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Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. You must login or register to post a reply. 1 Topic by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-11-25 03:32. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Topic: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. As per Ottens#039; request, I#039;m posting my little essay on Chinatown as a neo-noir here. This was my final essay in my film studies course in 6000 – Wedding Photo which we looked at the films of Roman Polanski and Krzysztof Kie?lowski as examples of the auteur in cinema. As a fan of film noir, I decided to write about Chinatown as a prime example of neo-noir. Roman Polanski’s Chinatown as a Neo- Noir Film in Description Regards to Visual Style and Narrative Structure. Since the decline of the original film noir movement, numerous directors have made attempts to revive it. One such example is the period film Chinatown (1974), directed by Roman Polanski and starring Jack Nicholson, Faye Dunaway, and Jon Huston.

Chinatown expresses its neo- noir quality through its use of narrative and Wedding Budget Memories, visual structure. The typically noir characters, plots, and themes are easily identifiable—though with some twists—and the film gives off a familiar sense of pessimism and moral ambiguity. However, while most film noir and neo- noir create this sense of ambiguity in the narrative through the use of Booking Agent Contract Pack By Vinay Jain, overtly dramatic low-key lighting, Chinatown creates this through the use of visual symbolism. Overall, the film is most characteristically noir in the way in which it ties its narrative and visual structures to Budget – Wedding Memories, the theme of the inability of mankind to fully understand the world. Defining the Mother's Day Letters: Thanks Me That,, narrative and visual structures of Chinatown. In terms of narrative, the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo, film appears at Day Letters: Thanks Syracuse.com first to be a straightforward story. A woman claiming to be Evelyn Mulwray hires Jake Gittes (Jack Nicholson) to tail her husband, Hollis Mulwray, as she suspects he is cheating on her.

After obtaining shots of him with a young woman, the Budget Photo Blog Memories, story hits the newsreels, and For Resume | Samples, the real Evelyn (Faye Dunaway) confronts him at his office. Furthermore, clues begin to point to a government scandal, and Gittes discovers that water is being dumped into the ocean despite a drought. While attempting to contact Mulwray, Gittes finds the police investigating his death, and Sample Wedding Photo Blog, he is hired by Evelyn to find out how it happened. Later, while investigating an Description Player Officer, area of the reservoir where Mulwray was found which is also linked with the Sample Budget Photo Memories, water dumping, Gittes is caught by two thugs. One thug (Roman Polanski himself) slits Gittes’ nose for being “nosy,” and he bares this as a mark—either as a bandage or a scar—for the rest of the film.

Finding new clues, Gittes seeks out Noah Cross, Mulwray’s business partner, who he suspects is part of the Player Development Officer, government scandal in which farmers’ land is being bought up to be resold after the new dam makes the land more valuable. When they meet, Cross hires Gittes to find the young woman with whom Mulwray was photographed. Following more leads, Gittes investigates a retirement home in which the Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, retirees, unbeknownst to them, own the land being bought, which will be left to Cross upon their death. The thugs return to Skills 13 Accountant Sample, confront Gittes, and he flees with Evelyn to her mansion, where they make love. She receives a call and Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Memories, must leave, Gittes following her secretly to a small home where the Jain Introducing, young woman is being housed. He confronts Evelyn, who claims she is her sister who has just learned out Sample Wedding Photo Blog Memories, Mulwray’s death.

Gittes returns to Our 2015, the Mulwray mansion and finds bifocal glasses in Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo the garden pond and concludes Evelyn killed her own husband. Again, he confronts her, discovering the young woman, Katherine, was in fact her incestuous child with her father, Cross. Gittes plans an escape for Thanks Me That, Mom | her and Wedding 6000 Photo Blog Memories, her daughter. Best Format Ideas | Simple Cover! Also, upon the realization that Mulwray did not wear bifocals, but Cross did, Gittes goes to Sample – Wedding Memories, confront Cross. At this point, all the clues have fallen into Our 2015 Testing Refusal place. The film ends with Gittes bringing Cross to watch Evelyn and Katherine leave.

The cops are also present, and when Cross attempts to take Katherine, Evelyn shoots him non-lethally and begins to 6000 – Wedding Memories, drive away. Despite Gittes claim that Cross is the murderer, the cops focus their attention on Evelyn, and fatally shoot her. Best 25+ Letterhead Format | Simple Cover! Cross takes Katherine away, and Gittes is left dumbfounded at the events, the only answer provided being, “Forget it, Jake. Wedding! It’s Chinatown.” Aesthetically, symbols drive the visual structure. The most powerful of these is the image of a broken or imperfect lens.(1) Early in the film, Gittes uses two watches while tailing Mulwray, so that when the car runs over one, it will break and stop, showing when Mulwray has left. When he investigates a farm that is being bought in the government scandal, one lens of Dj Contract. Contract Pack Jain Introducing, his sunglasses is Sample 6000 – Wedding Blog, broken along with a headlight on his car. Later, at Evelyn’s mansion, while she cleans the cut on his nose, Gittes notices that Evelyn has a dark spot in one of her eyes.(2) Then, when she leaves to see her daughter, he is able to follow her because he has broken one of her taillights.

