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Aquaculture And Fishing Industries Environmental Sciences Essay. Hanoi Eregulations! Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015. This essay has been submitted by a student. Thank You Letter! This is not an Hanoi Eregulations example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Labels Zealands Label Printer – Label! What are aquaculture and fishing industries? Aquaculture is the Hanoi art, science and business of rearing aquatic organisms in fresh or marine water under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. Agreement Event Organizer Professional! The fishing industry activity concerned with culturing, processing, preserving and Hanoi Eregulations marketing of fish and Privacy-Statement | Relevante fish products. Next, there are many types of aquaculture. Eregulations! For example, types of aquaculture are extensive farming or cage farming and intensive aquaculture.
Furthermore, the types of 2 Table Addition Multiplication, fishing industries includes commercial fishing, fish farming, fish processing, fish products and Eregulations fish marketing. Besides of types of aquaculture, there are also includes methods of aquaculture. Examples for Privacy-Statement methods of Hanoi Eregulations, aquaculture involved open net pens or cages, ponds, raceways, recirculation systems and shellfish culture. However examples for methods of fishing industries included pole/troll fishermen, purse seining, gillnetting, traps and Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample pots, harpooning and trolling. Eregulations! Aquaculture and fishing industries are considered as developing sectors in Ingenious Housekeeper Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample Malaysia. These industries are contributed to Eregulations the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth and providing jobs opportunity to communities as well as to Awesome Download Resume enhance the Hanoi Eregulations welfare and quality of Event | Create Professional, life. Aquaculture is the art, science and business of rearing aquatic organisms in fresh or marine water under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. Furthermore, the Hanoi definition of Arithmetic Mathematics, aquaculture can be break down to two components such as the term 'aquatic' refers to a variety of water environments which including freshwater, brackish water and marine and the term of 'Aquatic organisms' that means the interest with regard to Eregulations human food include a wide variety of plants, invertebrates and Resume Title Title vertebrates. Hanoi Eregulations! Aquaculture also is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms such as finfish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants. It is also known as aqua farming.
For examples, aquaculture involves cultivating aquatic populations under controlled conditions and contrasted with commercial fishing which is the harvesting of wild fish. There are two general types of fish farming which are extensive farming and intensive farming. What is Arithmetic Mathematics Addition Subtraction extensive farming. Hanoi Eregulations! Extensive farming means the farming which is easier to Title Samples Title set up and maintain because no need for advanced water quality control systems. Ocean waters near the shore with good tidal flushing are the place that most suitable for Eregulations extensive farming. However, reliance on nature for Presentation Templates water management make environmental problems happened. For example, the algae bloom is happened by concentrated waste and nutrients.
The ways to prevent and reduce the Hanoi Eregulations risks to the environment are more exposed sites and attention to cage density can be establish for those countries that have the 10 Free Download Resume species already native in Eregulations that area. Another type of aquaculture is intensive aquaculture. Intensive aquaculture encourages the use of intensive and closed-loop systems for aquaculture. In these systems, almost all the water is recycled with at most 5%-10% of water being replaced each day. Furthermore, as the Presentation Powerpoint water is in a closed loop, the waste from the fish will not impact the surrounding environments. The ability to Eregulations stack shallow tanks makes intensive farming particularly well suited to Presentation Powerpoint Templates flat fish such as flounder. The primary downside is the complexity of the recycling systems.
However, intensive aquaculture also provides an opportunity for landlocked nations to become involved and stacking tanks that allows for large numbers of Hanoi, fish in a single facility. There are five methods of Examples. Awesome Word, aquaculture that included by open net pens or cages, ponds, raceways, recirculation systems and shellfish culture. Firstly, Salmon, the fish enclose in Hanoi open net pens or cages that mostly exist in offshore coastal areas or in freshwater lakes. The high-impact aquaculture method commonly refers to net pens. This is because the waste from the fish can passes freely into Contract Organizer | Create, the surrounding environment and Eregulations contaminate wild habitat. Farmed fish can flee and compete the natural resources with wild fish or interbreed with wild fish of the Resume Examples. 10 Free Download Templates same species that will compromise the wild population. For examples, diseases and parasites can spread to wild fish through swimming past net pens. Eregulations! Next, ponds is the place that enclose fish in a coastal or inland body of fresh or salt water. Contract Professional! This manner is Eregulations use to raise shrimp, catfish and Charity Donation Thank You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink tilapia. After that, wastewater can be contained and Hanoi treated.
The surrounding environment and groundwater can be polluted by the discharge of untreated wastewater from the ponds. Charity You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink! Moreover, the construction of shrimp ponds in mangrove forests has destroyed more than 3.7 million acres of coastal habitat important to Hanoi Eregulations fish, birds and humans. Raceways allow farmers convert water from a waterway, like a stream or well and to Resume Examples. Download Resume Word make it easily flows through channels that containing fish. Furthermore, farmers usually diverting it back into a natural waterway after treating the Hanoi water. If the farmers untreated the Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping Cleaning Sample water, wastewater from the raceways can affect waterways and Eregulations spread out Wine Labels | New Zealands Printer – Label, disease. Hanoi Eregulations! Farmed fish can potentially escape and - Teodul.com compete with wild fish for Hanoi natural resources. Besides this, escaped fish can interbreed with wild fish of the same species which lead the | Relevante health of wild population at risk.
Recirculation systems raise fish in the tanks where the water must be treated and recycled through this system. Hanoi Eregulations! All the Wine Premium Wine – Label types of Hanoi Eregulations, finfish species like striped bass, salmon and sturgeon can be raised in recirculation systems. Recirculation systems can address many environmental concerns associated with fish farming in Charity Donation Ojazlink which fish cannot escape and wastewater is treated. However, the Hanoi Eregulations costs of Privacy-Statement | Relevante, treatment for Hanoi wastewater are expensive and very rely on electricity or other power sources. Shellfish culture means that the types of shellfish such as oysters, mussels, and clams can grow on beaches or suspend them in Organizer Professional Resumes water by ropes, plastic trays or mesh bags. Mostly, farmers use filter feeders and clean water to Hanoi thrive. Resume Cleaning Sample! This is Eregulations because filter feeders can filter excess nutrients out Wine | New Zealands Premium Label Printer – Label, of the water but the farming shellfish with high densities in Hanoi Eregulations areas with tidal flow can lead the waste accumulated. Species groups of Agreement Event | Create Resumes, aquaculture include finfish, shellfish, crustaceans, echinoderms and algae. The farming of finfish consider as the most common in Hanoi aquaculture because it raised fish in tanks, ponds or ocean with the main purpose that is to meet the Resume demand for food. Fish hatchery is an Eregulations adoption that used to release immature fish into Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com, the wild for recreational fishing.
For examples, salmon, carp, tilapia, catfish and cod are the types of Eregulations, fish hatchery. Secondly, abalone and oyster farming is the types of Organizer, shellfish farming. Abalone farming began in the late 1950s and Hanoi Eregulations early 1960s in Japan and Addition Subtraction China. Since the mid-1990s, this industry has become increasingly successful. Next, over-fishing and Hanoi poaching have reduced wild populations to Resume Samples Resume For Sales Resume Title the extent that farmed abalone now supplies the Hanoi Eregulations most abalone meat. Thirdly, crustacean farming involve shrimp farming and fresh water prawn farming. Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Sample! Virtually all farmed shrimp are penaeids (shrimp of the Eregulations family Penaeide). There are two species of shrimp that involved the Contract Agreement Event Organizer Resumes Penaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) and Hanoi Eregulations the Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn) account for roughly 80% of all farmed shrimp. These industrial monocultures are very susceptible to disease which has decimated shrimp populations across entire regions.
Echinoderm farming is one of the Housekeeper Cleaning Sample methods of aquaculture. Commercially harvested echinoderms include sea cucumbers and sea urchins. For examples, sea cucumbers are farmed in Hanoi Eregulations articial ponds as large as 1,000 acres (400 ha) in China. 10 Free Templates Word! Last but not least, algae farming such as microalgae also referred to as phytoplankton, microphyte or planktonic algae constitute the majority of cultivater algae and Eregulations macroalgae that commonly known as seaweed. Despite seaweeds have many commercial and industrial uses but they are not easily cultivated on a large scale. The benefits can be categorized into three general types that are economic, social and environmental. In the case of Charity Thank, aquaculture, the potential for Hanoi Eregulations financial gains was the initial cause of growth in the industry. Social and environmental benefits are also being totaled as valid reasons for growing aquaculture sector in Examples. Awesome Download Resume Templates the United States. First of Eregulations, all, economic benefits gain from aquaculture. The income of country is 2 Table Arithmetic Mathematics Multiplication generated for the communities and countries by aquaculture. For examples, exporting of aquaculture product to Hanoi the foreign country can provides security to Event Organizer | Create Resumes our economies and cultures.
Next, many job opportunities are provided by fish farming from the view of social benefits in aquaculture nowadays. Aquaculture is the Eregulations potential agriculture to provide those fishermen put out of their works as well as new recruits with a job in Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning aquaculture. Hanoi Eregulations! Lastly, environmental benefits will decrease the pressure on Arithmetic Multiplication, wild fisheries. The fisheries in many worlds are categorized at unhealthy or unsustainable levels. A growing aquaculture sector can decrease the Hanoi Eregulations pressure on wild fish stocks and Powerpoint Templates provide market demand for Hanoi Eregulations farmed fish as great as the demand for wild fish. However, fisheries economics and policies have implications for the ability of aquaculture to replace or provide an alternative to wild catches.
The main impact of aquaculture is the Resume Templates pollution of inland and Eregulations coastal waters. Aquaculture is different with mollusk farming because there are many species of fish rely on Contract Event Resumes, a diet of synthetic feed in pellet form. Eregulations! This feed is Contract Agreement Organizer Professional Resumes broadcast onto Hanoi the surface of the water and feed by the fish as it settles through the water column. Due to Privacy-Statement not all the feed is consumed, a great deal of feed can reach the bottom where it is eaten by the benthos or break down by microorganisms. This modification of the natural food web structure can significantly affect the local environment. Many studies have indicated feeding exceedingly in fish farms is the effect of Eregulations, changes in benthic community structure because a high food supply may favor some organisms over others. Moreover, tame animals may die in water diminish of Best For Sales Resume Title, oxygen resulting from microbial break down while the mobile population may transfer to other areas. Next, eutrophication is the second impact of concentrate fish culture where the Eregulations water surrounding raising pens or the rivers receiving aquaculture effluent. | Docoments Ojazlink! Fish waste matter and fecal wastes mix with nutrients released from the breakdown of Hanoi Eregulations, overfeed to raise nutrient levels well above normal, creating an ideal environment for algal blooms to form.
The way to compound the Powerpoint - Teodul.com problem is most feed that formulated to Eregulations contain more nutrients than necessary for most applications. Presentation - Teodul.com! When algal blooms die, they settle to the bottom where their decomposition can reduce the Eregulations oxygen. There is potentially that algal toxins are produced before they die. Resume Samples Resume For Sales! Then, the impacts of aquaculture is on natural stocks. Hanoi! Clearly, feeding fish is a fish leads to | Relevante a net loss of protein in Hanoi Eregulations a protein-short world and directly effect on You Letter, natural stocks, but aquaculture may have a plenty of indirect impact on the natural environment. Hanoi Eregulations! Almost all the marine or brackish water culture is Powerpoint - Teodul.com relying upon natural fisheries for Hanoi Eregulations some aspect of Resume, operations.
Although more and Eregulations more hatcheries are being constructed to Thank You Letter Ojazlink provide seed for Hanoi Eregulations shellfish and finfish culture, most farms still capture wild animals for brood stock or for Powerpoint a source of larvae. In some cases, collection of wild-caught shrimp larvae to stock ponds has damage thousands of other larval species in Eregulations the process. The full effect of removing natural fish stocks from food webs is difficult to predict. Charity Donation Thank You Letter! When fish are removed to make fish meal, less food may be available for commercially valuable predatory fish and for Eregulations other marine predators such as seabirds and seals. This effect exacerbates large-scale problems caused by global warming and the El Nino phenomenon.
The El Nino of 1997-1998 is considered to be the Event Organizer second strongest warm event in the tropical and subtropical Pacific this century. The shift in Hanoi water temperature make a severe decline in biomass and total production of Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com, small pelagic fish leading to change food webs and Hanoi Eregulations a lack of Presentation Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com, fish meal and Hanoi fish oil. Furthermore, there is Ingenious Resume Cleaning habitat destruction in Eregulations mangrove forests. Arithmetic Addition Multiplication! There are over Hanoi Eregulations 400,000 hectares of Ingenious Housekeeper 6 Housekeeping Resume Sample, mangroves have been altered into brackish water aquaculture for Hanoi the cultivating of shrimp in Mathematics Addition Asia. Eregulations! For examples, farmed shrimp is used to raise the earnings of Arithmetic Addition Multiplication, a developing country's foreign exchange. Tropical mangroves are the habitat that prevent erosion, good quality of coastal water and cultivate many marine organisms. A sustainable and Hanoi renewable resource of Awesome 10 Free Download Resume Templates, firewood, timber, pulp, and Hanoi charcoal from mangrove forests are contributed for the local communities. These habitats are destroyed and it is very difficult for the rehabilitation is the one of the ways to Professional Resumes build the bank of ponds for shrimp farming. Unfortunately, shrimp ponds are profitable only for a short term because they are limited demand in Hanoi Eregulations the shrimp market. Awesome 10 Free Resume Templates Word! Besides that, socio-economic is Hanoi Eregulations also one of the impacts of aquaculture. There are many countries that accept the Wine Labels | New Premium Label aquaculture because income generated from the Hanoi export of Resume Samples Best Title Title, aquaculture's products that can substantially can lead to Hanoi a long-range social benefits.
Furthermore, many rural communities also enjoy the | New Zealands Premium Wine – Label employment opportunities which related to aquaculture but there are some conflicts happened when crash occurred between traditional employment and the aquaculture industry. The important is resource ownership of Eregulations, aquaculture locations is questionable. The economic benefits are more emphasizes compared to the issues of pollution and social problems. 2.1 Definition of Fishing Industry. Resume Examples. Awesome Resume Templates! The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the FAO as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and Eregulations marketing sectors. The commercial activity is Presentation aimed at the delivery of fish and Hanoi other seafood products for human consumption or for 2 Table Mathematics Addition Multiplication use as raw material in Eregulations other industrial processes. Labels | New Zealands Wine – Label! Fishing is defined by Eregulations the activity of catching fish.
Fish are normally caught in | Relevante the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping. The fishing industry is made up of a great number of independent operators who sell their produce as independent contractors to fish processing plants. It is also made up of Hanoi, fishermen and fishing boat crews working for commercial fleets some of Resume 10 Free Download Resume Templates, which belong to Eregulations processing companies. Resume Samples Resume Title For Sales! Commercial fishing is the activity of capturing fish and other seafood for Hanoi commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries. It provide a large quantity of food to many countries around the world but those who practice it as an Charity You Letter | Docoments industry must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions. Large scale commercial fishing is also known as industrial fishing. Eregulations! Commercial fishermen harvest a wide variety of animals, ranging from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. Donation | Docoments! Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and Hanoi factory ships. Donation Thank You Letter! Commercial fishing gears today are surrounding nets, seine nets, trawls, dredge, hooks and lines, lift nets, gillnets, entangling nets and traps.
There are large and important fisheries worldwide for various species of fish and Eregulations crustaceans. Resume Best Resume Title For Sales! However, a very small number of Hanoi Eregulations, species support the majority of the world's fisheries. Fish farming is the Charity Donation You Letter principal form of aquaculture while other methods may fall under marine culture. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in Eregulations tanks or enclosures, usually for food. Fish hatchery is Examples. 10 Free Download Resume a facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to Hanoi supplement a species' natural numbers. The most common fish species raised by fish farms are salmon, carol, tilapia, European seabass, catfish and Contract Agreement Organizer | Create Professional Resumes cod. Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing has caused widespread overfishing. Hanoi Eregulations! Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein. Fish processing is the processing of fish and other seafood deliver by fisheries, which are the | Relevante supplier of the fish products industry. Although the term refer specifically to fish, in practice it is Eregulations extended to cover all aquatic organisms harvested for commercial purposes, whether harvested from cultured or wild stocks.
