added to Instructional Reimbursement - Oak Sardar Sarovar had several effects: 1) it spread the project costs over a longer period, 2) it gave mostly unprepared state governments longer to muster their capacities or join efforts with NGOs already working in villages, and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Warehouse 3) kept the issue alive longer. Narmada Bachao Andolan is still campaigning, using the - Ppt full repertoire of Gandhian civil resistance techniques, on oustees’ behalf. It still has a network of strong supporters at home and abroad, but does not command as wide respect today as it did in the early 1990s.44 Its continuing campaigns for : Warehouse Inventory, the oustees, the most recent in spring 2010,45 have held the Indian and state governments more closely to the terms of the Option4. Do A Resume Online Resume NWDT Award, but have not realized the : Warehouse Excel Free greater ambition of stopping the project altogether. Even if elites were inclined to give in to NBA’s continuing sit-ins and fasting protests, the user groups are too large for the project to be abandoned.
They are more numerous, have more votes, and at various. times have mounted effective counter-mobilizations. Today, the agricultural and Internship Program urban users are confident that the whole Narmada Project will be built, but are now worrying that a new set. comments in, e.g., Tavleen Singh, “Luddite sisters.” India Today, 22 June 1998; Kirk Leech, “The Narmada Dambusters are Wrong” The Guardian 3 March 2009. Bachao Abndolan protests against Example Inventory Free Warehouse, resettlement program failures regarding Maheshwar Dam in Madhya Pradesh,” available at http://blog.taragana.com/law/2010/02/16/environment-ministry-promises-action-against-narmada-dam-builder-20233/ (accessed 2 Aug. Internship Program? 2010).
of users – industry – now wants a share of Narmada waters. Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Warehouse? Farmers and households are mobilizing to limit allocations to industry on grounds the NWDT Award gave priority to Do A Resume Online For Free Template irrigation and drinking water.46 Transnational networking on issues of water management, dam design, and sustainable development provided opportunities for professionals concerned with the Spreadsheet Example Free environment to Instructional advocate new models of : Warehouse Excel Warehouse water infrastructure – smaller in scale, lower in cost, more attuned to Psd : Graphic Designer Resume Template Psd By natural cycles. The World Commission on Dams made these discussions more visible to the general public, but they would have proceeded as new generations of technical experts trained to pay more attention to the environmental and social impacts of projects rose in their professions. How these new ideas play out depends very much on conditions in each area: small projects can help villages, individual farms, and households with enough land to build their own storage tanks. Cities and industrial complexes will still need larger-scale water infrastructure, though both can do more to use water more efficiently and lose less of it to leaky pipes, contamination by human or animal wastes, or pollution from. Pressuring major member governments to block World Bank loans in 1992 did not work out quite as the Example Inventory Excel Free Warehouse transnational advocacy coalition hoped. The campaign did call attention to Monthly Page,monthly severe problems with World Bank lending and : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse lead to changes in its policies and practices.
It did not lead to stopping or significantly scaling back Sardar Sarovar Dam or the larger Narmada Project. How To An Invitation Letter To Embassy | Chronological? The Indian and state governments remained sufficiently committed to fund the project out of their own resources, resources that have become more plentiful as the pace of India’s economic development picked up in the 1990s and 2000s. The broader effort to limit MDB lending for large dam projects has not stopped all of them. Countries able to finance them through their own resources or by securing loans from private lenders are still going ahead. Contemporary dam projects can benefit from Example Inventory lessons provided by Internship Download the Narmada Project experience, but the extent they do will depend primarily on the orientations of the national actors involved.
Transnational contacts can help spread new ideas, but will only have effect on the politics of dam projects in countries where national institutions permit a wide range of stakeholders to participate effectively in decisions.
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essays in bankruptcy and firm finance. Author by : Cesar E. Tamayo. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 872. File Size : 48,8 Mb. Description : This dissertation investigates the role that capital market imperfections play in shaping the behavior of firms along several dimensions: capital structure, investment policies, bankruptcy decisions and life-cycle dynamics. Spreadsheet Inventory Warehouse! The dissertation puts together two separate but closely related papers, both of which are concerned with bankruptcy and firm financing under asymmetric information and limited enforcement.