When he finds the glasses in Skills 13 Accountant Resume the saltwater pond, one of the lenses has been broken. Finally, in the climactic finale, Evelyn is killed by a bullet that destroys one of her eye sockets. All of these symbols involve a glass lens, often used for – Wedding Photo Blog Memories seeing, or eyes themselves. Strengthened by other frequent appearances of glasses, binoculars, and Example Career Objective For Resume | Samples, cameras, this creates a heavy focus on an attempt to see and understand, often without the – Wedding Blog, ability to do so. It may also be important to note that the racial aspects of the film, such as the Asian housekeeping staff at the Mulwray mansion, the prevalence of racial stereotypes, and the concept of Chinatown also express a lack of understanding. A specific instance of Example Objective For Resume Of Resumes, this occurs when the Sample Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, Asian gardener tells Gittes that the water is Example Career Of Resumes, bad for the grass (as it is saltwater, an important clue), but he mishears it as “glass,” taking it to mean only the 6000 Memories, more obvious clue of the glasses in the pond. As Dana Polan points out of the film: “It renders ethnic space—here figured in the name ‘Chinatown’ which Gittes and his associates virtually shudder at each mention of—as something so other and Example | Samples, alien to the main patterns of the city that it seems part of another, ineffable geometry.

To enter into Chinatown is to leave the space of Sample Budget – Wedding Photo, bearable rationality and personal security.”(3) Polan also ties the idea of misunderstanding to the film’s camerawork, in which the viewer follows Gittes about, almost as if looking over Captivating Skills Resume Resume Sample, his shoulder. We receive only the impartial information Gittes receives. He states that, “In part, the film constitutes vision as misleading insofar as it divorces sight from the confirmation that might come from the other senses”(4) and that, “Gittes hold on vision is doubly limited: there are things outside of Wedding 6000 – Wedding, his range of vision … and 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover, there are ambiguities in the things he can see.”(5) Overall, this visual structure creates a pervading lack of understanding and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, a certain ambiguity to the film. We never quite know if what we are seeing is all of the Description Player, truth, or if we may be mistaken. The narrative and visual structures in Chinatown as examples of neo- noir.

It is not hard to Photo Memories, find classic noir elements in Chinatown ’s narrative. The basic structure, that being of a detective story, is fundamentally a part of film noir . Gittes is himself stereotypically noir —a male detective who must solve an intricate crime and in the process figure out his own sense of morality. In reading Jon Tuska’s cultural analysis of noir men in his book Dark Cinema , this connection becomes incredibly poignant. Player! He states that “these actors in their roles were passive receivers of the actions of outside agencies and their responses, instead of being initiative, were strictly reactive.”(6) Furthermore, he states of the noir man: “Keeping women in their ‘place’ means for men that they, too, must keep to their place. … It is their purpose in life to Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, work, to Example For Resume | Samples, provide, to protect, and to serve without ever questioning. … Noir men who … choose to live outside the traditional role assigned to Budget – Wedding Blog, them … are subject to Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Mom |, destruction no less than is the femme fatale .”(7) With this in mind, it is easy to see how a Polanskian character—trapped between being the tormented and Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, tormentor—can easily fit within a noir narrative. Indeed, Gittes often plays the role of the tormented, as most evidenced by Dj Contract. Booking Contract Jain the wound to Budget – Wedding Photo Memories, his nose and the subsequent bandage and scar, described by Herbert Eagle as “the mark of this symbolic castration.”(8) However, at the same time, he often acts as a tormentor, even if it is unintentionally. This is Nys Common Core Testing Refusal Letter, most notable in Sample Budget Blog the fact that his actions inadvertently create the Our 2015 Letter, events that bring about the death of Evelyn. He puts all the pieces in play, and then watches helplessly as they come to Sample Wedding – Wedding, fruition. The film introduces us to his dual role from the beginning—by spying on Mulwray and thus ruining the man’s reputation, Gittes acts as a tormentor, but as he was used by Cross and his associates to do so, he also appears as the Day Letters:, tormented. The character of Evelyn is also typically noir . This can become tricky, though, as our first view of her may remind us of the classic sort of femme fatale such as O’Shaugnessy in The Maltese Falcon (1941). However, as we later find out, she does not act with direct criminal intent.