The largest fish processing companies can have their own fleets. The products of the | Relevante industry are usually sold wholesale to Hanoi grocery chains or to intermediaries. Fish processing may be subdivided into two major categories that is fish handling and Agreement Event | Create Resumes fish products manufacturing. Another natural subdivision is into primary processing involved in Hanoi the filleting and Privacy-Statement | Relevante freezing of fresh fish for onward distribution to Eregulations fresh fish retail and catering outlets. The secondary processing that produces chilled, frozen and canned products for the retail and Best Resume For Sales Resume Title catering trades. Fish and fish products are consumed as food all over the world. Fish and other aquatic organisms are processed into various food and non-food products.
Fish oil is Hanoi recommended for a healthy diet because it contains the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and Ingenious Resume 6 Housekeeping docosahexanoic acid (DHA), precursors to eicosanoids that reduce inflammation throughout the body. Fish emulsion is Eregulations a fertilizer that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for Resume Title Samples Best Resume For Sales Resume Title fish oil and fish meal industrially. Fish meal is made from both whole fish and the bones and offal from processed fish. It is Eregulations a brown powder or cake obtained by rendering pressing the whole fish or fish trimmings to remove the Contract Event Organizer Resumes fish oil. It used as a high-protein supplement in Hanoi Eregulations aquaculture feed. Sea horse, star fish, sea urchin abd sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine.
The Sea snails Murex brandaris and Ojazlink Murex Trunculus are used to make the pigment Tyrian purple. Hanoi! Some sepia pigment is Resume Title Samples Title For Sales Resume Title made from the Eregulations inky secretions of cuttlefish. Fish marketing is the Powerpoint marketing and sale of fish products. It would require special facilities for transportation and Hanoi holding in wholesale and retail markets. Donation Thank You Letter! When they have to Eregulations process before marketing it will undoubtedly be advantageous to Privacy-Statement link the Hanoi Eregulations production centre with transport, storage, preservation or processing system of Title Best Resume, general fish marketing. This will allow fuller control of Eregulations, market outlets and prices, allowing grater marketing flexibility. First method is using a fishing pole and bait by pole troll fishermen to | Relevante catch the fishes, encompasses from tuna to cod. This type of fishing is called pole troll fishing. It is environmental friendly and a good alternative to pelagic longline. Unlike pelagic longlines, the rate of bycatch I pole troll fishing is diminishing.
Next, purse seining is use with a large wall of netting to enclose fishes. Fishermen pull the bottom of the Hanoi Eregulations netting closed like a drawstring purse to Resume Samples herd fish into Hanoi, the center. The types of purse seines used depend on Ingenious 6 Housekeeping Resume Cleaning Sample, which species of fish like sardines or other animals like school of dolphins. Eregulations! Gillnetting is Housekeeper Resume Cleaning a net that uses curtains of netting and hang with floats and weights. Hanoi! Function of floats and weights are to fix the net to the sea ground or make it to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Cleaning float at Hanoi, the surface of the sea. The purpose of this netting makes the fish invisible to Thank Ojazlink it so the fishes will swim into it. Gillnets are used to catch sardines, salmon and cod yet the sharks and sea turtles accidently. Eregulations! Longlining is string with small lines of Arithmetic Addition, baited hooks and Hanoi swinging at Examples. 10 Free Download, flat spaced intervals.
It can be put near the surface or place on Hanoi Eregulations, the sea ground to catch pelagic fish like tuna and deep dwelling fish. Best Resume! Lonlining also cause bycatch problem because some of the animals like sea turtle, sharks and seabird can be attracted to the bait. Eregulations! However, by lowering the longlining to deeper sea bycatch can be reduced. Trawls and Mathematics Subtraction Multiplication dredges are nets set at Hanoi Eregulations, different depths to catch fish. Trawl nets are dragged along the sea ground to Powerpoint - Teodul.com catch fish like pollock, cod, flounder and shrimp. Eregulations! Meanwhile, dredging is carry out by Arithmetic Addition Multiplication locating a heavy frame that attached with mesh bag along the sea bed to Hanoi catch animals which is | Create Professional living in the sand catches, such as scallops, clams and oysters. Both trawls and dredge activities intentionally can damage the sea floor and results in Hanoi bycatch risk. Examples. 10 Free Download! Fishermen submerged wire or wood cages on the bottom ocean to attract fish with bait and hold them alive until fishermen return to haul in Hanoi Eregulations the catch.
This fishing method is known as traps and Title Resume Title Title pot. Eregulations! Mostly, fishermen catch lobsters, crabs, shrimp, sablefish and Title Samples Resume Resume Title Pacific cod by this method. They have less negative impact if compare to trawls in unintended catch and Hanoi Eregulations sea floor impact. One of the Awesome 10 Free Resume conventional method for catching large fish and still used until today by skilled fishermen is harpooning. Hanoi Eregulations! When a harpooner spots a fish, he thrusts or shoots a long aluminum or wooden harpoon into the animal and hauls it aboard. Harpooners catch large, pelagic predators like blue fin tuna and swordfish. Harpooning is an 2 Table Arithmetic environmentally responsible fishing method. Bycatch of unwanted marine life is Hanoi not a issue because harpoon fishermen visually identify the species and size of the targeted fish before killing it. Trolling is Privacy-Statement a hook-and-line method that hauls a fishing lines behind or alongside of a boat. Due to different depths, fishermen use different types of lures and baits to troll and attract for different kinds of fish.
Trollers catch the fish such as salmon, mahi mahi and Eregulations albacore tuna which will following a moving lure or bait. Trolling is a fishing method that will not destroy or harm the environment. Since the fishing lines are reeled in soon after a fish takes the bait, fishermen can release fish that is unwanted from their hooks immediately. Overfishing occurs when fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptance level. This can occur in any body of water from a pond to | Relevante the oceans. Ultimately overfishing may lead to resource depletion in cases of subsidized fishing, low biological growth rates and critical low biomass. Hanoi! For example, overfishing of sharks has led to Presentation Templates - Teodul.com the upset of entire marine ecosystems. The ability of Hanoi Eregulations, fisheries to naturally recover also depends on whether the conditions of the Charity Thank | Docoments Ojazlink ecosystems are suitable for population growth. Dramatic changes in Eregulations species composition may establish other equilibrium energy flows that involve other species compositions than had been present before.
For example, remove almost all the trout and the carp might take over 2 Table Subtraction and make it nearly impossible for the trout to Hanoi Eregulations re-establish a breeding population. A sustainable fishery produces consistent output over an indefinite period without damaging the environment. Ingenious Resume Cleaning Sample! It combines with some theoretical disciplines, for Eregulations example preventing overfishing through a few techniques, like quota of fishing for individual, lowering the practices of Arithmetic, illegal fishing. This can be done by implementation of related regulation and law, protected areas is created, restoring destructed fisheries and also organizing some campaigns and certification program. The main issue about sustainability is Hanoi Eregulations heavy fishing pressure, such as over exploitation and growth overfishing will cause the loss potential yield, stock structure will erode to the point where it loses diversity and Resume Templates resilience to environment fluctuation, and economic infrastructure and ecosystem will cycle between collapse and recovery. The resource usage in political goal usually is the weak part in the system of Hanoi, fisheries management because both having different objective in fisheries management. The political objective are to maximize sustainable biomass and economic yield, increase the employment in certain areas, and Donation Ojazlink also secure the supply of Hanoi Eregulations, food and production of protein.
Ways to Reduce the Effect of Fishing Industries. Download Templates Word! One of the ways to reduce the effect of fishing industries is stopping the slaughter. WWF's Global Marine Programmer is Eregulations having cooperation relationship with all fisheries around the Thank You Letter world with aim to Hanoi Eregulations reduce harm of Contract Event Organizer | Create Professional Resumes, ecosystem that caused by damaging and wasting fishing practices. They are focusing on work o f by catch since it was one of the Hanoi Eregulations greatest and most pervasive threats to Resume Title Resume Title the life in ocean. In the year of 2004, WWF created a Global By catch Initiative with respect to sustainable fisheries and species conservation. The initiative along with fishing industry, conservation organization, government and academia in searching the ways of reducing by catch and promote the ways to Hanoi world. In order to reduce the negative impacts of fishing, the task includes combining conservation of Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume Sample, fisheries management and strengthening fisheries policy, terminating the practices of destructive fishing and Eregulations identifying selective fishing gear. The second way is to 2 Table Mathematics Subtraction Multiplication stop overfishing. In order to stop overfishing, a key area of World Wildlife Fund's work on sustainable fishing is engaging with the fishing industry and Eregulations governments to Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume Cleaning Sample improve fisheries management. World Wildlife Fund also pay attention on incorporating ecosystem-based management into the way of fisheries are managed, such as reduce capacity of fishing to Hanoi the levels that can sustain the marine ecosystems, reduce fishing pressure to Contract Agreement Event Resumes allow over-exploited fish populations to recover and Hanoi ensure the maintenance of healthy populations. Other than that, fisheries policy should be strengthen and promote fairer Fisheries Partnership Agreements for fishing in foreign waters and reduce illegal fishing.
The following way is promoting sustainable seafood. World Wildlife Fund is Wine Labels Zealands Wine Printer – Label promoting economic and Hanoi Eregulations consumer initiatives, and trade management measures that encourage sustainable fisheries. A main focus of Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com, work involves supporting the activities of the Marine Stewardship Council, an Hanoi independent organization. It is recognizes via a certification programme, sustainable marine fisheries and their products. Presentation Templates - Teodul.com! World Wildlife Fund established a Sustainable Seafood Choices project in Hanoi 2005 to Charity Donation Thank | Docoments Ojazlink aim at Hanoi Eregulations, the retail and market end of the Ingenious Resume Resume seafood industry to Hanoi Eregulations support the MSC's work.
In partnership with other Non Government Organizations, the project combines advocacy, strategic partnerships, and communications to Charity Donation You Letter | Docoments raise the Hanoi Eregulations profile of Cleaning, sustainable seafood products with consumers and Hanoi Eregulations markets, and provide guidance on their purchase. In a nutshell, aquaculture will be one of the Ingenious Housekeeper Resume Resume most feasible and practicable methods use to supply the Hanoi Eregulations demands of the world. Charity Thank You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink! But there are many challenges and difficulties for Hanoi maintaining the profitability and environmental compatibility of aquaculture occurred. Many governments wish for Ingenious 6 Housekeeping the development, evolution and expansion of Hanoi Eregulations, aquaculture which is concentrate and Subtraction centralize on the economic growth. Eregulations! But some of the governments have started to enforce and actualize stricter regulatory recommendations addressing environmental and Presentation Powerpoint Templates social issues to Hanoi Eregulations assure and fight on Event Professional, the sustainability of aquaculture. Malaysia has made evolvement and Hanoi development in Wine | New Zealands Premium Printer – Label the establishment of legal and regulatory scheme which are having a positive effect on aquaculture growth at the beginning and with the requirements that people also have to Hanoi maintain the balance of Agreement Event | Create, ecosystems.
Fishing industries also play a significant role in contributed and Eregulations fulfillment the Resume Download Resume Templates Word various demands of people among the world. People can get sufficient and enough supply of fish at anytime and Eregulations anyplace from global. Besides, it also provides a large number and potential jobs opportunity to the community and it will reduce unemployment eventually. Because of the Wine Labels Premium Wine – Label high employment, income of the Hanoi community and the income earn by country will increase and it will improve the quality of life directly. Examples. 10 Free Resume Templates! Fully referenced, delivered on time, Essay Writing Service. Everything we do is focussed on Eregulations, writing the Privacy-Statement best possible assignment for Eregulations your exact requirements.
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obesity essay titles This article appears in the. The Integrity of Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out of the Hanoi lab and into the real world Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus praise the growing scrutiny of scientific publications Barbara A. Spellman on the role of technological and demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the opinions expressed are those of the 2 Table Mathematics Addition Multiplication authors and Hanoi, do not necessarily reflect the views of the Professional Resumes John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to Hanoi receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing. Title Best? To save the enterprise, scientists must come out of the lab and into Hanoi Eregulations, the real world. S cience, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in Powerpoint, deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out millions of articles in thousands of Hanoi Eregulations, journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. But much of this supposed knowledge is turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.
From metastatic cancer to Presentation Powerpoint Templates climate change to Hanoi growth economics to 2 Table Mathematics Addition Multiplication dietary standards, science that is supposed to yield clarity and solutions is in many instances leading instead to contradiction, controversy, and Hanoi Eregulations, confusion. Privacy-Statement | Relevante? Along the way it is also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to escape, it will have to abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and Eregulations, its accountability to the rest of society. The story of how things got to this state is difficult to unravel, in 2 Table Arithmetic, no small part because the scientific enterprise is so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon Hanoi, which rests the political and cultural power of science. This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to Awesome 10 Free Download Resume Word embark on an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and Eregulations, economic growth. It goes like this: Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. “The free play of 10 Free Resume Templates, free intellects. dictated by their curiosity” So deeply embedded in Hanoi, our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of common sense, this powerful vision of science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. Presentation - Teodul.com? engineer who had been the architect of the nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and Hanoi Eregulations, helped to advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. Presentation? He became justly famous in the process.
Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of Physics.” As the Hanoi war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by pursuing “research in the purest realms of science” scientists would build the Arithmetic foundation for “new products and new processes” to Hanoi Eregulations deliver health, full employment, and military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to deceive than a seductive manipulation, for political aims, of widely held beliefs about the purity of science. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to Contract Event Organizer Professional $38 billion in 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for Eregulations, inflation. More impressive still was the increase for basic research at universities and Charity Thank, colleges, which rose from $82 million to $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for Hanoi, inflation. By contrast, government spending on more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.
The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the knowledge that the Privacy-Statement nation needed to Eregulations confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the Contract Agreement Event | Create Professional beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only scientists could evaluate the Hanoi Eregulations research they were doing. Outside efforts to guide the course of science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of gravitational waves an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of dollars of public spending and 2 Table Arithmetic Mathematics Addition Subtraction Multiplication, decades of research by large teams of scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.
And, speaking of startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to Hanoi offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Contract Agreement Organizer | Create Professional, Denisovans. Such discoveries heighten our sense of wonder about the universe and about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to deliver a cornucopia of miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Hanoi Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by humans was orbiting the earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for believing that this amazing effusion of Contract Agreement, technological change truly was the product of Eregulations, “the free play of free intellects, working on Examples. Download Resume Word subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the Eregulations unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for technological development, of course. Scientists have discovered and probed phenomena that turned out to Resume Title Resume Title have enormously broad technological applications. But the Hanoi Eregulations miracles of Resume Examples. 10 Free Resume Templates Word, modernity in the above list came not from “the free play of free intellects,” but from the leashing of scientific creativity to the technological needs of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to help create our world exposes the lie for what it is and provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to evade the calamity it now faces.
First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and is of most value to society, not when its course is determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is steered to solve problems especially those related to technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to go off half-cocked in Eregulations, ways that can be highly detrimental to Powerpoint science itself. Third and this is the Hanoi Eregulations hardest and | Relevante, scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and more valuable for society today not by being protected from societal influences but instead by being brought, carefully and appropriately, into a direct, open, and intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War soon renamed the Department of Defense began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to ensure the Eregulations United States would have all the 2 Table Mathematics technologies needed to Hanoi win the Cold War. This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the 10 Free Download Word “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and scientists, to the small and large companies that develop and Hanoi Eregulations, commercialize innovations, to the users of those innovations in Agreement Event | Create Professional Resumes, this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for jet engines and fuselages that are lighter and more durable under extreme conditions?
How do you obtain high-resolution images of an enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the types of Eregulations, questions that the | Relevante military needed to have answered, questions that demanded advances in fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in but also a powerful focus for advances in basic research in fields ranging from high-energy physics to materials science to Hanoi Eregulations fluid dynamics to molecular biology. At the same time, protected from both the logic of the marketplace and the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. For example, the first digital computer built in the mid-1940s to calculate the trajectories of artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb cost about Privacy-Statement | Relevante $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of Hanoi Eregulations, times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the science needed to keep innovation going. Charity Donation Thank | Docoments Ojazlink? In the Hanoi Eregulations late 1950s and well into the 1960s, as the role for computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an academic discipline by funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and Donation Ojazlink, other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in Hanoi, the 1940s, needed to be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. Why waste public money on Title Samples Best Title such a technology?
Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to planes powered by piston engines. For decades the Eregulations Air Force and Navy funded research and development in the aircraft industry to continually drive improvement of jet engines. Meanwhile, the Contract Agreement Organizer | Create Professional Resumes Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for the Air Force and use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the Hanoi first truly safe and reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the transistor effect was discovered, could use the demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and performance of Agreement Event Organizer Resumes, transistors. It was military purchases that kept the Hanoi Eregulations new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in Privacy-Statement | Relevante, the early and mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in his study of DOD’s role in stimulating the development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities . the military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” helping to create the technological and Hanoi, industrial backbone for the information age. And new weapons such as missile systems and ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and demand for Resume Resume Word, increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to improve the battlefield performance of soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and the F-35 joint strike fighter the Eregulations Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an Resume Title Resume Title Resume, innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to create during the Cold War continue to support the American economy. To take just one example, of the thirteen areas of technological advance that were essential to the development of the iPhone, eleven including the Hanoi microprocessor, GPS, and Contract Agreement Organizer Resumes, the Internet can be traced back to vital military investments in research and technological development.
Americans lionize the scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). The discomfiting reality, however, is Eregulations, that much of Resume Templates, today’s technological world exists because of DOD’s role in catalyzing and Eregulations, steering science and technology. This was industrial policy, and it worked because it brought all of the players in the innovation game together, disciplined them by providing strategic, long-term focus for their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the world go round. The great accomplishments of the military-industrial complex did not result from allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity,” but by channeling that curiosity toward the solution of problems that DOD wanted to Agreement Professional solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the Eregulations stuff of Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the foundations of our modern economy and society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Agreement Event Resumes? Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in Hanoi Eregulations, 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by no one, she chose to be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the one her doctor recommended.
She also started volunteering for a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to an invitation to the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for - Teodul.com, local patient groups across the nation an Hanoi Eregulations, approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and politics around the goal of eliminating the disease. Visco was a child of the lie. “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and the other activists at NBCC started out by trying to get more money for breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. But Visco was also a child of the | Relevante Sixties with a penchant for questioning authority, and she wanted to play an active role in figuring out how much money was needed for research and how best to Eregulations spend it. She and her NBCC colleagues identified a community of Examples. Awesome Resume Templates Word, cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and brought everyone together in February 1992 to discuss what was needed to find cures more quickly and how much it would cost.
Together, the advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of new money could be absorbed and well spent by the scientific community a goal that found strong support in Congress. Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an accident of congressional budgeting, it turned out that the only way to meet the Eregulations $300 million goal was to Privacy-Statement have most of the money allocated to the Department of Defense. So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by the Army. The initial plan was to have most of the money transferred to the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to Eregulations discuss how best to spend the Examples. Awesome 10 Free Resume Templates new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to Hanoi Eregulations influence the momentum of science because priorities were established by the bottom-up interests of the research community itself. This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the Army’s research and development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and Resume Samples Title, if you give us a mission, we figure out how to accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into battle and we’re going to win the Hanoi Eregulations war.’” “At some point, you really have to save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at an NBCC event at the U.S. Capitol in 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at first “terrified” to Privacy-Statement | Relevante find herself working with the military, she also found it refreshing and empowering a “fantastic collaboration and partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an activist and a patient, not a peer. Hanoi Eregulations? But Gen.
Travis told her and her colleagues, “You want a seat at the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in the final selection of scientific projects to be funded, and eventually even brought them into the processes for reviewing the Thank | Docoments merits of Eregulations, various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about partnering with patient-advocates, and its dedication to solving the problem of breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the Title Best Resume For Sales Title disease won Visco over. Hanoi Eregulations? And it didn’t take long for benefits to appear. Arithmetic Multiplication? During its first round of grantmaking in 199394, the program funded research on a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by NIH’s peer-review system because the conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the drug Herceptin, one of the most important advances in breast cancer treatment in recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the lead scientist on that project, the openness of the DOD program to Eregulations funding projects like his that went against mainstream scientific beliefs was due to Mathematics Addition Subtraction Multiplication the patient-activists. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of Eregulations, laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in Powerpoint Templates, science, were going to sit at the table and really be involved in Hanoi Eregulations, the peer-review process in a meaningful way. And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by Privacy-Statement the same DOD program and was approved by Eregulations the FDA in 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the objections of scientists advising the Awesome 10 Free Download Templates program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for Eregulations, immunological approaches to curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to be supported by either NCI or the pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to Presentation - Teodul.com scientists alone.
But that turned out not to be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. The Army was providing grants for innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. What Visco and Gen. Travis had failed to appreciate was that, when it came to breast cancer, the program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in Hanoi Eregulations, other fields: the money and Agreement Organizer, control needed to coordinate all the players in the innovation system and hold them accountable for working toward a common goal.
And so, as NBCC and Eregulations, other groups brought more and Privacy-Statement, more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to Visco that the main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by the new funding not breast cancer patients. To be sure, the DOD support for innovative research is “better than what’s happening at Hanoi NCI and NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . it’s innovation within the Resume Best Resume Title For Sales Resume existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at Hanoi breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. Resume 10 Free Download Resume Templates? What seemed to Eregulations drive many of the scientists was the Title Samples Best Resume Title For Sales Title desire to Eregulations “get above the fold on the front page of the New York Times ,” not to figure out how to end breast cancer. It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to Awesome 10 Free Templates another. Hanoi? “We got tired of seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.
Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the Resume Download extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. But when it got to the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is there to show? You want to do this science and Hanoi, wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and Powerpoint, trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Hanoi? Yet technology has contributed in obvious ways to scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to technological advancement as well as benefiting from it, in the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.
And as the Industrial Revolution came to link technological innovation to Agreement Event Professional Resumes historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by studying phenomena whose existence was brought to Eregulations light only because of the new technologies of an industrializing world. Efforts to Privacy-Statement | Relevante improve the performance of steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and telephone communication to name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in some cases led to entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and radio astronomy. New technologies also provided discipline and focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for immunology and airplanes did for theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over the past two hundred years in large part because technology blazed a path for it to follow. Not only have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and new questions for science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the Eregulations validity of the science being done. The electronics industry and semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the manner dictated by their curiosity for Powerpoint - Teodul.com, exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over Hanoi the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and demanded advances in our understanding of the behavior of Examples. Awesome Word, electrons in Hanoi, different types of materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of computers beginning in the 1950s, catalyzed by DOD, led to the demand for new types of theories and knowledge about Templates how to acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. Hanoi? The National Science Foundation funded basic research into this new, technology-created realm, including grants to two graduate students in computer science at Stanford University who wanted to understand how best to navigate the Charity Ojazlink novel and Eregulations, expanding landscape of digital information. They published their results in the 1998 article “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of daily life, and whose economic and social influence is every bit as powerful as the Privacy-Statement great railroad, steel, automobile, and Hanoi Eregulations, telecommunications corporations of previous technological revolutions. Powerpoint? Technology led; science followed.
If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the Hanoi job. Technology is what links science to human experience; it is what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by science the flow of electrons, the movement of air molecules, the Resumes stimulation of Eregulations, antibodies into reliable outcomes: the light goes on, the jet flies, the child becomes immune. The scientific phenomena must be real or the technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to | Relevante believe that scientific imagination gives birth to technological progress, when in Eregulations, reality technology sets the agenda for science, guiding it in its most productive directions and providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and value. Resume Title Best For Sales Resume Title? Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Here is where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by “the free play of Hanoi, free intellects,” we give science a free pass to define progress without reference to the world beyond it.
But if there is nothing by Organizer Professional Resumes which to measure scientific progress outside of science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for nearly a decade by growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the basis for Eregulations, over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to replicate only Powerpoint Templates six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of Eregulations, more than one hundred potential drugs for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice was unable to reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from previous studies; a compilation of Templates, nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for therapies to block human inflammatory response showed that even though the therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map human brain function indicated that up to 70 percent of the Eregulations positive findings reported in approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and an article assessing the overall quality of basic and preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and 90 percent of all studies are not reproducible. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to assess the quality of one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to Thank replicate only 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the frontline of the war on Hanoi breast cancer, have been shown to Resume Resume For Sales Title confer little benefit for women in their forties; and, of Hanoi Eregulations, course, we’ve all been relieved to learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for us. Samples Title For Sales Title? The number of retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the growing number of studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in fact be the norm in some fields, and Eregulations, the number of scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in the hundreds of thousands annually.
While most of the Charity Donation Thank You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from Hanoi, fields related to health, biomedicine, and psychology, the Templates - Teodul.com problems are likely to be as bad or worse in Eregulations, many other research areas. For example, a survey of statistical practices in Resume Examples. Awesome Resume Templates, economics research concluded that “the credibility of the economics literature is likely to be modest or even low.” What is to Eregulations be made of Resume Samples For Sales Title, this ever-expanding litany of dispiriting revelations and reversals? Well, one could celebrate. “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in work constitute evidence of success, not failure,” a group of leaders of the American science establishment including the Hanoi Eregulations past, present, and future presidents of the National Academy of Sciences wrote in Science in 2015, “because they demonstrate the underlying protective mechanisms of science at work.” But this happy posture ignores the systemic failings at the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is a process of creating new knowledge about the world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.
This picture of success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at Presentation Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is that the results of research however imperfect are reliable in the context of the existing state of knowledge, and Eregulations, are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of Mathematics Addition Multiplication, our world and a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against Hanoi, science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Resume Examples. Awesome? Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of Hanoi, dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Charity Thank You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink? Glenn Begley and John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and visionary in exposing systemic weakness in Eregulations, biomedical science concluded in a January 2015 article that “it is impossible to Powerpoint Templates endorse an approach that suggests that we proceed with an Hanoi Eregulations, ongoing research investment that is producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and will not stand the test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is Donation You Letter Ojazlink, wasted on biomedical research that is Hanoi, unreproducible. Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.
Part of the problem surely has to do with the pathologies of the science system itself. Academic science, especially, has become an Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com, onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. Hanoi? As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of startling and newsworthy findings. Here’s how the great biologist E. O. Resume Awesome 10 Free Resume Word? Wilson describes the life of an academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to perform teaching and administrative duties, another twenty hours on top of that to Hanoi conduct respectable research, and still another twenty hours to accomplish really important research. Make an important discovery, and you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in a profession where elitism is practiced without shame. Fail to discover, and Presentation Templates - Teodul.com, you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for Eregulations, academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on Title Title how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and Hanoi Eregulations, how often those articles are cited in other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com, that your future work will do the same.
To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for your hypotheses and findings. Hanoi Eregulations? Meanwhile, the peers who review funding proposals and journal articles are playing in the same system, competing for the same funds, motivated by Resume Title Samples Resume the same incentives. To get the research done you need graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to do most of the Eregulations grunt work of running experiments and collecting data, which is how they get trained and acculturated to become the next generation of academic scientists behaving the same way. Universities competing desperately for Thank Ojazlink, top faculty, the best graduate students, and government research funds hype for the news media the results coming out of their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. (Scientists themselves are complicit in the hype machine: according to one study, the frequency of positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and “unprecedented” in biomedical research publications in 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to Hanoi Eregulations disseminate valuable information but to Contract Agreement Event | Create allow the ever-increasing number of researchers to Hanoi publish more papers now on the order of a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. As of 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the historian of science and physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is Agreement Event | Create Professional, so large that many of us begin to Eregulations worry about the Contract Agreement | Create Resumes sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the number of scientists was growing so fast that it could only lead to a “scientific doomsday” of instability and stress, and that exponential growth of the Hanoi Eregulations scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and quality, as the number of truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by the much more rapidly increasing number of Charity Donation Ojazlink, merely competent ones.
One cumulative result of these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the basic research enterprise a bias toward the Hanoi new result. Bias is an inescapable attribute of human intellectual endeavor, and it creeps into science in many different ways, from bad statistical practices to poor experimental or model design to mere wishful thinking. If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. But as numerous close observers of the scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of bias that push in one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the elite. Yet, to fixate on systemic positive bias in an out-of-control research system is to miss the deeper and much more important point. The reason that bias seems able to infect research so easily today is that so much of science is detached from the goals and agendas of the military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and discipline. Agreement Event Professional? Nothing is left to Hanoi Eregulations keep research honest save the internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of more than 1,500 scientists published by Nature in May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is being undermined by such factors as “selective reporting” of data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to Resume Title replication, and inadequate peer review. Hanoi Eregulations? In short, we are finding out what happens when objective inquiry is guided by Bush’s beautiful lie. “Scientific doomsday” indeed.
Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by Privacy-Statement | Relevante training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about Hanoi science and what Price called the “sheer mass of the monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to be small, and in any particular area of research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. 10 Free Resume Templates? “But gradually the system became more professionalized, it got more and more money, it made bigger and bigger promises. So the qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by the need to feed the Hanoi beast, and the system got too big to Resume Examples. Awesome 10 Free Resume succeed.” She worries especially about Hanoi Eregulations what this change will mean for Resume Title Resume Title, the quality and Hanoi Eregulations, value of the science being done in Arithmetic Mathematics Multiplication, her field. As president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on cognition and the brain, Fitzpatrick is Eregulations, concerned about where research dollars are flowing. Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from 2 Table Arithmetic Multiplication, one hot topic to the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by a circular, internal logic. Hanoi Eregulations? “What the researcher really wants is something reliable that yields to Templates - Teodul.com their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of data, because you need to have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to Hanoi Eregulations study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. What’s great about mice is Resume Download Resume Templates Word, that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. This allows researchers to test specific hypotheses about, say, the genetics or neurochemistry of a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for the purpose of Hanoi, studying Alzheimer’s, and numerous chemical compounds have been shown to Resume Examples. 10 Free Download Word slow the Hanoi course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Yet despite the proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only Arithmetic Addition one out of 244 compounds that made it to Hanoi Eregulations the trial stage in Agreement | Create Resumes, the decade between 2002 and Hanoi Eregulations, 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the one drug approved for use in humans during that period doesn’t work very well.
And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of humans and mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. Resume Examples. Templates? “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the human disease in question, “because the Hanoi process whereby you create that model is not the pathogenesis of the disease. Your treatment is focused on Templates how you created the model, not how the disease occurs naturally.” There is little reason to believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on the right path to understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. A search for article titles or abstracts containing the Eregulations words “brain” and “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in the NIH’s PubMed database yields over 50,000 results for the decade between 2005 and 2015 alone. If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the number climbs to about 80,000. It’s a classic case of Presentation Powerpoint Templates, looking for your keys under the Hanoi streetlight because that’s where the light is: the science is done just because it can be. The results get published and they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and interpreted in terms of 2 Table Subtraction, other research being done in related areas one of Hanoi Eregulations, those “underlying protective mechanisms of Templates, science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains.
Efforts to reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in February 2016. Hanoi? But in Examples. 10 Free Download Resume Templates, the meantime, the paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. This simplification is sometimes justified, for Hanoi Eregulations, instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the Donation Thank You Letter | Docoments response of an airfoil to Hanoi Eregulations turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).
In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is not justified when using mouse brains to | Relevante model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about this way of approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the models are extended still further to explore the neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and we’re trying to Eregulations reduce it to some biological models, you have to create proxies. | Relevante? A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in the laboratory as a marker for inhibitory control. “Oh, and Eregulations, we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . Charity Donation Thank You Letter Ojazlink? ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about people’s behavior that’s made up of tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in this space between the proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for that matter a person and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about Hanoi what causes crime and addiction and anti-social behavior. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the kind of questions that get asked, the way research gets structured, the Privacy-Statement findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is observing what happens when the interplay between science and technology is replaced by the “free play of free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the influence of human bias. But human bias doesn’t have much room to get a foothold when research is tightly linked to the performance of a particular technology through, say, the desire for lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.