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Description : Financial statement analysis has been used to assess a company's likelihood of financial distress - the probability that it will not be able to repay its debts. In the dissertation at hand, I provide two essays that add to the literature on the application of financial analysis to distressed firms. The first chapter is titled Predicting Extreme Negative Stock Returns: The Trouble Score. This chapter examines the ability of accounting information to predict large negative stock returns. The Trouble Score addresses an important gap in the literature. Existing distress risk measures focus on Decembar 2016 Calendar Full Page,monthly predicting the most extreme negative events such as bankruptcy.
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essay synopsis With all TLC manuscript assessments , you are welcome to Spreadsheet Inventory, submit your synopsis and Option4. Resume Do My, cover letter, and we also provide a submission package assessment which looks at your first 50 pages, synopsis, and ‘Dear Agent’ letter. Our fees can be found here , and submission guidelines here . Client feedback can be found here . The dictionary definition of Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse, ‘synopsis’ (derived from the Ancient Greek meaning) is ‘a brief description of the contents of something’. The purpose of a synopsis is to inform a literary agent or publisher of the How To Do A Online Do My, type of book you are writing/have written in a concise, appealing fashion, conveying that you are in command of Example Inventory Excel Free Warehouse, your subject matter. If you want your manuscript to be given serious consideration, a good synopsis is a crucial part of Decembar Calendar Full Page,monthly, your submission.
The Writers’ Artists’ Yearbook will inform you that most publishing houses no longer accept direct submissions but those that do (usually the smaller houses) will usually ask for a cover letter, synopsis and sample chapters rather than a whole work in the first instance. The same applies to literary agents. To put it simply, the sample chapters are to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Excel Warehouse, show how you write, and the synopsis is to tell the reader what happens when they have finished reading them. This will help inform the publisher/literary agent whether they think it is worth their while to read more. Then, if they do want to read more, they will ask you. So, the bottom line is this – if you want to Monthly Full, have your manuscript read in its entirety you must invest time in getting your cover letter and book synopsis right.
I know from my experiences at TLC that many writers can get disconcerted and nervous by Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free having to produce a synopsis and there are usually two reasons why. First, a writer might have an unwieldy story that they themselves are not 100 per cent convinced by, or a non-fiction project that they do not really know enough about. If this is so, summarising can be difficult because the level of How To Letter To Embassy, thinking through and planning of the project has not been done in the first place. In this instance, I would urge the Spreadsheet Inventory Excel, writer to question why this process is + Facebook » Free, so difficult. If it is because the story is insufficiently clear, persuasive or gripping, then more work needs to be done to get the manuscript into the kind of shape that would persuade an agent or editor to consider it further. Second, a writer might genuinely be able to Example : Warehouse Free, write a good book but not be experienced in the art of summarising a work in an effective manner. Option4. For Free Resume Template. A few might even consider the Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free Warehouse, act of doing so demeaning.
If this is the case, I would urge you to Write An Invitation, think not of yourself, but of the Spreadsheet Inventory Excel, reader, and treat the project as a literary exercise which you should try to enjoy: a challenge and opportunity to Online Resume Do My, show your work off in its essential form. It might help to refer to book blurbs, or plot summaries in reference books such as The Oxford Companion to Literature, or online, for example in Wikipedia. In addition to letting a professional reader know what happens in your manuscript, the synopsis will also let them know at a glance if you have thought about how your work fits in to the market. This is critical in non-fiction, less so with fiction, although with fiction awareness of what genre you have written in is vital. Spreadsheet Example Excel Free Warehouse. Also, if what you are writing coincides with any major anniversaries for example, or might have a marketing ‘hook’ of any other kind, this is important to mention if not within the synopsis itself, then within a cover letter. A fiction synopsis should comprise a brief summary followed by a more detailed synopsis. But before writing either of 2016, these, you must clarify which genre your work fits into. The most important thing to realise about fiction in respect of how you present it to representatives of the publishing industry is that it breaks down into different types, or genres.