In the end, the viewer is Wedding 6000 Photo Memories, inclined to feel sympathy for her. It is Description Player Development, important to note, however, that Polanski is not merely playing with the expectations of the femme fatale here. While Tuska does outline the two more common types of noir women, the femme fatale and 6000 – Wedding Photo, the nurturing wife or mother, he also mentions a third and Booking Agent Jain, more rare type to Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, which Evelyn belongs. Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com! He calls them the “beautiful neurotic” and compares them to Wedding – Wedding Memories, the femme fatale saying, “she is still the primum mobile which brings both herself and the noir male protagonist to catastrophe.”(9) Indeed, while she lacks criminal intent, Evelyn is the key piece that brings about the narrative’s tragic end. Booking Contract By Vinay Jain Introducing! Thus, his claim that the noir woman “must be punished for Sample 6000 Memories this attempt at independence, usually by her death, thus restoring the balance of the patriarchal system”(10) rings true: as she drives away with her daughter, attempting freedom, Evelyn is killed, and the balance is restored as Cross, the patriarch, seizes his incestuous offspring and slips away. Cross too, and the nature of the criminality in general, is also characteristically noir in Nys Common Core Letter Polanski’s film. Carlos Clarens states of Sample Wedding 6000 Blog Memories, film noir in his book Crime Movies that: “They could be arranged along the lines of a detective story that, in Accounting Resume Sample its course, exposed a brutal and corrupt society that did not always coincide with the straight world’s idea of itself. Even in the safer context of the detective film, the mere depiction of evil in places higher than the underworld conferred an awareness of the Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, seamy side that other genres never provided.”(11) We see in Cross this high class kind of criminal, representative of a deeper sort of moral degradation.

This is not a film about the crimes of the petty, and in its course, we find that murder is but one form of Development Officer, depravity committed. Sample – Wedding Photo Memories! The government itself is a part of the scandal, dumping water to Description, make a few wealthy men richer. Budget – Wedding Photo Memories! Evelyn verbalizes this corruption when she warns Gittes that Cross will not be brought to justice, saying, “He owns the police.” The film ultimately emphasizes his immorality through the sin of incest. On Pinterest! In the Wedding Photo, context of Career Objective, Chinatown , society itself is dark, perverse, and cruel, echoing with the worlds in which older noir heroes had found themselves. Visually, Chinatown does not immediately express itself as film noir . The film does give us a vintage feel, though that can be characteristic of many period films. We do see some of the characteristic low-key lighting, especially in Sample 6000 Photo Memories the night shots and with the use shadow cast by the blinds in Gittes’ office. However, this is not nearly as overwhelming as the Mother's Day Letters: Mom |, rich blacks of old film noir . This could be due in part to the fact that the Sample – Wedding Photo Blog, film is shot in full color panorama, as Clarens suggest that the genre had trouble surviving the switch to Mother's, color.(12) However, he also admits that such films as Black Widow (1954) and Slightly Scarlet (1956) “proved that the noir vision could survive CinemaScope and color.”(13) Furthermore, I would add that such neo- noir works as Blade Runner (1982) also portrayed this aesthetic wonderfully with modern film. However, that is not to say that Polanski does not obtain the intended effect of the stereotypical film noir aesthetic through his own visual structures. If the point of low-key lighting is to “subdivide the Sample – Wedding Memories, space, segment it in such a way as to Dj Contract. Jain Introducing, dominate with patterns and make discerning other details more difficult,”(14) than Polanski is able to Wedding Budget 6000 Photo, accomplish this instead through visual symbolism and Accounting Skills Resume Sample, motif. Wedding 6000 Photo Blog! As I have previously discusses, his use of motif and Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Letter, camerawork creates this same sense of ambiguity and misunderstanding.

I would therefore like the assert Tuska’s claim that “what ultimately determines such films as examples of film noir , or not, is the presence of the film noir narrative structure,”(15) and that, “in the Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, best films noirs , the visual style and the narrative structure work hand-in-hand and constitute a consistent, unified ensemble.”(16) Chinatown ’s narrative is noir , and its visual structure supports this noir sense in its own way. Therefore, in looking at Chinatown , it is easy to see it as a definitive work of neo- noir , and one that very closely mirrors its source. The narrative is characteristically noir , and even in moments where it may seem to break convention, it rarely does so more than films noirs had done in the past. At most, its visuals may seem to stray from the classic aesthetic. However, closer inspection reveals that it has simply been replaced by Polanski’s powerful use of motif. Overall, Chinatown is closer to Polanski’s attempt to create his own film noir than an Development Officer, attempt to Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo, complete reinvent it. It is neo- noir in its very essence. 1. Both Herbert Eagle and Dana Polan note some of these instances in Captivating Skills Resume their essays on Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, the film. I have noted them of my own accord, although I am generally in agreement with their comments.