But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the Hanoi Eregulations connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by Download Templates Word many assumptions assumptions about how science works (mouse brains are good models for Eregulations, human brains); about Thank You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink how society works (criminal behavior is caused by brain chemistry); or about how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is Eregulations, ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the task of finding solutions to Addition Multiplication human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of failure of pharmaceutical interventions for Hanoi, Alzheimer’s is so high. When mouse models are used to explore theories of Privacy-Statement, human brain health and behavior, there is no reliable way to assess the validity of the science or the assumptions underlying it. Eregulations? This is not to say that scientists should just start conducting on humans the experiments they now perform on Examples. 10 Free Resume Templates mice. But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of mouse-brain research now being done is a reflection of the internal dysfunction of the research system, not of the potential for the “free play of free intellects” to help alleviate the human suffering caused by neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of Eregulations, values, assumptions, and ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.
Just as Derek Price recognized the threat to science from its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the threat of ideology in - Teodul.com, science flagged long ago by the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Hanoi Eregulations Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the Manhattan Project and was a tireless advocate for nuclear energy. Involved as he was in Donation Thank You Letter | Docoments, the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of what science could tell us about complex social and political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Hanoi Eregulations, Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon science to understand and Arithmetic Addition Multiplication, address the Hanoi complex problems of modernity many of which, of course, could be traced back to science and technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science .” He called research into such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for precise and Charity Donation | Docoments Ojazlink, reliable knowledge about natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in flux. The objects and Hanoi Eregulations, phenomena studied by trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on many different things, including the particular conditions under which they are studied at a given time and place, and the choices that researchers make about how to define and study them. This means that the objects and Resume Download Resume Word, phenomena studied by trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and thus always potentially subject to Hanoi interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and chemistry study objects that can be characterized by Donation Thank You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink a small number of measurable variables. For example, in Hanoi Eregulations, classical physics, once the Multiplication position, velocity, and forces acting on a physical object are known, the Eregulations movement of that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. (This is not the case in quantum physics, in which the position and velocity of Title Samples Title For Sales, individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about Hanoi Eregulations statistical distributions of molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the objects of study whether the Resume 10 Free Download Resume Word mass of an electron, the Hanoi Eregulations structure of Presentation, a molecule, or the energy released by a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and unambiguously characterized in Eregulations, ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. Thank | Docoments Ojazlink? As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the same as every other hydrogen atom.”
This combination of predictable behavior and invariant fundamental attributes is what makes the physical sciences so valuable in contributing to technological advance the electron, the photon, the chemical reaction, the crystalline structure, when confined to the controlled environment of the laboratory or the engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is Hanoi, supposed to behave pretty much all the time. But many other branches of science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of | Docoments, bird. Hanoi Eregulations? Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the earth’s climate. Such things may differ from one day to Privacy-Statement | Relevante the next, from one place or one person to another. Their behavior cannot be described and Hanoi, predicted by the sorts of general laws that physicists and chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on the context in which they are studied and the way they are defined.
Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to characterize the things they study, like using the notion of a species to classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the health of an ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Or they use statistics to characterize the behavior of a heterogeneous class of things, for - Teodul.com, example the rate of accidents of drivers of a certain age, or the incidence of Hanoi Eregulations, a certain kind of cancer in people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of a certain type of tumor to metastasize in Resume Examples. Resume Word, a mouse or a person. But these ways of naming and Eregulations, describing objects and phenomena always come with a cost the cost of 2 Table Mathematics, being at best only an approximation of the Eregulations complex reality. Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to display loss of cognitive function with aging, and Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com, the similarities between different mice of that strain may approximate the kind of homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by Hanoi physics and chemistry. This makes the mouse a useful subject for research.
But we must bear the cost of Templates, that usefulness: the connection between the phenomena studied in that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the case for Hanoi Eregulations, civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is so small, there is no practical possibility of | Docoments Ojazlink, determining this failure rate directly i.e., by Hanoi Eregulations building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and Templates, tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is Eregulations, not known and knowable.” More than forty years and three major reactor accidents later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to debate the risks and 2 Table Arithmetic Multiplication, promise of Hanoi, nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for scientists to “establish what the You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink limits of scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is “not at Eregulations all easy since experts will often disagree as to the extent and reliability of Resume Title Best Resume Title, their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for “selfless honesty” in drawing the Hanoi lines of | Relevante, expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to transmute trans-science into science. In fact, the great thing about Eregulations trans-science is Charity You Letter Ojazlink, that you can keep on doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to Hanoi Eregulations a final or useful answer. In the Resume Title Samples Title Title absence of a technological application that can select for useful truths that work in Hanoi, the real world of Powerpoint Templates, light switches, vaccines, and aircraft, there is often no “right” way to discriminate among or organize the mass of truths scientists create. Eregulations? This is why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the effects of salt reduction on health, there is much less clarity today than in 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and fatal hypertension is direct, quantitative, and Resume Examples. 10 Free Download Templates Word, unequivocal in the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in Hanoi Eregulations, the United States can be attributed to too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of 167 randomized controlled trials and Privacy-Statement, 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and health outcomes. Scientists and interest groups line up on both sides of the salt debate, avidly impugning the motives and research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of experts, is what comes to pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to Hanoi Bisphenol A (or any of ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?
Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the future economic costs of Charity Thank Ojazlink, a warming climate to a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and political debates over such questions seem to drag on endlessly, surely one reason is Eregulations, that we have the wrong expectations of science. Our common belief is that scientific truth is a unitary thing there is one fact of the matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the switch. But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in part on what aspects of an issue scientists decide to do research on and how they go about doing that research. Resume Best Title Resume Title? There is Eregulations, no point in asking who is Presentation - Teodul.com, right in such cases; the best we can hope for is to understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about how to carry out Hanoi, research and analyze data, not to mention the hidden biases that help determine those choices. Resume Awesome Templates Word? Consider the question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to answer this question by looking at field trials that allow variables like weather and soil type to be carefully controlled.
Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and there is no way of adjudicating based on the data which of the two provides a better guide to the future. Sometimes the Hanoi Eregulations problem is Charity Donation | Docoments Ojazlink, not that it is hard to Hanoi come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. This is why science almost never provides a solution to politically controversial issues. Contract | Create Professional Resumes? Usually it does the opposite, providing peer-reviewed and thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and Eregulations, assembled in whatever ways are necessary to support the position and policy solution of your choice.
If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on the risks and benefits of Presentation, mammograms, their effectiveness is more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and $15 billion of research to assess the safety of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in Eregulations, Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. In neither case does the science add up to a unitary truth. What we have, instead, is trans-science that “weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” There is a very good reason why the problem of poor-quality science is Privacy-Statement | Relevante, showing up most conspicuously in biomedical research. Eregulations? Even as government funding for biomedical science in the United States equals that of Presentation Templates, all other fields of Eregulations, research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to Templates a crawl, and corporate investments are extremely risky because of the staggering failure rates of new drug trials. Biomedical science is failing the truth-test of Hanoi Eregulations, technology. But the more difficult and dangerous threat to science comes from areas of research where the stakes are high but the validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is not closely tied to technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of which can advance the career of a researcher and attract a constituency of believers among scientists, political interest groups, and members of the public alike.
Even the vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on fundamental physics that has been well understood for more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the discernible human impact on global warming. Arithmetic Multiplication? The minute you get into questions about the rate and severity of future impacts, or the costs of and best pathways for addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Hanoi Eregulations? Mathematical models of Presentation - Teodul.com, future rates and consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in economic growth or technological innovation), and so the models spew out Hanoi Eregulations, endless streams of trans-scientific facts that allow for claims and counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to be done. If we were instead to Arithmetic Addition Multiplication exercise the “selfless honesty” advocated by Weinberg and own up to the assumptions that led us to the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to abandon any claim to an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in society. T hese difficulties are about to get much worse. Many fields of science are now staking their futures on Hanoi Eregulations what is sometimes called “big data” the creation of enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for Privacy-Statement, collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of Hanoi Eregulations, information. So, for Presentation Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com, example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to Hanoi explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and retrieves vast quantities of information, and shed light on the complex links between brain function and behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and model the state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and informed management of the Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the Resume Title Samples For Sales Resume same for ecosystems by deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in the ocean and seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of Hanoi, environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and provides a test for the validity of new scientific knowledge. Big data does the Resume Samples Best Resume For Sales Title opposite, casting science into a sea of data with few constraints on where it might drift.
The difficulty with this way of doing science is that for any large body of Hanoi Eregulations, data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the Thank number of possible causal links between variables is inestimably larger than the Hanoi number a scientist could actually think up and test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from genes to Resume Title Resume For Sales Title education to Hanoi Eregulations job stress to how fast you eat to Addition Subtraction Multiplication whether you were breastfed. Exploring the relations between even some small number of combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon one that reveals important causal relations is thus extremely small, while the Hanoi Eregulations opportunities for introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. As John Ioannidis explains in Templates, his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the problem of searching for a small number of possible true relationships in large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and Hanoi Eregulations, highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of large bias in most fields of modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at your beck and Subtraction, call, and you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to Hanoi lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to confirm a real causal link, for it to be useful you would probably have to connect it to other such links, each of which is itself unlikely to be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to something else entirely, say, not having time to exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for your keys under the street lamp, big data is like looking all over the world for your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.
So another reason why biomedical science is out in front of other fields in terms of revelations of irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on big data earlier than other areas of Donation Thank | Docoments Ojazlink, science especially through mapping of the human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of data but, at best, yielding modest health care benefits. As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of Hanoi, management at Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to Professional Resumes fail, given the limits of predictive science to solve problems in complex natural phenomena. Eregulations? [T]he experience of genetics in medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in scientific knowledge does not translate to a corresponding advance in Privacy-Statement, technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of genetics and molecular science to medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to Hanoi Eregulations cancer is summed up in a 2014 essay in the journal Cell by M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of interpretation, and the attempts of the new discipline of ‘systems biology’ to address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by | Relevante simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by Hanoi Eregulations the lie, enthralled by | Relevante the power of new technologies not to solve discrete problems but to Hanoi Eregulations gather, store, test, and analyze billions of terabytes of data about everything that goes on anywhere from Examples. 10 Free Download Resume, Earth’s core to the human brain to the outer atmosphere and religiously dedicated to the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and more funding is Eregulations, always a step in Privacy-Statement, the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the scientific community and its supporters are now busily creating the infrastructure and the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and Hanoi Eregulations, multiple conflicting truths the essence of science’s legacy.
Science is in a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of scientific inquiry are no good, and the willy-nilly production of unverifiable knowledge relevant to the unanswerable questions of trans-science. Even as the resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the boundary between objective truth and subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to be dissolving. Managing for Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to come up with practical solutions to environmental problems for the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of heresy. “You want to actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from M.I.T., Marqusee too is a child of the lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. My thesis was about as esoteric and Organizer Professional, useless as you can be. It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to manage the lone guy that’s brilliant.
That ain’t the problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. O. Hanoi? Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by itself to be particularly earth-shattering. If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com, accountability for driving it toward that goal. Like Visco and Hanoi, Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the absence of such accountability has led to “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the science that’s being done makes sense in terms of the goal to 2 Table Arithmetic Addition Subtraction Multiplication which it is supposed to contribute. The types of questions Marqusee needed to have answered at DOD were essentially trans-scientific the necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from one situation to Eregulations the next. They were biased toward the local and specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for example, “how to protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and chromium in the soil on Charity Thank You Letter | Docoments military bases, he first had to understand questions like: How does the dry, poor-quality soil typical of many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and the toxicity of various chemicals once they enter the body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by Eregulations other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. His office funded research that allowed the 2 Table Arithmetic Multiplication Environmental Protection Agency to tighten standards for lead exposure on Army bases. He supported ecological research on how best to protect the Eregulations endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in forests on Resume Awesome 10 Free Download Resume Word military bases in the southeastern United States and improved both the ecosystem and military training in the process. “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and better for dismounted training.
But you just have to be careful during certain weeks, when there is certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to solve these sorts of problems would never be spontaneously generated by “the free play of free intellects.” Marqusee came to realize that if he funded scientists and Eregulations, left them alone to do their work, he’d end up with a lot of useless knowledge and Resume Samples Best For Sales, a lot of unsolved problems. It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to Hanoi Eregulations themselves. Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to Professional put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. Eregulations? One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to develop indicators that could show when activities on a military facility were having adverse effects on a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. Resume Samples Resume Resume? But during a project review Marqusee came to understand that the researcher was simply identifying and measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of them,” and Eregulations, that in the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of | Relevante, inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to more publications and professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the Hanoi Eregulations specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . “The scientist was looking at Resume Title Samples Best Resume Title For Sales Title some very innovative biomarkers.
And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is always the justification for all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. Not only would the National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the big data spirit that is fast becoming the Eregulations new face of science. But if your constituency, to use Marqusee’s term, is society, not scientists, then the choice of what data and Charity Donation Thank You Letter | Docoments, knowledge you need has to be informed by the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to be very different if your end goal is to Eregulations solve a concrete problem, rather than only to Examples. Awesome advance understanding. That’s why the symbiosis between science and technology is so powerful: the technology provides focus and discipline for the science.
But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to Hanoi institutional cultures organized and incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Marqusee quips that the best way to Templates - Teodul.com reorient scientists would be to “pay them to Hanoi Eregulations care about the problem.” Or maybe just send them to the Peace Corps before they go to graduate school. At least that’s what A. J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at Stanford. Working in a small South African village for two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to Templates leverage his impact on the world, and Eregulations, this made him skeptical of the culture of the lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and appreciates the role of fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the logic of the lie justifies “digging down deeper and deeper on a single subject without stopping to ask why we’re doing it in the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for more intentionality in how we do science.” In the applied physics Ph.D. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an interest in linking science to health care needs in | Relevante, poor countries. He quickly focused on a specific question: “How do we bring the Hanoi information that we get from studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in two directions: into the social context, to see what needs could be met with better information on blood; and into the science, to see what theories and tools could provide that information. So he talked to Title Samples Best Resume Resume doctors who had experience working in Hanoi Eregulations, Africa, and he talked to scientists in his lab and elsewhere, and this eventually led to a convergence between the two: a technique to Samples Best Resume Title Title separate proteins using a simple type of Hanoi Eregulations, centrifuge that had been around for fifty years. This technique could be used for separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and | Relevante, reliable diagnostic procedure.
Kumar wraps up the story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to get some collaborators, start researching, doing the first experiments, and getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by density separation. Hanoi? “This allowed us to really charge forward and start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of Resume 10 Free Resume, my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in Hanoi Eregulations, fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the research process, including commercial development, and using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of scientific progress. In short, he made his research accountable to the end-user rather than to his scientific peers. “More intentionality in how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Contract Agreement Event | Create Resumes, Zambia demonstrating the sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is Hanoi Eregulations, asking for.
Of course ending breast cancer is a vastly more complex scientific and organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to diagnose sickle-cell disease. But that would seem to be all the more reason why, after all the billions spent and with forty thousand women a year still dying from the disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the system toward a solution. So Visco and Presentation Templates - Teodul.com, her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and start managing the science itself. “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. We have no interest in the continued funding of Hanoi Eregulations, these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for Privacy-Statement | Relevante, breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of scientists to see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the Eregulations current state of Contract Event | Create Professional Resumes, knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to fund research directly, NBCC instead began to bring scientists together to compare ideas and results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the Eregulations process of Privacy-Statement | Relevante, developing and Eregulations, testing a vaccine. Charity You Letter | Docoments? It set a deadline 2020 for ending breast cancer and staked its credibility on achieving at least major progress by that date. The deadline has been much criticized by the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to Hanoi Eregulations deadlines” was the predictable dismissal in a Nature editorial. Contract Agreement Organizer | Create? Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.
The deadline is NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Visco rejects the idea that after decades of research and billions in funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to make an unexpected discovery. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an agenda, our agenda is to Hanoi Eregulations end breast cancer and save lives and Thank You Letter | Docoments, that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about Hanoi thirty scientists, many of them from leading cancer research groups, to work on Examples. Awesome 10 Free Templates Word the Artemis vaccine project, now in its sixth year. “These are people who never would have collaborated and never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for us,” says Visco. Hanoi Eregulations? They have selected the antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and Powerpoint, are starting to plan for Hanoi, clinical trials, to think about how they can ensure affordability and access if the trials succeed, and even to Arithmetic Mathematics Addition Subtraction explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the Hanoi vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the Artemis Project, this one focused on stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is different from science-as-usual in many ways. It is small, collaborative, and focused not on producing good science for its own sake, nor on making a profit, but on solving a problem.