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A good starting point is to Psd Flyer Template + Facebook Cover, read books you consider similar to : Warehouse, the one you are writing that are already published, and Template + Facebook, note how they are classified on the back cover. By reading, and sometimes studying literature and writing through other routes, you will also learn the possibilities and limits offered by your chosen genre. The bad news is Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse, if you don’t clarify what kind of book you have written, the chances are it will reflect in the text. If you don’t clearly inform the agent or editor what your book is about and Decembar 2016 Calendar Printable Full Page,monthly, which category it falls into, it may all too quickly be labelled as a work which ‘falls between stools’ , is impossible to market and so doesn’t get considered any further. Having made it your top priority to identify what type of novel you have written, you can make a start on your all-important synopsis. All good synopses should begin with a brief summary of 30–75 words, the sort of thing which appears on a book’s back cover. For example, had you written Pride and Prejudice today: Pride and Prejudice is a contemporary, literary romance about a woman who falls in love with a man she thinks she hates. Pride and Prejudice, a contemporary, literary novel, tells the : Warehouse Inventory Excel, story of Memorial Day Weekend + Facebook Cover » Free, Elizabeth Bennett, a proud, intelligent woman, one of five sisters, whose mother is committed to marrying her children off as a matter of urgency. Elizabeth meets Darcy, owner of : Warehouse Inventory Excel Free Warehouse, a grand estate, but considers him over proud, arrogant and undesirable.
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Mr Bingley is an important character who is very handsome, but is he as handsome as Mr Darcy? It is hard to tell! … Hopefully you can see the clear differences between the two. Following the brief summary should be a more detailed synopsis of Spreadsheet Example Inventory Free Warehouse, 350–450 words. Literary agents do not want a detailed chapter-by-chapter breakdown (if they do, they’ll ask for one) as reading them can be tiresome and difficult to follow. The main aim of the longer synopsis is to Full Page,monthly, give a detailed overview which clearly and concisely conveys how the story flows and unfolds, and (very importantly) what is interesting about it. The longer synopsis should also reconfirm when the story is set (i.e. is it contemporary or historical?); the setting or background (e.g. is Thatcher’s government in its last throes or are we in a quiet Devonshire village where nothing ever happens, but there is a sense of Inventory Excel Free, impending doom?); inform the reader about the central character (i.e. what is interesting about them and what happens on Otmc Program - Ppt Download, their journey), as well as giving brief reference to other characters that are directly pivotal to the plot. Spreadsheet : Warehouse Free. The longer synopsis should also highlight the Option4. Resume, dramatic turning points and tell the reader of any other salient information which will help convey what kind of Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Free, work it is, how well imagined are the characters involved and how well thought through and alluring is the Memorial » Free, plot. Alongside the synopsis should also be an Spreadsheet Example Warehouse, excellent, economically written and Day Weekend Psd Flyer Template + Facebook, confident sounding cover letter. This should simply address a well-researched literary agent by name (never put a generic ‘Dear Sir/Madam’). In this you should say that you are enclosing a novel called ‘X’, which is a thriller/literary/coming-of-age/horror novel (identify genre). It does not matter if this is repeated on the synopsis page.
You may also wish to refer to writers you feel you are similar to, although do be careful not to have misplaced arrogance in this. You might say ‘I write in the genre of John Grisham because he is a writer I read and Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse, hugely admire’ or you might say ‘this is a novel in which To Kill a Mockingbird meets Crash’ or ‘Harper Lee meets J.G Ballard’ – but do be careful that you know you have the talent to claims like these. Otherwise, let the agent decide and they will help market you to the publisher, and Memorial Day Weekend Template, the publisher then help market you to Example : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse, the public. If you admire an agent for a particular reason, such as they publish a hero or heroine of yours, let them know. If you have something interesting to say about yourself, such as that you have won a writing competition or published before in relevant publications, do include this briefly in - Ppt, the cover letter.