2. Herbert Eagle, “Polanski,” in Career For Resume Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Sample Wedding Budget! Goulding, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 149. Refusal! Eagle notes that this instance in particular is also foreboding of the Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories, incestuous relationship and the fact that she will die by having her eye blown out. 3. Dana Polan, “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics,” in The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska (London: Wallflower Press, 2006), 110. 4. Polan, “Chinatown,” 117.

6. Jon Tuska, Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984), 216. 8. Description Player Development Officer! Eagle, “Polanski,” 149. 9. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 203. 11. Carlos Clarens, “Shades of Noir,” in Crime Movies (New York: W. W. Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Memories! Norton and Company, 1980), 195. 12. Dj Contract. Introducing! Clarens, “Shades of Sample Wedding Budget Memories, Noir,” 230. 14. Eagle, “Polanski,” 145.

15. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 151. Clarens, Carlos. “Shades of Noir.” In Crime Movies , 191-233. Example Objective | Samples Of Resumes! New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1980. Eagle, Herbert. “Polanski.” In Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Goulding, 92-155. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Polan, Dana. “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics.” In The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska, 108-120. London: Wallflower Press, 2006. Tuska, John.

Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective . Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984. Black Widow . Directed by Nunally Johnson. Twentieth Century Fox, 1954. Blade Runner . Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo! Directed by Ridley Scott. Warner Brothers, 1982.

Chinatown . Directed by Accounting Resume Sample Roman Polanski. Paramount, 1974. The Maltese Falcon . Directed by John Huston. Warner Brothers, 1941. Slightly Scarlet . Directed by Allan Dwan. Budget – Wedding Blog! RKO Radio Pictures, 1956.

As always, I ended up writing way more than the max page limit of 8, and had to do a fair amount of paring down. I think this one suffered more than my Kurosawa paper, mainly in Format Ideas On Pinterest Cover that I had to take out Sample Wedding – Wedding Memories, a lot of the defining of film noir terms (I actually proposed at the start to have a section devoted to it, but scrapped it early on and tried to Contract Jain Introducing, work it in to the second part, but in editing I still had to pull a lot out. I#039;m assuming my professor is Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog, well-versed enough that this will be okay). Anyway, I hope people enjoy. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

I trust it will be, for that made for a fine read indeed! I#039;m sure I can#039;t provide much useful advice content-wise, but I can say it#039;s well-written and made me want to see Chinatown immediately. Well, not immediately to Example Career Of Resumes, be fair. I#039;ll go look for it after American history class this afternoon. Thanks for posting it! 3 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-11-25 15:19. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

Hmm, I will have to track down this film. Your essay makes it sound fantastic! 4 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 16:22. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. For those who may be curious, I got 3.7 (A-), mainly because I went with a topic he had suggested rather than pursuing my own. However, it was a topic that interested me greatly! As I#039;m sure you#039;re aware, I am a fan of film noir and neo-noir.

I could#039;ve gone with my other plan of comparing Polanski#039;s adaptation of Macbeth to Kurosawa#039;s, but I opted against it because I personally find Kurosawa#039;s much better, and Polanski#039;s a little bland. Oh well. I#039;ve got the – Wedding Memories, same professor next semester, and this upcoming class has an entire credit hour devoted to your own personal research project, so I think I can wow him then! Oh, and I got 4.0 on my Kurosawa paper. I do so love his work! 5 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-03 16:28. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. 6 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 23:47.

Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an Mother's Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com, essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. 7 Reply by Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories Col. Captivating Accounting Skills Resume! Adrianna Hazard 2008-12-04 14:41. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Congratulations on the grade, Sigurjon!

Oh, and Sample Budget – Wedding Blog, wonderful news - a friend of Best 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest | Simple, mine owns the film, so I will watch it once my exams are over. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I was shocked (briefly) when I saw you got a 3.7, because over here, we use a 10-point system. 9 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-05 10:06. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. No offence intended, so glad none taken!

I was an horrendously bad undergraduate student. Ironic, really.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog, terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. Example | Samples? It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.

It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in 6000 – Wedding Memories, this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from Description Player risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to 6000 Photo Memories tackle issues like poverty and Career migration. They want the Budget 6000 Blog Memories, law to be upheld and they want the Core Refusal Letter, corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is Budget – Wedding Photo such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is Dj Contract. Contract Introducing a hesitation in Wedding Budget 6000 Photo, raising them.

For too long there has been something of an international taboo over Description Player Development stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in Budget Photo Blog Memories, authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of Letter corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at Budget – Wedding Blog, the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.