It takes its research agenda from patient advocates, not from scientists. Accountability to Charity Thank You Letter Ojazlink the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is built into the program. Frank Calzone, who for twenty years worked at the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is a longtime technical advisor to Hanoi NBCC, sees the Artemis vaccine effort as combining the focus and deadlines of industry with the Resume Examples. 10 Free openness and collaboration of Hanoi, academia. “It’s an industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in charge, which is what’s unique.” Above all he credits the patient-advocates for 2 Table Mathematics Subtraction Multiplication, understanding and driving the science in ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. “They’re about primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in revisiting dogma.” Will the vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the wrong question. The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to Hanoi do what the lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to Our World. I s science today just the latest candidate for inclusion in the growing list of failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by Charity Thank a daunting, self-interested inertia, and a set of Eregulations, values reflecting a world that no longer exists.
Yet science does have advantages over other sclerotic institutions. Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in which other ways of organizing research can be explored. Yes, the system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. scientists and nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the young scientists he knows to do more than just add to the piles of esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in the system that allow them to contribute something more, allowing the system to evolve, gradually, in a better direction. Indeed, an especially hopeful attribute of science is Contract Organizer | Create Professional, that it can be leveraged even by Hanoi individuals and small organizations to have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and Kumar have shown. In the Charity Thank You Letter Ojazlink future, the most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to the people and places whose urgent problems need to be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of Hanoi Eregulations, accountability to those for Charity Ojazlink, whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the problems more than the production of knowledge. They will link research agendas to the quest for improved solutions often technological ones rather than to understanding for its own sake. The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to Hanoi be.
The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the weight of its own contradictions, but it will also continue to hog most of the Donation Thank Ojazlink resources and Hanoi Eregulations, insist on its elevated social and political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. advisor) argued in The Economist in Contract Event | Create Professional, 2012 that, in the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only Eregulations one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and Contract Event | Create Resumes, perhaps genomics), and that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an Eregulations, affordable luxury.” A different way to put it might be that the Awesome Download Resume sort of undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in Eregulations, 1945 should be seen now in much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for public monuments, and Presentation Templates, wilderness protection. However worthwhile and ennobling it may be for its own sake, it cannot be justified in Hanoi, terms of solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of Contract Event Organizer, leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the philanthropic foundation that she leads to maximize the potential for neuroscience to help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to say yet about lessening the terrible burdens of most brain diseases. Eregulations? She thinks that much of neuroscience has been seduced by what she terms the “dogma” of reductionism. “Everyone is convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for something now then you understand it and hence you can fix it, even though there is Privacy-Statement, literally no evidence for this.” She wants to Hanoi insulate the scientists that the foundation funds from some of the Agreement Organizer | Create Professional Resumes cultural pressures to Hanoi do research that quickly leads to publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of their own results.” One project underway looks at extreme long-term survivors of malignant brain cancer to see how their tumors interact with the | Relevante rest of the Eregulations body and other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the sweet spot for 2 Table Mathematics Subtraction, fundamental research.
But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of research that could offer solutions to pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of research on how best to socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on that.” Perhaps for now, research to help people with these diseases ought to aim at more practical questions. “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of Hanoi, supporting people.” And maybe in the process of Presentation Powerpoint, understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the continual back-and-forth between the Hanoi Eregulations science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of 2 Table Arithmetic Addition Subtraction Multiplication, major medical advances. Advancing according to its own logic, much of science has lost sight of the better world it is supposed to help create. Shielded from accountability to anything outside of itself, the “free play of free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and irresponsibility. The tragic irony here is that the stunted imagination of mainstream science is a consequence of the very autonomy that scientists insist is the key to their success. Only through direct engagement with the Hanoi Eregulations real world can science free itself to rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is | Relevante, a professor of Hanoi Eregulations, science and society at Arizona State University’s School for the Future of Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the Contract Organizer university’s Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes.
He is also the co-editor of Issues in Science and Hanoi Eregulations, Technology and a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. 440.
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6 Things Attorneys and Law Students Need to Remove from Hanoi Eregulations, Their Resumes ASAP If They Want to Get Jobs with the Most Prestigious Law Firms. At the Privacy-Statement, highest levels, legal recruiters put an incredible amount of thought into how you are perceived. You can drastically increase your odds of getting hired by removing various items from your resume. If this is all too much for you … then just have your legal resume professionally done. Eregulations. See Attorney Resume.
If you submit your resume here, I will review it and give you some feedback. Overview. With a resume, you are applying to be a firm#39;s employee and Addition Multiplication, go to work for them. Your resume is essentially an application. Hanoi Eregulations. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to Stanford Law School and being a second-year associate at Mayer Brown means. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to University of Chicago and spending eight years at Kirkland Ellis means. If you are in law school and looking for Privacy-Statement your first job, everyone knows what going to Eregulations Duke for college and being in Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com the top half of your class at Columbia Law School means. While I hate to be so generic, this is really (for the most part), the Hanoi Eregulations, most important information for large law firms hiring laterally or hiring people out of Privacy-Statement | Relevante law school. Everything else on your resume presents a giant opportunity for Hanoi Eregulations you to mess up.
The most important thing most big firm attorneys can do is strip down (and not puff up) their resumes . The more crap that is on there, the more reasons people can find not to Addition Subtraction hire you. If you take one thing from this article, you need to understand that. Most large law firms do not like people who try to stick out. In their experience, these people can be problems: they will leave if they do not get lots of praise, may turn on the firm and undermine morale, are likely to seek unnecessary attention from Hanoi Eregulations, clients (and may even try and steal them), and Charity | Docoments Ojazlink, are most likely to leave if something better comes along. Being in a large law firm requires a lot of selflessness: You need to let partners, senior associates and Hanoi, others take credit for your hard work. You need to Resume Templates Word put in time before large rewards come. Hanoi. You need to be working for the team and the group and not just your own self-interests. You need to be motivated to Arithmetic Addition Multiplication work hard even when there is no immediate benefit. You need to stay with the law firm when things are bad and not leave at the first signs of Hanoi trouble.
If your resume gives any indication to law firms that you are anything other than a soldier, you are going to look like an asshole and will have a difficult time getting hired. It is Charity Donation | Docoments not about you. It is Hanoi Eregulations never about you. It is about the employer. Charity. 1. Too Many Personal Details. Avid hunter and outdoorsman. Depending on where you are located, a number of the people you are interviewing in Hanoi are not going to be too impressed with the fact that you enjoy killing animals in your spare time. This is not a good idea. While this may work in certain states more than others, it is simply not smart to have on there. If you piss off just one interviewer, this will harm you.
Member of the First Baptist Church. Nothing wrong with being part of Resume Awesome 10 Free Download Resume Templates a church. However, if you are interviewing with a law firm in a large city, the Hanoi, odds are pretty good you will be interviewing with gays, Jews and people of Privacy-Statement various religions and backgrounds. Hanoi Eregulations. Broadcasting that you are part of a particular religion is Resume Examples. Awesome Resume Word not a good idea. Member of the gay law students association. There is Hanoi nothing wrong with being gay (and proud of it!) but you need to understand that many people in Arithmetic Addition Multiplication law firms may have very conservative views about sexual orientation. There are plenty of gay attorneys in most law firms in big cities, but they got their jobs without advertising this on their resumes. There are people in every law firm that have prejudices against gays. Why would you put this on your resume? Member of the Black Law Students Association. Hanoi Eregulations. Sadly, many law schools and recruiters urge people to put their race on Presentation Powerpoint their resumes so they will be more likely to be hired.
Their thinking is that broadcasting your race will make law firms more likely to hire you. Hanoi. What if the firm has recently been sued for racial discrimination? What if the firm has hired a series of non-performers who were of a particular race? Your objective is to get a job. My experience has shown: If I send out two equally qualified attorneys who are black (same practice area, caliber of Event | Create Resumes law schools and law firms), and one has a bunch of stuff about their race on their resume and the other does not, the person without the Hanoi Eregulations, racial information is more likely to get interviewed and hired. Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com. Discrimination? Maybe. Or, it could just be that the law firm does not like the person playing the race card to try and get a leg up on the competition. Alternatively, interviewers want to feel the person got hired on their merits and not because the resume advertised their race.
Member of the Muslim Law Students Association. Same logic as above. Why put something on your resume that is going to possibly alienate others? After September 11th, I remember several people with this on their resumes that were blackballed in the entire city of New York and could not get jobs despite incredible qualifications. Obviously, there was discrimination going on Eregulations there, but it would be insane to leave this on Contract Agreement Event Organizer | Create Professional your resume. Member of the Jewish Law Students Association. Anything that can alienate others should be removed from Eregulations, your resume. Missionary for two years (LDS) in Brazil. Thank | Docoments. Do Mormons approve of gays? Weren#39;t blacks barred until the 1970s from holding the Mormon priesthood? You get the idea.
Why risk alienating others? Married mother of three. Married? You are gorgeous but not that qualified. I#39;m moving on. Hanoi Eregulations. I spend my life in this office and am looking for Samples Resume Title For Sales Resume a potential mate to be my associate! Never a good idea to put this on your resume. Don#39;t kill the messenger here (this is just how many attorneys think).
Three kids? Does that mean you are going to be jumping up during meetings to Hanoi Eregulations take phone calls from your kids? Does that mean that that you are going to miss work when they get sick? What if you cannot find childcare? Creative email address. While I have taken a bit of | Relevante liberty here, I#39;ve seen some emails like this in the recent past: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] . I#39;m not kidding. These are more common than you think. If you were a billion dollar corporation hiring an attorney (or a law firm that hired attorneys to work on matters for Hanoi large corporations like this), would you want someone with an email address like this?
Leave this stuff off of your resume. No one wants to see it. Make sure your personal email address is professional. Your work email address. Resume Examples. 10 Free Templates Word. This is Eregulations very common. Really?
You want us to communicate with you at Privacy-Statement, your work email address? What this says is Eregulations pretty simple: c. I must not respect my employer very much. d. I must not be very loyal. e. Agreement Event | Create. I must not care what my employer thinks of me. f. I do not care if my employer learns I am looking for a job on their time. g. Maybe I was fired and my employer knows I am looking which is why I don#39;t care (hey, I#39;m bad at my job anyway!) h. I will do the Hanoi Eregulations, same to you if you hire me! An email address like Harvard.edu, Stanford.edu, UChicago.edu, Princeton.edu, Yale.edu. Subtraction. You went to Hanoi a prestigious college or law school!
Good for Arithmetic Addition Subtraction Multiplication you! What have you done since then? Do you think you need to Hanoi advertise what a great school you went to? I went to Ohio State you arrogant asshole! Get a Gmail or similar personal email address. There are people everywhere that use their law schools or colleges as a badge of superiority, and it pisses a lot of people off who do not have the same credentials. Many people in large law firms grew up poor and worked very hard to get into prestigious state schools that their parents could afford and Resume Title Samples Resume For Sales Resume Title, then worked very hard once they were in college. Hanoi Eregulations. Princeton?
Are you kidding? 2. Resume Title Resume Title For Sales Resume Title. Irrelevant Work Experience and Education. Left a law firm and started a business (with a description of the business). You started a business and Hanoi, failed? Sorry, our law firm does not hire people who fail. What#39;s wrong? You did not like practicing law? You think you are better than us? People leave law firms all the time to start businesses and want to Resume Samples Resume Title come back.
It is rare that large law firms will ever welcome these attorneys. Large law firms are sort of like medieval guilds from which you can never return once you leave. The biggest issue with leaving a large law firm is that, in almost 100% of the cases, the person who leaves to start his own business will do so again and be plotting their escape from the second they step back in Eregulations the door. In addition, these people are a threat to partners because they could steal their business. These attorneys are rarely hired. This telegraphs a lack of deferring your wants to a group as well as other issues. HOW TO TELL IF YOU ARE MORE OF AN ENTREPRENEUR THAN AN ATTORNEY: I know a guy that makes over Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com, $500,000 a year (in cash) washing windows in a suburb outside of Detroit. Hanoi Eregulations. He has been doing this for decades. He has two pickup trucks and about $1,000 in equipment (4 or 5 ladders, some rags, squeegees and buckets). He hires people for $10 an Resume Templates hour to go to homes to Hanoi Eregulations clean windows during the spring and fall.
He works about six months a year. - Teodul.com. Would you rather do this or work as an Eregulations attorney for $180,000 a year? Personally, I would rather be an attorney due to the sense of a higher purpose, working with talented people and other reasons. Many people would rather run the window washing business. Examples. Awesome 10 Free Templates. If this is you, you are far more of an entrepreneur than an attorney.
Took business courses while at a law firm and got a certificate. Hanoi. Wait a minute. Resume Examples. 10 Free Resume. You took a six-week course in financial accounting while working full time as a litigation associate at Jones Day? Are you serious? I have seen intellectual property attorneys list real estate courses they took at New York University Law School and corporate attorneys list courses they took in How to be an entrepreneur. Anything that shows a lack of commitment to being an attorney should not be on there. If you are a tax attorney that took a bunch of classes in tax law, that should be on your resume.
Just do not put anything on there that is likely to detract from showing your commitment to being an attorney. Too much emphasis on what you did as an undergraduate. You were in Hanoi a fraternity? You must be the type of person who made it difficult for me to sleep when you were partying all night while I was trying to get good grades in college. If you played a varsity sport in college, or were president of some non-polarizing student organization (think CHESS CLUB and not REPUBLICANS AGAINST ABORTION) then it is fine to have this on your resume. In general, though, no one cares about: Your race Your religion Your pro-feminist leanings Your socialist leanings Your political affiliation Your sexual orientation. Why on earth would you put any club, organization or other information on Addition Subtraction your resume that would force an interviewer to choose sides? Wars, protests and Hanoi, killings occur due to peoples#39; passion for Powerpoint - Teodul.com one religion, political affiliation and other organizations. Leave this off your resume. Jobs prior to law school that are irrelevant or do not help to show you in a good light.
If you worked for three years at Hanoi, a top American accounting firm, law firm, or investment bank prior to law school, this is good. It shows your commitment to being part of the labor force and working hard. If you worked as a waiter, nanny, or some other less-than-serious job, this is Organizer Professional unlikely to impress employers. If you were in the military, a policeman, fireman, or did something else that society values, then that position is Hanoi fine to leave on your resume. You just do not want anything on there that shows you are not a high performer. Bar in a different state despite the fact that you have only ever worked in one state. Many attorneys take the bar exam in Resume Samples Best Resume the state they are from and where they are working. Someone from California working in New York may take the California Bar Exam in addition to the New York Bar Exam.
Someone in Chicago may take the Hanoi Eregulations, bar exam in Contract Agreement Event Organizer Professional Florida. Hanoi. This does not help you. Having a bar in a different jurisdiction (unless this is where you are applying) simply shows that you are interested in working somewhere else and probably will at some point. Anything that does not show your 100% commitment to the location where you are working is suspect and Samples For Sales Resume Title, can disqualify you from jobs. Take this off your resume. Parenting time between jobs. Women sometimes take years off between jobs. In the experience of Eregulations 95% of legal employers, if a woman takes more than a year off, she is (1) unlikely to come back to Resume Examples. Awesome Download Resume Templates Word the workforce for long, or (2) is likely to jump around to jobs seeking less and Hanoi Eregulations, less accountability when she does come back. Law firms want people who are 100% committed and willing to work hard.
If you took off more than a few months after having children, law firms will assume that you were not 100% committed to your firm and its clients. Your class rank and grade point average (unless it is extraordinary) . Many attorneys are proud to 10 Free Download Resume have graduated in Hanoi the top half of their class or earned a 3.0 grade point average. The problem with doing something like this is that it draws attention to the fact that you were nowhere near the best. Samples Best. Why on earth would a large law firm hire you if you are not the Hanoi, best? RULES FOR WHEN TO LIST CLASS RANK AND GRADE POINT AVERAGE ON RESUME. Top 10 law school: If you were in the top 20% this is fine.
I still do not recommend this, though. If you were in the top 10%, I recommend this. Top 11-25 law school: Top 10% and above is OK. | Relevante. I recommend this, though, in Hanoi Eregulations the top 5% only. Second-tier law school: Top 5%. Third-tier law school: Top 5%.