It is for Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Excel you to Letter To Embassy | Chronological, judge what is of particular interest about you, and how much to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Warehouse, say, but you should also provide a fuller biographical note which sits well at the bottom of the synopsis page. Free Psd : Creative Designer. This should be between 50 and 200 words as a guide. If you have been published provide a summarised list of publications here. If you have not, or are trying to hide a career you think has gone off track and Example : Warehouse, want to appear fresh, keep it brief and mention what you do, your age and Instructional, anything that makes you sound interesting. Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel. If your career is Designer, related to your subject matter, then do say this. For example ‘I worked as a miner for twenty year’ if your book is set in a mining community. Example : Warehouse. Do avoid listing technical publications as evidence of writing ability if you are submitting fiction. Otmc Internship - Ppt. There is an enormous difference between writing technically and Spreadsheet : Warehouse Inventory Free Warehouse, writing fiction, and if you don’t seem to know this it is not impressive. This is different for Creative Resume Template non-fiction. Inventory Excel. As a rule, err on the side of Internship - Ppt Download, brevity if necessary. If the reader loves your work they will be in Spreadsheet Example Inventory Free, touch to Creative Designer Template Psd By, find out more about you.
For help with learning how to self-market read Marketing Your Book: An Author’s Guide by Alison Baverstock. NB: If the work is literary, there may be less emphasis on plot and more on the quality of the Example : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse, prose. Due to current climates and Form, publishing trends, this is a difficult time to publish literary fiction without strong plots, although things undoubtedly will change. A synopsis for a work of non-fiction performs a different function. The consideration of whether a non-fiction book has a potential market is generally more straightforward than for new fiction. Spreadsheet Example Inventory Excel Free. In the Internship - Ppt Download, case of non-fiction you should certainly have carefully researched your market before submission and ideally list the competitors in Spreadsheet Example Excel Warehouse, the field, outlining why your project is different and why you are the writer best positioned to Otmc Internship Program, write the Example : Warehouse Inventory Excel Warehouse, book you have. Online For Free Resume Do My. Also, you should be able to list any marketing opportunities you believe your book may have, such as identifiable, or even guaranteed readers such as students if you teach a course, anniversary tie-ins and so on. A literary agent is often prepared to sell a non-fiction work on synopsis and chapters only. This is an Free Warehouse, extreme rarity in the case of How To, fiction. This is because it is easier for people to Spreadsheet Example : Warehouse Free, see if there is a market gap that can be filled by the project, before the work is finished. You may not need an agent for certain, more niche types of non-fiction book.
In these cases publishers may well be prepared to take direct submissions from you. Again, this is because in Instructional Form - Oak, the area of self-help or business books for example, a list will know clearly what it’s gaps are. It may have a standard format it is looking to sell books in. Example Excel. You should certainly research these formats and contact editors specialised lists to find out if they do have space for your idea, and so that they can let you know exactly how they like work to be presented before forming the project in your mind. I think it best in general for the non-fiction writer to prepare two different types of proposal. The first would form an initial pitch and the second the Day Weekend Template » Free, follow-up proposal if the editor or literary agent asks to see more. Both documents need to be thoroughly persuasive as these may go directly towards securing a book deal. This should be no more than one to two pages.
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I have seen perfectly polished synopses followed by poor writing. The net result of this is that one feels excited, only to be let down, which is off-putting in itself. If you have the skill to write a gripping synopsis, do ensure that you have used your energies wisely in advance of submitting and make sure that the : Warehouse Excel Free Warehouse, book itself is Internship - Ppt, as good as it can be. Focus, particularly, on : Warehouse Free, the fine-tuning of the opening 50 pages. Free Psd : Graphic Designer Resume Psd. Unless your synopsis and summary are actively off-putting, they should generally serve as a flag to indicate to the reader where they are beginning and then as a guide to the story beyond the extract submission.
If the agent or publisher likes what they see well enough to ask for more … well done! Oh and good luck. Prue Leith on her experience of TLC. “Over the previous few days, Leonie had asked Venus questions The reports I had from TLC were my teachers and