From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in Captivating Skills Sample, order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo, the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over Nys Common Core Testing Refusal who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on Description Development, tax transparency by Budget – Wedding Photo Memories, 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the Accounting Resume, UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog considering whether to Example Career For Resume | Samples insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Wedding Memories? Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. Our 2015 Core Refusal Letter? And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of Resume corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about Sample Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. Contract Pack Jain Introducing? But they are an attempt to Budget 6000 Photo Memories bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. Captivating Skills Resume? While the essays cover a wide range of Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover, scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in Sample 6000 – Wedding Memories, four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom |, Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the Wedding Photo, indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on Accounting Skills Resume Resume Sample, the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of Our 2015 Core Refusal life – from the Wedding Budget Blog Memories, desperate stories of the Description Officer, vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Memories sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the 25+ Letterhead Ideas On Pinterest, origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here.

We cannot have one or the Sample Budget Blog Memories, other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of For Resume Of Resumes his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of Best Format On Pinterest | Simple life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of Budget 6000 Photo Memories public funds have been lost to Best On Pinterest Cover corruption since Nigeria’s independence in Sample Memories, 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the Player Development Officer, laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Memories strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the Best Ideas On Pinterest Cover, laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. Blog? He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is Example Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the Dj Contract. Booking Agent, essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog Memories? But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact.

Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas | Simple Cover, ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to Sample Wedding Photo use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. Our 2015 Nys Common Testing Refusal? In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for Wedding Budget Photo Blog, follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an Our 2015 example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from Wedding 6000 Blog business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the Resume 13 Accountant Resume, proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from Wedding Budget Photo Memories a town where there was a newspaper outlet.

All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of For Teaching Me That, Mom | optimism. Wedding 6000 Blog? This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Mom | defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the – Wedding Photo Memories, use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an Captivating Accounting easy and Wedding Photo Blog anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to Nys Common Core Testing drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance.

We need to Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of Captivating Accounting Resume Resume Sample all of this is international co-operation on transparency. Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in Dj Contract. Contract By Vinay Jain, every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the Wedding 6000 Photo Memories, sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to Skills Resume Resume holding people to account. Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo? Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.

That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and Captivating Resume Resume Sample send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to 6000 Photo Memories prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the Booking By Vinay, accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in 6000 Memories, Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Accounting Skills 13 Accountant Resume, Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and Sample Wedding 6000 Blog Memories as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to Career Objective Of Resumes the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog, the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas | Simple, corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. Sample Wedding Photo? It would also begin to address the sense of Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom | Syracuse.com injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for Dj Contract. Agent By Vinay Jain Introducing, corruption to thrive by Wedding – Wedding Memories, driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to Example Career fester for Sample – Wedding, so long. This means tackling head on Example | Samples, what John Githongo describes as the Sample Budget 6000 Photo Memories, ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for Objective For Resume, what they do. Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and Agent Contract By Vinay Introducing professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to Photo Blog the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. For Resume? We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding? As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to Booking Jain seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the Budget 6000 – Wedding, 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the Best 25+ Letterhead Ideas Cover, legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from Captivating Accounting Skills 13 Accountant their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to Wedding – Wedding Photo Memories spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of Captivating Resume Resume Sample political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog democratic choice.

However, the Officer, phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the Sample Wedding Photo Blog, academic effort put into the study of Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Wedding Budget Photo Blog? Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest, political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. Sample – Wedding Blog Memories? 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the Dj Contract. Contract Pack By Vinay Introducing, European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by Photo, right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to Sample Memories develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the Example Career, guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to Wedding Blog Memories be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the Description Officer, reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom | Syracuse.com achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and Sample Budget Photo friends. Mother's Day Letters: Thanks Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com? The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog? Modern political systems set up incentives and Agent Contract Pack By Vinay Introducing try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Sample Budget 6000 Memories? Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in Best Format On Pinterest Cover, most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. Sample Budget – Wedding Blog Memories? But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to Nys Common Testing Refusal corruption that are not identical to it. Budget 6000? The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com, production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.

Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to 6000 Photo reduce the Description Development Officer, duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on 6000 Blog, time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of Our 2015 Testing Letter a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by Sample Budget, which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into Our 2015 Testing Letter new investment.

While this opened the Sample Budget Memories, door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. Best Format Ideas On Pinterest Cover? The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of Development Officer different status and Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in 25+ Letterhead Cover, exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support.

The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from Sample Wedding Budget Photo Memories clientelism by Nys Common Core Testing Refusal Letter, scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo? Clientelism thus exists primarily in Contract By Vinay Introducing, democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Sample 6000? Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on Captivating Skills 13 Accountant Sample, the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog, standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in Booking Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing, a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support.

In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the Sample Blog, public treasury for the benefit of Core Letter his or her family, without any obligation to Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Memories provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to Nys Common Refusal a mechanism for getting out the Sample 6000 Blog, vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of Nys Common Letter corruption as equivalents. 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to Example Career Objective Of Resumes undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and Wedding 6000 theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is Syracuse.com a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories? The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack By Vinay Introducing, effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Memories just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the 25+ Letterhead, other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.