Fourth-tier: Only list if you were #1 through #5 in your class. Skills that everyone should have as an attorney. You are being paid to analyze complex legal matters as an attorney. Presentation Powerpoint. Putting on your resume that you understand Westlaw and Lexis, or are proficient in Microsoft Word is insane. Eregulations. I see this every day, however. Please get this off your resume. You make yourself look really stupid when you list this on your resume. Privacy-Statement. If you are a person with a high school education applying to work in Eregulations a records room, this is fine. It does not belong on Privacy-Statement the resume of an attorney seeking a position in a major US law firm, however. Grades in law school classes (or worse yet, college classes).
This is something I see all the time too. No one cares. If you take the time to talk about your best grades, people will assume that the rest of them were not that good. Leave this off. It makes you look like you are not big firm material. Classes you took in Hanoi law school. - Teodul.com. No one cares about this either. Eregulations. If you list this, you look weak as well. The fact that you took corporations in law school does not qualify you to be a corporate attorney . Your mind, ability to think, motivation and a bunch of other factors are more relevant to this than anything else. Charity Ojazlink. Titles of papers and theses that you wrote in college or law school that show anything other than your commitment to practicing law.
For whatever reason, people continually put this stuff on their resume, and it is not helpful. If you are a patent attorney and Hanoi Eregulations, wrote about something science-related that#39;s great; however, for Charity Donation You Letter | Docoments the most part, looking like an intellectual is Hanoi Eregulations not the smartest thing you can do. 2 Table Mathematics Addition. With the exception of appellate attorneys, most attorneys are not that intellectual and Hanoi Eregulations, are expected to reach conclusions in a direct way without massive analysis. I have seen attorneys list topics like: Why Corporations are Cheating Americans Out of a Middle Class Life An Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation Ceremonies in - Teodul.com the African Subcontinent Why Gays and Lesbians Need Separate Proms: A Case for Separate But Equal in Public Education Why Black Reparations Should be Priority #1 of the Obama Administration Plato v. Socrates and the Foundations of Western Empiricism An attorney sitting in Hanoi Eregulations a small office in a high rise who has been working 50 hours a week for decades for demanding clients in an ultra-competitive environment has no time for that nonsense. If you are sitting around writing that sort of stuff while he is 10 Free Download Resume Templates Word proofreading a 200-page stock prospectus for the eighth time at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday morning, you are not going to identify with him. He also does not have much time for people with these sorts of interests. In addition, why are you interested in this crap anyway?
A ridiculous regurgitation of stuff everyone in your position does. There are certain things every litigator does (respond to discovery, conduct legal research, write memos, draft motions, draft discovery and Hanoi Eregulations, review documents). Putting this on your resume makes you look like a moron. 2 Table Subtraction. Get it off there! If you drafted an Eregulations appeal to the US Supreme Court, or did a trial you can put this on there. Other than that, everyone knows what Litigation Associate at Morrison Foerster means. If you have specific experience (environmental law, intellectual property litigation and other subject matter expertise), then it is useful to Examples. 10 Free Resume Templates leave this information on your resume.
It is Hanoi Eregulations just not a good idea to have mundane tasks on your resume that everyone who has this position does. This is no different than a waiter writing Waited on tables on their resume. Use of colors and - Teodul.com, fancy/unusual fonts. For some people, their resume becomes an art project. For attorneys and law students applying to large law firms, their experience speaks for itself. If you draw attention to Eregulations yourself with crazy fonts and colors, you are just going to look weird.
It would be no different than wearing a pink suit to a funeral when everyone else is wearing black. You are applying to Resume Samples Best Resume Resume Title work in a giant law firm and be part of Hanoi Eregulations a group of people who are (1) conforming, (2) working together and (3) basically pretty dry. If your resume looks too different or strange, people are going to assume you are strange. Resume Examples. 10 Free Download Templates. You do not want to look strange. Your objective is to get a job. Listing words for HR software on the top of the resume. Someone out there is telling attorneys to do this. I have literally seen resumes with words like this at the top right under the Hanoi Eregulations, person#39;s name: attorney, lawyer, counselor, litigation, law firm attorney, Westlaw, Lexis, AV Rated. Huh. If you are the one doing this to legal resumes, PLEASE STOP!
You are doing incredible amounts of damage to good people. Putting your objective on Event Resumes the resume. This one confuses me so much. Let me make something clear: Most law firms where the average partner makes over $1 million a year ASSUME that everyone wants to work there. Hanoi. You do not need to put something like some of the statements I have seen on your resume: Objective: To get a job with a major US law firm. Objective: To work at an international law firm with a strong patent practice. Objective: To find a law firm that affords me the opportunity to have work-life balance while working on sophisticated matters. Shut up! No one cares what your objective is.
In addition, if your objective is to simply work at Charity Donation Thank, a huge law firm then why us? Your resume should get you in Eregulations the door and then allow you to make your case. No giant law firm is going to hire you with this crap on Resume Examples. Awesome 10 Free Word your resume. If you are applying for a high-paying and demanding job with a giant law firm, that is your objective. Do not waste space on your resume with this. Putting References Available upon Hanoi, Request on Contract Agreement Event Organizer Professional Resumes the resume. Are you kidding? If you are interviewing for Hanoi a $250,000 a year job (or one with the potential to Resume Examples. 10 Free Download pay that much in a few years), you better believe you will need references. The law firm is likely to review all of your social media profiles, run a light background check and find out what they can about you before ever hiring you (and some cases even before bringing you in the door for an interview). You better believe you will need references.
Do not waste any law firm#39;s time putting this on Hanoi your resume. In addition, it sounds pretty presumptuous. Putting a summary of Awesome Templates yourself on your resume. Here are some that come to mind I#39;ve seen recently: Ivy league-educated corporate attorney currently practicing at the law firm ranked as the 32nd largest in the world. Fearsome, aggressive and Eregulations, tenacious litigator able to bond easily with clients and opposing counsel. Resume Title Best. (This was a first-year attorney.) Great! Again, no one cares. Hanoi Eregulations. Is that how you see yourself: Ivy league-educated?
Most of our attorneys went to the University of Minnesota. You sound like a pompous asshole! Our law firm is not even in the top 200 largest law firms. Agreement Event Organizer | Create Professional. Is that all that matters to you? Why are you applying here? Patent Attorneys. You should put together a list of patents you have written or assisted with. You should always have this second page attached.
Long, professional scientific resumes (a second resume) are also sometimes requested by law firms. Corporate and Hanoi, Real Estate Attorneys. Deals and transactions you have worked on (with names of clients omitted). You can send this regardless of whether it is Resume Awesome Download Resume Templates Word asked for (and should). Litigators. Many law firms will ask for writing samples. Copies of briefs you have signed that you are proud of are fine to send (when asked). Cooking Animals Reading historical Judaic literature Spending time with your family Volunteering at church Horseback riding Polo Golf If you have benign interests like cooking, this is not going to impress most law firms. In general, I recommend leaving your interests off.
You should generally only have interests on your resume that are relevant to the job. Hanoi Eregulations. Otherwise, leave them off. Using giant words that not everyone knows. Attorneys are paid to communicate clearly and Privacy-Statement, concisely. Judges, corporations and others that they are dealing with are not interested in hearing words that draw attention to the attorney and away from whatever the issue is. Your resume should not use large words that draw attention to your vocabulary. No one cares. You are being hired to serve others and communicate clearly and concisely. Using adjectives to describe yourself. Eregulations. Attorneys like to call themselves things like detail-oriented and hard workers, for example.
You need to Charity | Docoments keep in mind that when you are applying for jobs where the Hanoi Eregulations, upper income bracket could be over $1 million, and you have an outside shot at this, any positive adjective you could possibly use (outside the box thinker… blah, blah, blah …) is already assumed. You are competing with the best. Privacy-Statement | Relevante. Do you think a professional boxer would have a resume that describes him as aggressive, motivated and Hanoi Eregulations, hard hitting? If someone is getting in Resume Best Resume Title For Sales the ring and getting beat up and Hanoi, beating others up, this is assumed. Don#39;t weaken your profile with the use of a bunch of adjectives. Too many words. Many attorneys love to Agreement Organizer Resumes write and talk.
No one wants to read a long diatribe of Hanoi a resume that goes into unnecessary detail about Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com, you in Hanoi a ton of words. If you have to say a lot, many attorneys will assume that something is wrong with you. You need to communicate in your resume with brevity and make it easy for people to read and understand. Presentation Powerpoint. You also do not want to Hanoi use a lot of words in your resume when you could say the same thing in fewer words. Saying less is saying more because it shows (1) you can edit your work down and (2) you have enough confidence in yourself to Thank not overdo it.
Including testimonials in the body of your resume. Quotes from Hanoi Eregulations, superiors and others should not go in You Letter your resume. Quotes from reviews often go in peoples#39; resumes as well. Not a good idea. Hanoi Eregulations. This makes you look desperate for Privacy-Statement | Relevante attention. The most confident attorneys have strength that comes from Hanoi, within and are not dependent on others for their validation. Using words the wrong way (or misspelling them). Your resume is Awesome 10 Free Download Resume no different than a legal brief, a corporate document, or a patent.
A mistake in it could be very serious and literally cost you interviews and jobs. Understanding the Eregulations, difference between various meanings of similar-sounding words is also a huge issue that can cost you jobs. Here are some of the 2 Table Arithmetic Addition Subtraction Multiplication, biggest screw-ups I see that have hurt attorneys (that are never caught by spell-checkers and make you look dumb): Learn the difference between Principal and Principle Learn the difference between Discreet and Discrete Learn the Hanoi Eregulations, difference between Precede and Proceed Learn the difference between Insure and Ensure Learn the difference between Adverse and 2 Table Arithmetic Mathematics Subtraction Multiplication, Averse Learn the difference between Eager and Anxious Learn the difference between Affect and Effect Learn the difference between Criteria and Criterion Spelling errors. Even more serious are spelling errors. If you have spelling errors, the odds are pretty good you will not be hired. Just because you run a spell check does not mean you will catch every spelling error. Omitting exact dates. You need the month and year, not just the year.
Attorneys who were at Eregulations, a job a few months, or lost a job for one reason or another, like to put in years for Event Organizer | Create Professional employment dates rather than months and the year. Attorney interviewers are smart and Hanoi Eregulations, will generally ZOOM IN on this information and find out why the attorney did this. They will always assume the worst ! If you worked at some place for a short time, that is fine. You do not need to cover it up. Trying to Privacy-Statement hide something makes you look weak and sneaky and could cost you a job.
Inappropriate dates. On a weekly basis, I see the following: Attorneys with dates on their resumes indicating they started as an Hanoi associate at a major law firm a decade before they even graduated from law school. Attorneys who have the same date for two different jobs. Attorneys where the Title Samples Title For Sales Title, dates indicate they graduated from law school before college. You get the idea. Hanoi. This needs to stop! Attorneys with large law firms are paid to look for errors and root them out. You need to have at least three or four people review your resume carefully for things you may have missed. Your resume is an extremely important document, and Charity Donation Thank You Letter | Docoments, one typo can doom you! 5. Lying or Exaggerating on Your Resume. Hanoi Eregulations. If you lie about your hours billed at your previous firm, you will generally not be fired because your former employer will not cooperate with another firm in disclosing this information.
However, you will not be trusted, and this will do long-term damage to | Create Professional your career. If you are caught lying (severely) about how much business you have as a partner, you will generally lose your job and have a difficult time in the legal community thereafter. If you lie about Hanoi, why you left your existing position, you will in almost all likelihood not lose your job, and 2 Table Arithmetic Subtraction Multiplication, your reputation will not suffer too much. In some cases, though, the Eregulations, firm may go ballistic. If a firm learns you were fired while they are interviewing you, they will generally not hire you. Attorneys should never lie on their resume and doing so is Contract Organizer Resumes very dangerous.
You need to Hanoi Eregulations have the Thank You Letter | Docoments Ojazlink, trust and Hanoi Eregulations, the respect of the Resume Awesome 10 Free Download Resume Templates, people you are working with. Hanoi Eregulations. 6. Saying Anything Negative About Any Former Employer. When I was growing up, my mother decided to retire from Arithmetic Mathematics Subtraction, her government job. Hanoi Eregulations. She had worked for the government for over two decades and started applying for | Relevante various jobs. She figured that it would not be too long before she found a new position, and Hanoi Eregulations, she was bored working in a drab, government office with a bunch of unenthusiastic employees. She took a course on resume construction. She hired an expert to advise her on her resume. Awesome Resume Templates Word. She began spending hours in the living room perfecting her resume each night (I am getting old and Eregulations, am sorry to Contract Agreement report she did this on a typewriter, as we did not yet have a computer). The completed resume was several pages long and had all sorts of action verbs and Hanoi Eregulations, other aspects to Awesome 10 Free Word it that described her limited experience in one organization in incredible terms. The completed resume contained: Tons of bullets, large words, massive amounts of formatting, things she had done decades ago, and, all sorts of irrelevant information.
Her resume could easily have been one page. It did not need to have all this detail. It would take a person an Hanoi hour to go through it and fully understand it. What do you think are the most important things attorneys and law students should include in Charity Donation You Letter their resumes to get top law firm jobs? Why are law firms so particular about what they expect in attorney and law student resumes? CURIOUS ABOUT COVER LETTERS? See the following for Hanoi Eregulations more information about attorney cover letters: Interested in Learning More About Attorney Resumes?
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Epicurus Moderate Hedonism Essays and Research Papers. ?Dominique Howard PHL 210 Dr. Hanoi. Haramia 3/16/15 Hedonism In The Picture of Dorian Gray by Presentation Powerpoint Oscar Wilde, “Dorian's story plays upon the timeless . theme of selling one's soul in exchange for earthly pleasures, and the inevitable disaster that results from prizing beauty and aesthetic experience over everything else. Hanoi Eregulations. Dorian Gray and its protagonist have become synonymous with the pursuit of pleasure in - Teodul.com which questions of good and evil are irrelevant…” (Shmoop Editorial Team). Throughout the life of Dorian. Epicurus , Ethics , Happiness 1495 Words | 5 Pages. By Nominis Expers Hedonism as a philosophy defines the good in terms of pleasure and pain, and is the worldview that holds to the . Eregulations. doctrine that pleasure is the greatest good. Privacy-Statement. Now, who wouldn't define pleasure as good? Aren't we all by this definition Hedonists? Here is where those three little letters, i-s-m make their impact. As we have learned, the Eregulations, suffix -ism transforms a word into 2 Table Addition Multiplication, a title for an entire life and world view.
Hedonism indicates a system of thought, a lense through. Epicureanism , Epicurus , Ethics 988 Words | 3 Pages. ?INTRODUCTION Epicurus in his letter to Menoeceus backers the necessity of freedom from prejudice, superstition and extremes of emotions in the . pursuit of Hanoi Eregulations, happiness and Agreement Event | Create Professional Resumes, a tranquil life. Hanoi Eregulations. The apparent simplicity of this formula allowed detractors to misinterpret Epicurus , depicting him as depraved, hedonistic, anarchistic and atheistic. His aim is to present to us, how to live a happy life.
He sees happiness as the fundamental principle of the good life. This paper is an attempt to critically delineate. Epicurus , Ethics , Happiness 914 Words | 3 Pages. Brief notes on The Era of Moderates (1885-1905) The period from 1885 to 1905 is known as the Title For Sales Resume, 'Era of Moderates '. It is only . because Badruddin Tyabji, Ferozshah Mehta, P. Hanoi Eregulations. Ananadacharlu, S. Presentation Templates. N. Banerjee, Ramesh Chandra Dutt, Anand Mohan Bose, Gala Krishna Cochlea. Eregulations. Mahadev Govind Ranade etc., the moderate leaders took over the charge of the Congress. The aim of Event | Create Resumes, these leaders was to popularize the Congress movement inside the country, to educate the public regarding their deal with the Hanoi Eregulations, British government. British Empire , British Raj , India 822 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jacob Magri 1st Year, Class 1A Contrast the views that both Aristotle and Epicurus hold on pleasure . Awesome 10 Free Resume. Epicurus tried to find the key of obtaining pleasure, so did Aristotle.
Although they both have different theories about pleasure, they both agreed on Hanoi Eregulations the idea that actions aim to obtain pleasures. Pleasure is something that can be defined differently by each individual. Every person have a different idea on Agreement how we reach our desires. Eregulations. For Aristotle, our pleasures come through. Ethics , Hedonism , Intrinsic value 617 Words | 3 Pages. ideals of a man named Epicurus . Epicureanism is defined by Arithmetic Mathematics Subtraction Epicurus as the pleasure for the end of all morality and that real . pleasure is attained through a life of prudence, honor, and justice. Epicurus introduced this philosophy around 322 B.C, and two schools established in Athens.
Epicurus taught the ethics of his philosophy in Hanoi his school, that a person should live by the art of Agreement | Create Professional, making life happy, and that prudence is the Hanoi Eregulations, noblest part of philosophy(newadvent.org). Epicurus ideals for life intrigued. Epicureanism , Epicurus , Ethics 1446 Words | 4 Pages. 516616 Macquarie University ID: 43388965 “Letter to Arithmetic Mathematics Menoeceus” Word Count: 963 Reading 1: Epicurus , “Letter to Menoeceus,” p. 49-50. . What argument does he provide for why we should not fear death? What is the ethical purpose of Eregulations, this argument for how we should live our lives? Do you agree with Epicurus’s views? Why or why not? ------------------------------------------------- Epicurus was a hedonist, a materialist and Examples. 10 Free Download Resume Templates, a consequentialist who strongly believed that in order to attain the. Alain de Botton , Anxiety , Epicureanism 1082 Words | 4 Pages. chair could feel happiness, it could not possibly be happy because it is performing its function poorly. Epicurus had a different take on . the highest virtue of man. Epicurus believed the highest virtue was the Hanoi, pursuit of pleasure.
We must keep in mind he is not referring to the physical, materialistic pleasures that come to mind in the modern day definition of the word pleasure. For Epicurus , pleasure is tied closely to satisfying one's desires. Pleasure results from getting what you want. Happiness , Human , Mind 780 Words | 3 Pages. need things like wealth, but the Resume Templates, good life also need something else to bring the happiness in life. Epicurus for once present the Eregulations, world his . depiction of a good life in Privacy-Statement | Relevante his “Letter to Menoecceus”. The ideas of a good life presented by Epicurus in “Letter to Menoeceus” have many aspects of Eregulations, a good life but all of his views have a common goals, which is to live in a pleasure life. According to Powerpoint Epicurus , a good life is to live in Eregulations happiness. The happiness mentioned was not on Examples. 10 Free Resume Templates the state of Hanoi, perfection and.
Death , God , Good and evil 2614 Words | 6 Pages. Moderate Phase of Charity Thank | Docoments, Indian National Movement 1885 – 1905 During our freedom movement, the congress people were split into two parts, the . moderates and extremists. Hanoi Eregulations. The Moderate period was from (1885 –1905) and 2 Table Arithmetic Mathematics Addition, Extremist period from(1905 – 1920). The first twenty years of congress history in Eregulations indian politics is referred as moderate politics. Moderates were the first English educated intellectuals of - Teodul.com, india like Dada bhai naoroji Pheroz shah mehta Gopala krishna gokhale Maha govinda ranade R.C. Bipin Chandra Pal , British Empire , India 881 Words | 2 Pages. Democritus and Epicurus Philosophy 116 October 17, 1996 In the Hanoi, Atomists, we see pluralism taken as far as it could . Mathematics Addition Subtraction Multiplication. possibly go. We see Democritus and Epicurus divide all the world, as well as the universe, into Hanoi Eregulations, two categories; atoms and empty space. Everything else is merely thought to exist.
The atoms are eternal, infinite in size and number and they are moving through the empty space. There is no motion without empty space. Both Democritus and Epicurus agreed that motion. Atomism , Democritus , Leucippus 1307 Words | 4 Pages. Hedonism was early founded in the 4th century b.c in the school of Cyrenaics which was an early Socratic school founded by Aristippus of . Cyrene. At that school they believed that happiness is one of the end of Resume Awesome 10 Free, moral action, while denying that virtue has any intrinsic value at all. Aristippus considered physical pleasure “more intense and preferable to mental or intellectual pleasures”, and especially immediate gratification, which he argued “should not be denied for the sake of long-term gain”.
Aristippus , Cyrene, Libya , Happiness 638 Words | 2 Pages. The Handbook of Epicurus: The Unlived Life. The Unlived Life: Rejecting Pleasure to Eregulations Avoid Pain in The Handbook of Epicurus According to The Handbook of Epicurus , . achieving the good life can only Powerpoint Templates, be done by living the life of apatheia- life free from Eregulations, emotional disturbance and worry. Epicurus proposes that in order to achieve true apatheia man must completely detach himself from Samples Resume For Sales Title, everything outside his control: from the body, from possessions, from death, and from relationships with others. It is only through accepting that we lack control.
Emotion , Experience , Human 1942 Words | 5 Pages. Marketing the Eregulations, consumer society and Hedonism. ?Marketing the Donation | Docoments Ojazlink, consumer society and Hedonism Contents Introduction Nowadays marketing is linked with pejorative definition, for many . critics it is related with an hedonistic lifestyle. Hedonism is a philosophy an Hanoi ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of Donation Ojazlink, pleasure as the Hanoi, highest good. In this article hedonism and marketing are related with materialism which can be defined as the pursuit of gathering as many material goods as possible in order to achieve happiness. This article underlines. Hedonism , Market segmentation , Marketing 1305 Words | 5 Pages. Plato and Epicurus’ Views on the Best Life. Plato and Epicurus ’ views on the Best Life Epicurus put most of his emphasis on sensory knowledge, but he also believed that . natural science must be studied as well. Why would he tell his readers to study nature?
I think we should study nature not just for the knowledge of the natural world, but because it will free us from superstition and allow us to live a happier life. The more we know about the world and the universe, the more at ease we will be in Privacy-Statement | Relevante accepting the cause and effects of what. Knowledge , Life , Mind 1010 Words | 3 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis of the Hedonism Handbook. ?A Rhetorical Analysis of The Introduction to The Hedonism Handbook In the introduction to The Hedonism Handbook, the author . Hanoi. Michael Flocker, tries to Contract Agreement Event Organizer | Create Professional Resumes convey that the assumption: “If you avoid all things pleasurable, you will live a long and happy life,” is Hanoi a fallacy- that the reasons for Privacy-Statement this assumption are wrong. He states that working every day, steering clear of Hanoi Eregulations, anything that many be construed as something pleasurable, is something that this generation has adopted as being ‘happy.’ However. Buddhism , Ethics , Happiness 1200 Words | 3 Pages. The Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Cunsumption.
The benefits of moderate alcohol consumption Adam Jones Psycamp;100 Clark College Ron Lajoy, Ph.D. Alcohol contrary to Contract Agreement | Create Professional what one may . believe in moderation, loosely defined as 2-3 servings of Hanoi, alcohol for men and 1-2 servings for women, has a wide array of health benefits. One of the earliest studies of health benefits on moderate alcohol consumption was published in the American Medical Association in 1904. Alcohol benefits the Charity Thank You Letter Ojazlink, blood lipid profile, increasing good cholesterol and decreasing. Artery , Atheroma , Atherosclerosis 724 Words | 3 Pages.
Philosophy and Social Ethics - Hedonism. Mill, a man who was rigorously raised to follow the ways and thinking of Bentham. Though these two had both contributed heavily to the same philosophy, they . Hanoi Eregulations. both differ in Presentation Powerpoint - Teodul.com their hedonistic values in the sense of Hanoi Eregulations, what is considered the “best” option. Hedonism , the theory that pleasure is good and pain is bad, combines with Utilitarianism in a way to create an almost absolute moral theory by stating that, when combined, decisions should be made based upon whatever decisions creates the highest ration of. Decision making , Ethics , Hedonism 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Living the Good Life: Herodotus V. Epicurus. What is considered a good life? Herodotus and Epicurus presents readers there depiction of a good life in their works, Persian Wars and “Letter . to Multiplication a Friend,” respectively. The ideas of a good life presented by Herodotus in Persian Wars and by Epicurus in “Letter to a Friend” both share identical aspects of a good life, but at Hanoi Eregulations, the same time both works are distinct from one another. One similarity between the two writers’ idea of a good life is Resume Best Title For Sales that one must have respect for the divine whether it. American films , God , Happiness 882 Words | 3 Pages.
Sociology and Moderate Alcohol Consumption. issue on college campuses with recent epidemics of binge drinking, particularly by college males. Many incidents have resulted in injury and death. Although . many recent studies have extolled the health benefits of Eregulations, moderate alcohol consumption, the emphasis of these studies is upon moderate consumption or one or fewer glasses of wine per day. Some emerging studies indicate that the health benefits may be the same for grape juice and wine. Alcohol increases the Charity Donation, risk of birth defects, and women who are. Beer , Divorce , Drinking culture 885 Words | 3 Pages. A Brave New World-perspective analysis on the subject of Hanoi Eregulations, Hedonism. be conditioned, and then live as a Beta in the Brave New World (BNW), universe.
If this is the case, then Brenda could not consistently accept . Hedonism . Presentation Templates - Teodul.com. This is due to the definition of Hedonism , the amount and intensity of Hanoi Eregulations, bodily pleasure in Brave New World (BNW), and Resume Samples For Sales Resume, the amount and intensity of bodily pleasure here in real life. The definition of Hedonism leads one to maximize the amount of Hanoi Eregulations, pleasure and Examples. 10 Free, minimize the Hanoi Eregulations, amount of pain: The only thing intrinsically good in life is pleasure, and the only. Hedonism , Interpersonal relationship , Intrinsic value 953 Words | 3 Pages. Given the | Relevante, authorities’ limited resources, external assistance is necessary to address this. Our short-term political risk rating is 68.1. . Moderate Inflation Increase BMI View: Inflation is Eregulations likely to be nearing a bottom at 4.2% y-o-y for October, and price growth is set to tick higher. We think, however, that the increase in inflation will be moderate and that there is little likelihood that prices will spiral out of control. Organizer Professional. We believe that the 4.2% y-o-y headline inflation figure recorded. Central bank , Deficit , Economic growth 1341 Words | 4 Pages.
anything we think we know is wrong and untrustworthy, we can never be sure of nothing for Hanoi Eregulations even sensation is misleading in some sense. This view, other than . Hume’s skepticism concerning how philosophy should be done, is Resume Samples Resume Title Resume Title more related to what is called “ moderate skepticism”. Hanoi. Here what Hume means is, with the realization of the limits of human acknowledgement and cognitive capabilities, what should humans go for Donation Thank Ojazlink should be things that they can comprehend with such limitations they have. Here what he asserts. Critical thinking , Doubt , Epistemology 1088 Words | 3 Pages. Epicurus Epicurus is famous for being a ancient Greek Philosopher that created the school of Eregulations, philosophy called Epicureanism. . His thoughts of pleasure and pain go much deeper than crying or smiling. He went beyond what others were doing, by standing back and watching the bigger picture of | Docoments, what’s morally right and Eregulations, wrong. Epicurus had a goal for human life and it is being happy, but happiness comes from absence of physical pain and Samples Title Title, mental disturbance. What that says is that we put ourselves through.
Ethics , Fear , Happiness 743 Words | 2 Pages. Hedonism Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that pleasure is the only intrinsic good. In very simple terms, a hedonist . Hanoi Eregulations. strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain). Ethical hedonism is the Arithmetic Mathematics Subtraction Multiplication, idea that all people have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure possible to them. It is also the idea that every person's pleasure should far surpass their amount of pain. Ethical hedonism is Eregulations said to have been started by a student of Socrates. Aristippus , Ethics , Happiness 363 Words | 2 Pages. What Is the Resume Download Templates, Difference Between Mill’s Qualitative Hedonism and Bentham’s Quantitative Hedonism? Which Is More Plausible as a Theory of Well-Being? What is the Hanoi, difference between Mill’s qualitative hedonism and 2 Table Mathematics Addition, Bentham’s quantitative hedonism ? Which is more plausible as a . theory of well-being?
Hedonism is the idea that well-being of people comes about Hanoi, through pleasure. Pure hedonism is the thought that it arises through and only through pleasure and both Bentham and Mill advocate different approaches for which hedonism may be the basis of Contract Event Organizer, human well-being. Eregulations. Both Philosophers then go on to construct theories of morality on the basis of this idea. Ethics , Happiness , Hedonism 1836 Words | 5 Pages. Difference between Narrow and Preference Hedonism: Plausible Theory of Resume Samples Resume For Sales Resume Title, Happiness. Between Narrow and Preference Hedonism . Which Is a More Plausible Theory of Hanoi, Happiness? Explain the difference between narrow and preference . hedonism . Which is a more plausible theory of happiness? 1. Introduction (250) Happiness belongs to Hedonism . If one experience more happiness during life, his life will be better. The more happiness you experience, the better your life is. There are actually two schools of thought here, Narrow Hedonism and Preference Hedonism , each with its own definition.
Ethics , Happiness , Hedonism 2850 Words | 7 Pages. No. 1 Hedonism (Greek: hedone (????? from Ancient Greek) pleasure +–ism) is a philosophical position that takes the pursuit of pleasure . as the primary motivating element of life, based upon a view that pleasure is good i.e. pleasure has an ultimate importance and is the most important pursuit of humanity. The concept of pleasure is, however, understood and approached in a variety of Samples Best Resume Title For Sales Resume Title, ways, and hedonism is classified accordingly. Hanoi. The three basic types of philosophical hedonism are psychological. Claim rights and liberty rights , Cost-benefit analysis , Ethics 2398 Words | 8 Pages. Moderate Conservatism Is a Declining Force in the Republican Party.
Moderate conservatism is a declining force in the Republican Party? Moderate conservatism has become less prevalent in recent . 2 Table Subtraction Multiplication. years. Hanoi Eregulations. This is mainly down to ideological differences between new emerging branches of the Republican Party. For example the rise of the tea party has dramatically moved the republicans to the right with the likes of Sarah Palin leading the 10 Free Resume Word, way. However Romney has shown that moderate conservatism is still within the Republican Party due to his “flip flopping” nature. . Centre-right , Conservatism , Democratic Party 967 Words | 3 Pages.
Moderate Stress Enhances Memory Persistence. Parfitt, G., Barbosa, A., Campos, R., Koth, A., amp; Barros, D. (2012). Moderate stress enhances memory persistence: Are adrenergic mechanisms . involved?. Hanoi. Behavioral Neuroscience, 126(5), 729-734. doi:10.1037/a0029861 In the article Moderate Stress Enhances Memory Persistence: Are Adrenergic Mechanisms Involved? the author’s main issue was understanding how stress affects the different stages of memory persistence, that is, knowing which mechanisms in the learning process are affected and how. Adrenergic receptor , Beta blocker , Psychology 971 Words | 3 Pages.
When your firm practices developing and Examples. Download Templates Word, maintaining a strategic fit between your organization’s goals and capabilities, it is forming a (an) _____. Hanoi. a. . mission statement b. values statement c. strategic plan d. Agreement Event Professional. operating plan (c; Moderate ; p. 41) 3. At the corporate level, a company starts the strategic planning process by Hanoi Eregulations defining its overall purpose and _____. a. Donation Thank Ojazlink. mission b. values c. vision d. strengths (a; Easy; p. 41) 4. Marketing planning at your. Marketing , Marketing management , Marketing plan 4920 Words | 26 Pages. American Revolution Notes: Radical or Moderate. ?Interpretations of America The American Revolution: Moderate or Radical? Some historians argue that the Revolution was solely aimed at . achieving the limited goal of independence from Hanoi, Britain. There was a consensus among the Americans about keeping things as they were once the break from Britain had been accomplished The Revolution was inevitably viewed as a struggle of liberty versus tyranny between America and Britain. The Revolution was “radical in its character,” according to Bancroft.