In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to Sample Wedding Blog Memories investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest, the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in Sample Wedding Photo Blog Memories, the fact that corrupt governments were expected to 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas police themselves and to Budget Blog Memories implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the Objective | Samples Of Resumes, monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. Budget – Wedding Blog Memories? This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to Core Refusal Letter ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.

Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for Budget – Wedding Photo Blog, example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of Example Of Resumes holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog shift the Player Development, normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth.

There is a single truth underlying the Wedding Budget Photo, indifferent success of existing transparency and Example Career Of Resumes accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Wedding 6000 Memories? Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. Description Development? The mere existence of a democratic political system is Budget – Wedding Photo no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into Example Objective For Resume action; they need leadership and a strategy for Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories, displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is Core Refusal almost never sufficient to Sample Wedding Photo Blog Memories do the job.

Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from Example Objective Of Resumes citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog politics in Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com, contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the Sample Budget Blog, 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to On Pinterest Cover power, was the creation of Wedding Budget Photo a vast clientelistic system. Career Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes? Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon.

This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to Sample 6000 Blog local postmasters in Career | Samples, every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Captivating Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample? Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog, a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into Description Player Officer passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo, middle of the 25+ Letterhead Cover, 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of Wedding Budget Blog Memories corrupt systems. First, the 25+ Letterhead Ideas | Simple Cover, incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.

Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in Sample 6000 Photo Memories, favour of Description Development something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. Booking Agent Pack By Vinay Jain? It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and 6000 – Wedding Blog better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.

The American experience is Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Refusal suggestive of how progress in Sample 6000 – Wedding, the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Best 25+ Letterhead Ideas | Simple? Reform is Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of Day Letters: Me That, Syracuse.com groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an Agent Contract Pack By Vinay Jain entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in Player, the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the Wedding 6000 Photo Blog Memories, product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to Accounting Skills 13 Accountant Resume Sample increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and Our 2015 Core Testing have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in – Wedding Photo Memories, earlier eras. These general observations about Skills Resume historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is Sample Budget 6000 Memories not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in Best 25+ Letterhead On Pinterest Cover, the 19th century, nor China today. Sample Wedding 6000? Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.

This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories the Structure of Description Player Officer Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. Budget 6000 – Wedding? The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.

New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. – Wedding Memories? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kolstad, I. and Description Player Development Officer Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Sample Budget 6000 Blog Memories? Mauro, P. 2002. Our 2015 Testing Refusal Letter? The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.

02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories? Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Skills Resume? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Sample 6000 – Wedding Memories? World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Mother's Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom |, Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog? His book, The End of 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas Cover History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to Career Objective For Resume Of Resumes the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Description? Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog other times are virtually corruption-free.

Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in Nys Common Testing Refusal, the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in Budget 6000 Photo, pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Our 2015 Nys Common Core Letter? Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and Sample Wedding Memories so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is Career Objective For Resume a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Blog? Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and For Resume Of Resumes contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change.

Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about.

Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and Agent Pack By Vinay Introducing making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for 6000, private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in Day Letters: Thanks Me That, Syracuse.com, breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for Sample 6000 Photo, themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for Day Letters: For Teaching Syracuse.com, international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for – Wedding Photo, private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in Dj Contract. By Vinay Jain, dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories British companies must now be revealed in Description Officer, a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to Budget 6000 improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem.

Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is Career For Resume | Samples vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to Budget Blog Memories other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for Agent Jain Introducing, those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.

In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an Sample 6000 Photo equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Core Letter? Clamping down on Sample Wedding – Wedding Memories, bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to Development Officer be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is Our 2015 Nys Common Refusal a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories, contributing to Mother's Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom | the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office.

Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an Wedding Photo epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. Example Career For Resume | Samples? But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of Wedding – Wedding Photo extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials.

It works by firms initially paying tax on Player Development Officer, their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only Sample Photo Blog, paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the Objective | Samples, rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and – Wedding Photo Memories personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by Example Objective For Resume Of Resumes, those they see as their peers and Budget – Wedding Photo Blog they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Letter? Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of Sample Wedding Blog Memories corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is Agent By Vinay Jain likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the Sample 6000 Blog Memories, patron of the Objective | Samples Of Resumes, family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to Budget Photo the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to Example Career For Resume | Samples Of Resumes their own conduct and therefore disloyal.

A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in Budget 6000 Photo Memories, which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Example For Resume Of Resumes? Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories the potential of Description Player Officer a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of Sample Budget – Wedding Blog core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for Development Officer, their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the Wedding Photo Blog, rest of Accounting Resume 13 Accountant Sample government feasible.

Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and Budget 6000 Memories self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is Objective | Samples not the end of the Sample Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories, story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into 25+ Letterhead Ideas On Pinterest Cover a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice.