American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Britishness 1830 Words | 6 Pages. Buddha’s Ceasing of Woe Effectively Constitutes the Good Life as Compared to Epicurus’ Theory of Pursuit of Pleasure. Buddha’s Ceasing of Woe Effectively Constitutes the Good Life as Compared to Epicurus ’ Theory of Pursuit of Pleasure I will argue that . although Epicurus holds validity in his argument on achieving happiness through the pursuit and fulfillment of Title Resume Title, pleasures, it is Buddha’s method of the ceasing of Hanoi Eregulations, woe through following the eightfold path to Presentation - Teodul.com enlightenment that most comprehensively constitutes the Hanoi, good life. Presentation Powerpoint Templates - Teodul.com. I will first explain Epicurus ’ vision of the Hanoi, good life through his invitation to join him in studying. Buddhism , Dukkha , Four Noble Truths 1738 Words | 4 Pages. important, as essential to philosophical self-awareness and as uniquely human. Moderation was encouraged, with the Agreement Organizer | Create, extremes seen as degraded and Eregulations, immoral. For . example, courage is the Powerpoint, moderate virtue between the extremes of cowardice and recklessness. Man should not simply live, but live well with conduct governed by moderate virtue. This is regarded as difficult, as virtue denotes doing the right thing, to the right person, at the right time, to Hanoi Eregulations the proper extent, in the correct fashion, for the right. Ethics , Meta-ethics , Morality 1702 Words | 5 Pages.
principles of Privacy-Statement | Relevante, being, knowledge, or conduct. Hanoi Eregulations. Philosophy focuses on three main types: Stoicism Skepticism Epicurean Philosophy consists of these . Presentation Templates - Teodul.com. philosophical areas: Metaphysics Materialism Idealism Epistemology Empiricism Rationalism Ethics Hedonism Cynicism Three Main Types Stoicism Refers to Hanoi the knowledge of Agreement Event | Create Professional, Aristotle Mind is Hanoi Eregulations a blank state, impressions are made by the 5 senses. Stoics deny the metaphysical points of view. Real objects produce intense feelings. The body and. Epistemology , Immanuel Kant , Logic 722 Words | 5 Pages. spiritual happiness in which two great philosophers have studied and mastered in great depth. Although Epicurus and Mathematics Subtraction, Epictetus both had very . strong opinions to this argument, Epictetus showed that it is necessary to have a knowledgeable understanding of what is giving you that satisfaction. With his idea we see that it is important to see the big picture in order to be happy rather than Epicurus ' simple stand of satisfying your basic desires.
In my personal opinion I believe that you should not go. Ethics , Happiness , Pain 754 Words | 2 Pages. to follow what makes for a good life is individualistic. 2) The Hedonism theory claims that all pleasures are intrinsically good, and Hanoi Eregulations, that . nothing other than pleasure is intrinsically good. However my objection to this statement is that the overall life satisfaction is not acquired through experiencing constant pleasures, and that experiences life only through chasing pleasurable actions will only end unpleasant.
Also, hedonism states that good is Examples. Download Resume Word pleasure and bad is pain. In distinction, if having. Ethics , Happiness , Hedonism 421 Words | 2 Pages. ? Epicurus (341 - 270BC) Founder of the philosophical view of Hedonism (termed the ethic of the pigsty), Hedonistic . philosophy taught that pleasure was the Hanoi, highest good of man. 10 Free Word. The pursuit of pleasure was man's chief goal. Pleasure was good and pain was evil. Epicurus rejected Aristotle's golden mean of Hanoi, doing nothing to excess. He said that religion is the chief curse of the human race. He was not really saying that he did not believe in the gods, but he said that the gods had no interest. Bible , Christianity , Ethics 1965 Words | 6 Pages.
Extreme and Moderate Character of Tartuffe. Extreme and Moderate Characters in Tartuffe In Moliere's Tartuffe (Moire 1664), the reader is able to see a great contrast of Extreme and . Moderate characters. Extreme characters being those who are seen as over the top, or very passionate people, and the moderate characters having a more calm and subtle approach to ideas. The extreme characters in this case would be Madam Pernelle, Orgon, Tartuffe, and Dorine. The moderate characters are seen as Cleante and Elmire.
One of the Donation Thank Ojazlink, characters that. Circle in the Square Theatre , Concept , English-language films 541 Words | 2 Pages. we know that one should try to maximize their net pleasure i.e. pleasure minus pain. I believe that the Hanoi, happiness of Templates, one’s self should always be above the . happiness of others, if it is in our human nature to do so then do so we shall. Hanoi. Egoistic Hedonism can be judged as an Charity Donation | Docoments Ojazlink ethical way of life, we know that greater happiness comes to those who pursue it therefore we should all aspire to have the same goal, in doing so the more people who do this the better. This ideal is teleological. A teleological. Ayn Rand , Ethical egoism , Ethics 734 Words | 2 Pages. Motivation Theories PSY/355 Motivation Theories All kinds of motivation cannot be explained by Hedonism . The subjective nature . of motivation in Hedonism lies in the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. The law of effect, however, emphasizes the objective nature of Eregulations, motivation—some stimuli increase behavior and other stimuli decrease it. Examples. Awesome 10 Free Resume Templates Word. The internal incentives of hedonism , and the external incentives of law and effect are two different sources of motivation, however, they can.
Behavior , Edward Thorndike , Hedonism 1517 Words | 5 Pages. These remarks encapsulate Epicurus’s views on our attitudes towards death. What argument does he provide for Eregulations why we should not fear death? of this argument for how we should live our lives? Do you agree with Epicurus’s view? Why or why not? Epicurus was Philosopher in the . Hellenistic period, he presents the idea that man should strive for the ‘good life’ attaining happiness through the pursuit of Contract Event | Create Professional, pleasure. In “Letter to Menoeccus,” Epicurus discusses these ethics and views on how we should live our lives. Hanoi. Within this Epicurus presents the 2 Table Addition Subtraction Multiplication, argument that we should not fear death because when we are alive we cannot feel it, yet once.
Death , Epicureanism , Epicurus 1087 Words | 3 Pages. reference groups moderates the image congurence and brand loyalty. ? Reference group moderates the relationship between self-image congurence and brand loyalty M2014420 . Hanoi. Park Sunhee Professor Z.H.Bang Introduction For some time, social scientists have recognized group membership as a determinant of behavior.The fact that people act in 2 Table Subtraction accordance with a frame of reference produced by the groups to which they belong is a long-accepted and sound premise (Merton and Rossi 1949). People engage in consumption. Brand , Branding , Graphic design 1431 Words | 10 Pages. Madison Caruth AP US History October 9, 2012 Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States of America, began his presidency in 1901 as a . republican and ended it in Hanoi Eregulations 1909 as a moderate progressive. He was well known for his energetic personality, large ego, and his slogan, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Most importantly, however, he is Arithmetic Mathematics Subtraction recognized for Hanoi his many progressive reforms and accomplishments as president, one of which was the Square Deal.
Roosevelt’s Square Deal was. History of the United States , Meat packing industry , Meat processing 718 Words | 2 Pages. Developmental Psychology and Moderate Ref. lifespan development. | b. | was the first African-American psychologist. | c. | won three gold medals at the 2009 National Senior Games. | d. | was . the | Create Professional, first black soldier to Hanoi Eregulations serve in an all-white unit in World War II. | ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1 OBJ: 1.1 2. Development is best defined as a. | individual differences in human behavior. | b. | systematic changes and continuities from conception to death. | c. | the way people change in positive ways across time. | d. |. Case study , Cross-sectional analysis , Cross-sectional study 9068 Words | 43 Pages. Hedonism and a Hedonistic Society. HEDONISM There is Privacy-Statement no doubt that pleasure is good.
Whether the Hanoi Eregulations, pleasure is emotional or physical; whether we get this pleasure through taste, . Arithmetic Addition Multiplication. touch, sight, scent, or hearing ;it makes no difference. Pleasure is always enjoyable. In fact the words pleasure and good are often times interchangeable. After seeing a movie I liked, I may tell someone that the film was pleasurable or that it was good. Both descriptions have a positive connotation.
But while pleasure is undoubtedly good, it is not the highest. Aryan race , Happiness , Hedonism 579 Words | 2 Pages. ?Epicureanism Vs. Stoicism Epicurus was a great philosopher that founded the Epicurean belief. Hanoi Eregulations. He was born in Presentation Templates 341 B.C. and met his demise in . 270 B.C. He was an advocate for seeking out carnal desires; however, he also knew the significance of experiencing pain in life. Eregulations. Without suffering, people would indefinitely take everything for granted.
Epicurus had a following of people that he taught to live modestly, within their means, in communities filled with individuals that had pleasant demeanors. Anxiety , Emotion , Epicureanism 1682 Words | 5 Pages. philosophy moves toward a new emphasis. Four groups of philosophers helped to shape this new direction, namely, the Epicureans, the Stoics, the Presentation Powerpoint, Skeptics, and . the Neoplatonist. They were, of course, greatly influenced by their predecessors, so we find that Epicurus relied upon Democritus for his atomic theory of Hanoi Eregulations, nature, the Stoics made use of Heraclitus’ notion of a fiery substance permeating all things, the Skeptics built a method of Awesome Resume Templates, inquiry upon Hanoi Eregulations, the Socratic form of doubt, and Plotinus drew heavily upon Plato. Epictetus , Ethics , Marcus Aurelius 2037 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophical approaches such as Hedonism , Religious approaches from a Christian and Multiplication, Buddhist point of view, the Economic view and the . Scientific view, respectively. Let us now delve into the philosophy of Hanoi Eregulations, happiness/pleasure under hedonism . According to Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, “ Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that pleasure is the only intrinsic good”.
Simply put a hedonist aims to Presentation Templates maximise net pleasure – which is pleasure minus pain. Hedonism is believed to have been founded. Ethics , Happiness , Happiness economics 1528 Words | 4 Pages. Net Present Value and Moderate Keywords. Difficulty: Moderate Keywords: capacity decision, strategic decisions 3. Capacity can be expressed by Hanoi Eregulations output or input measures. Awesome 10 Free Resume Templates Word. . Answer: True Reference: Planning Long-Term Capacity Difficulty: Moderate Keywords: capacity, input measures, output measures 4. Hanoi. Input measures of capacity are inherently more accurate than output measures of capacity. Answer: False Reference: Planning Long-Term Capacity Difficulty: Moderate Keywords.
Capacity utilization , Cash flow , Economics of production 10089 Words | 44 Pages. The Political Establishment in Germany Succeeded in Maintaining the Political Status Quo Through a Policy of Charity Thank Ojazlink, Moderate Reform. How Far Do You Agree with This Statement? establishment in Hanoi Germany succeeded in maintaining the political status quo through a policy of moderate reform. How far do you agree with this . statement? The political establishment during the Resume Samples Best Resume Title For Sales Resume Title, Second Reich in Germany were successful in maintaining the political status quo between the years 1871 and 1918.
It can be argued however, that they were successful in doing so through more than just a policy of Hanoi Eregulations, moderate reform. During these years, Germany abided by a rigid constitution which allowed power to. German Empire , Germany , Nationalism 1525 Words | 4 Pages. »Explain Why Mill Distinguishes Between Higher and Lower Pleasures and Assess Whether He Achieves His Aim or Not.« and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure.«3 The fact that pleasure is the only good for 2 Table Subtraction Mill makes his Utilitarianism a . Eregulations. form of Hedonism which is most associated with the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus who claims that »Pleasure is our first and kindred good.«4 The difference to Resume Examples. Awesome Download Resume Epicurus ' Hedonism , however, is that »the happiness which forms the utilitarian standard of what is right in conduct, is not the agent's own happiness, but that of Hanoi, all concerned.«5 . Epicurus , Ethics , Happiness 1512 Words | 4 Pages. “The political establishment in Germany succeeded in maintaining the status quo through a policy of moderate reform.” How far do you agree with this judgment? ?“The political establishment in Germany succeeded in maintaining the status quo through a policy of moderate reform.” How far do you agree . with this judgment? The political establishment in Germany (comprising of the Kaiser, Chancellor, Budesrat, Junkers and the Army) certainly would have wanted to maintain the status quo during that period and it could be argued that they succeeded using moderate reform. The actions of von Bulow and Bethmann-Hollweg can be used as evidence of this. However, despite.
German Empire , United Kingdom 1963 Words | 6 Pages. terms and given their views of Title Samples Resume Title Title, what happiness means. Greek philosopher Aristippus based his view of happiness on physical pleasure and to the possession of . items owned that provide a person with pleasure, known as “ hedonism ”. Greek thinker Epicurus invented the Hanoi, term “epicurean”. Epicurus felt happiness came from being free from pain. Greek philosopher Zeno felt that true happiness is Subtraction born from Hanoi, how we respond to events that happen to us-“Stoicism”. Philosophers Plato and Aristotle both believed that. Emotion , Ethics , Everyday Life 811 Words | 3 Pages. The Political Establishment in Germany succeeded in maintaining the status quo through a policy of Contract Agreement Event Organizer, moderate reform. The political establishment in Germany succeeded in maintaining the status quo through a policy of moderate reform The status quo in . Germany around the time period in question was rigid, the order was expected to be maintained and very few people interchanged between the lower and the higher ranks in society. Hanoi Eregulations. Moderate reform was shown by slight changes in the policies in both the areas of social reform and the relaxing of the laws against socialism.
The government were conservative in Presentation Powerpoint their alterations. Conservatism , Liberalism , Socialism 2280 Words | 6 Pages. western culture, the American TV drama own characteristics, its spread values and other reasons, the Hanoi Eregulations, American TV dramas naturally will produce a subtle . influence on these adolescents’ values. Agreement Event Professional. The values include individualism, freedom?equality, egoism, hedonism , mammonism, optimism and so on. Cheng Yuanfang in The Influences on Teenagers’ Ideological and Hanoi Eregulations, Moral Development under the Heat of American TV Dramas said the Title For Sales Resume, American TV dramas advocate such values as “individualism”, “egoism”, and “materialism”. American culture , Culture , Individualism 1934 Words | 6 Pages. Hypermodernity and Paradoxical Individualism. we fit today.
I believe it all started with Epicurus , his philosophical research and Eregulations, the introduction of Resume Resume Title For Sales Resume Title, Epicureanism. It is Hanoi incredible to Mathematics Addition Subtraction Multiplication look . back and realize that the ancient Greeks already shared the same ideas as we do today and this also proves that ancient Greece’s literature is Eregulations still a source filled with an incredible amount of wisdom and answers waiting to Resume Best Resume be debated and interpreted today in our “place the Hanoi, prefix you like”-modern society. Epicurus ’ doctrine relied on the perfect balance between. Carpe diem , Consumerism , Future 2048 Words | 6 Pages. Bonum Ex Integra Cause, Malum Ex Quocumque Defectu.
done was right enough in itself, but he did not do it in Resume Best Resume Title the proper place or season. Hedonism The supreme good of man according to Aristippus . is Hanoi pleasure or the enjoyment of the moment, and Powerpoint - Teodul.com, pleasure is essentially gentle motion. Pleasure can never be bad, and the primary form of Hanoi Eregulations, it is bodily pleasure. But, in order to Privacy-Statement secure the maximum of pleasure, prudent self-control is Hanoi Eregulations necessary; and this is virtue. Epicurus held that pleasure is the chief good; but pleasure is rest, not motion; and the highest. Ethics , Hedonism , Human 671 Words | 3 Pages. The Questioning Methods Employed by Socrates and Plato.
grew the philosophy of Epicurus . Mathematics Addition. Science was the whole concept to his theory. Because of not understanding nature and not looking at it . Eregulations. scientifically we will fall into superstition, fear and Thank | Docoments Ojazlink, anxiety. It is Hanoi Eregulations these irrational fears that will stop humans from attaining happiness and knowledge is the key to overcoming irrational fears. The use of critical thinking will help to lessen superstitions and Privacy-Statement, pain allowing wise decisions to be made (pg. 53). The ethics of Epicurus is to help in understanding. Aristotle , Human , Logic 1923 Words | 5 Pages.
philosophical interests while also drawing attention to points of Hanoi, interpretative dif?culty and controversy. Contract Agreement Event Resumes. james warren is a Senior Lecturer in the . Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge. Previous books include Facing Death: Epicurus and his Critics (2004) and Epicurus and Democritean Ethics: an Archaeology of Ataraxia (2002). Cambridge Collections Online © Cambridge University Press, 2009 Cambridge Collections Online © Cambridge University Press, 2009 The Cambridge Companion to . Aristotle , Epicureanism , Epicurus 127262 Words | 437 Pages.