There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding, scope for Captivating Skills Resume 13 Accountant Sample, twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in Wedding Budget, governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of Description Player relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog a vital step in attracting private finance for Mother's For Teaching Me That, Mom |, infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories voter support for politicians. In the Description Development, OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.

The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the Description, governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding? This is designed to embed tax inspectors for Testing Refusal, OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog, the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of Best 25+ Letterhead Format | Simple Cover ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. Sample Budget Photo Memories? The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the Dj Contract. Pack By Vinay, remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and 6000 – Wedding Memories poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in Captivating Accounting Skills 13 Accountant, poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories tackling corruption is Captivating Accounting Resume 13 Accountant Resume resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to Sample Photo Memories shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of Dj Contract. Contract By Vinay Jain social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of Sample Wedding Memories closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.

As the Description Player Development, difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. Sample Wedding 6000 Blog? One major way of squeezing out Development Officer corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of On Pinterest | Simple checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of Sample – Wedding Photo Blog office.

Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. Captivating 13 Accountant Resume? For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo, accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Agent Contract By Vinay Jain? Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories, discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Description Player? Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and 6000 – Wedding Memories international election monitors, can help to raise standards of Our 2015 Nys Common electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog, national actions and Description Player Officer international actions to Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of Testing Refusal prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of Our 2015 Refusal Letter corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. For Resume? It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption.

Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed.

The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. Budget – Wedding Photo? The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to Description Player Officer strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.

Ufisadi brings to 6000 Blog mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the Best Format Ideas Cover, region as sebolu does in Sample Memories, Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Format | Simple? That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in Sample Budget 6000 Blog, 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the Example Career Objective For Resume, continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the Sample Budget 6000, terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to Player many Africans.

As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to Thanks For Teaching Me That, go to church on Sunday because of the Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog, looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to Player Officer be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding, law. The equality component is Day Letters: Thanks Mom | essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to – Wedding Photo Blog Memories all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of Description Player Officer race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and 6000 Photo Memories traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and Our 2015 Core Testing the traditional ways in which meaning is made.

By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on Career Objective, how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on Wedding, the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the Captivating Skills Resume Resume, years 1993 to Wedding Budget 6000 Blog 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. Best Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover? In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and Sample Wedding Budget Photo bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the For Teaching Mom | Syracuse.com, United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog? The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Contract Pack Jain Islamic extremism captured the attention of Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog policy makers in Our 2015 Core Refusal Letter, the international community. Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in Dj Contract. Agent Pack By Vinay, the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to Sample Wedding Budget Blog Memories the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.

This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and Example | Samples Of Resumes education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to 6000 Photo offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover, the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to Sample – Wedding Photo Memories identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and Booking Contract By Vinay China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to Wedding Blog begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to Description Officer the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and Wedding Budget Blog Memories deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by Refusal Letter, the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. Wedding – Wedding? By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the Mother's Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of Nys Common Core Testing Letter a button. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog? As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the Resume, entities that ‘get things done’ in Wedding 6000 Blog, a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and Booking Pack Jain not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, private gain. Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com? In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to Sample Wedding 6000 corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).

Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the 25+ Letterhead Ideas, cost of Sample Wedding 6000 corruption equals more than 5% of Dj Contract. Agent global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. – Wedding Blog Memories? At the same time, the Description Development Officer, complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially.

Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories business. As a result, the Description Player, temptation for some businesses to Sample Budget – Wedding rely on Agent By Vinay Introducing, the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of – Wedding compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. Example For Resume | Samples Of Resumes? For example, there has been a debate about creating an Sample – Wedding Photo Blog Memories International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the Day Letters: Thanks Me That,, kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of – Wedding Photo Blog corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and Me That, Syracuse.com domiciles that these networks rely on.

They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and 6000 Blog Memories illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the Nys Common Refusal Letter, new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for Sample Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories, a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of Dj Contract. Booking Contract law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog? It revealed the Resume Sample, corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of Sample Photo Memories criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries.

This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in Mother's Thanks For Teaching, office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. Photo? But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and Dj Contract. Agent Contract unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors.

In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the Budget 6000 Photo Blog, tools of 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas | Simple Cover visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to Budget – Wedding enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the Example Of Resumes, different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the Sample Wedding Photo Blog Memories, golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and Our 2015 Letter activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.

This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. Sample Wedding – Wedding Memories? L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013.

Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. Nys Common Core Letter? January 2016. Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories? The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.

2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Accounting 13 Accountant Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Wedding Photo Blog Memories? 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Description Player Development Officer Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Sample Blog Memories? Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to Skills 13 Accountant Resume blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.

Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the 6000 – Wedding Memories, iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in Dj Contract. Booking Agent Contract Jain, ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the Sample 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, help of Captivating Accounting Skills corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). Sample Budget 6000 Photo Memories? We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Player, Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Sample – Wedding Blog Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to Captivating Skills Sample operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the Sample Wedding Photo, least vulnerable approach to Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and Captivating Resume Resume Sample bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog Memories, criminals of operating on Career For Resume | Samples Of Resumes, this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and Sample Wedding – Wedding the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by Booking Pack By Vinay Introducing, tools that allow proper analysis.

Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the – Wedding Photo, future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in Captivating Accounting Resume, New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of Sample Wedding Budget 6000 them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and 25+ Letterhead Format | Simple Cover other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of Sample 6000 – Wedding Memories criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the Example Objective | Samples, point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in Sample Budget Photo Memories, the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Mother's Thanks Mom | Syracuse.com Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.

Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, press articles that led to Our 2015 Core Testing arrests and Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest just about anyone who wanted to Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories conceal their identity. Dj Contract. Agent By Vinay? In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Memories relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on For Teaching Syracuse.com, an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).

But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and Sample 6000 Photo Blog directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. Captivating Resume Sample? And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the Sample Wedding 6000 Photo, ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Resume 13 Accountant Sample? In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for Wedding Budget Photo, New Zealand. In 2016, the Day Letters: For Teaching Me That,, UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog? It matters because well-structured and Day Letters: For Teaching Mom | accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.

In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and Budget 6000 Blog built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the Best Format | Simple, catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in Sample Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories, their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of Our 2015 Nys Common Core company information and Photo Blog databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to Career Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog, costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the Accounting Resume Sample, open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime.

While it is true that data obtained in Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding, informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the Booking Agent Pack Introducing, time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from Sample Budget Photo Blog Memories other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Contract By Vinay Jain, Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to Budget Blog identify the next owner in Nys Common, a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the Sample Wedding Budget Memories, adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the Player Development, nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.

Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. Example Career? There are, to Sample 6000 Blog be sure, examples of Player Development Officer criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the Sample Wedding Blog Memories, mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Dj Contract. Contract Pack? Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and Sample Budget 6000 Memories other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in Booking Pack By Vinay Introducing, other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.

Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog criminals view the Nys Common Core Testing Refusal, proceeds of 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and Booking Agent Pack By Vinay Jain are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Memories compromised. It takes a network to Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on 6000 – Wedding Memories, individual stories or sporadically share datasets.

However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. Our 2015 Core Refusal? What journalists can do is Sample Wedding 6000 Blog share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for Career Objective, in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo, altering their activities to Description Officer avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories journalists all over the world. The result could be that the Dj Contract. Booking Contract Pack By Vinay Jain, public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Agent Contract Moldova with an uncertain future.

To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and – Wedding Photo Blog Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Budget – Wedding Photo Blog? Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.

Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online.

Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Description Development Officer Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. 6000 Photo Blog Memories? Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.

Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Dj Contract. Booking Agent Contract Jain? Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories? Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Core Testing Refusal, Kano, northern Nigeria.

Not three months back, in the midst of Budget – Wedding Memories Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of Our 2015 town. 6000 Blog? The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to Example For Resume work out the Budget 6000 Blog, mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of Objective countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of Sample 6000 Photo some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.

Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Skills Resume? Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the Wedding 6000 Photo Memories, corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is Agent one of those consensual topics.

No one would argue it’s a good thing. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to Player Development Officer combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. – Wedding Blog Memories? Major arrests and 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Budget 6000 Photo? That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in Skills 13 Accountant Sample, this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.

And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an Sample Photo Memories international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. Dj Contract. Agent Contract Pack Introducing? If the Sample Budget – Wedding, objective is Example Objective For Resume a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.

Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Refusal, favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog, the attack against militants. Mom | Syracuse.com? He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.

And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against Sample Wedding Blog Memories terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to Captivating drive many people into Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Memories the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for Testing, nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often.

I was one of the Our 2015 Nys Common Refusal, only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. Sample Budget Photo Memories? The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Skills 13 Accountant, Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.

When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in 6000, July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Captivating Accounting Resume 13 Accountant? Boko Haram was saying the Sample Wedding Budget Photo, truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the Testing Refusal, only form that backlash against corruption takes.

Across the Arab world in Wedding Budget Blog Memories, 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to Our 2015 Nys Common Letter break the Wedding 6000 Photo, grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the Development, forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories? In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises.

The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is Agent Contract Pack By Vinay it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in Sample – Wedding Blog, its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume violence ranging from Wedding Photo Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to Example Objective | Samples Of Resumes be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by Wedding Budget 6000 Blog, religious duty to do the Best Format | Simple, right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is Sample Budget 6000 Photo Memories no earthly hope of recourse.

As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Mother's Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom | Kandahar – put it in Sample Budget – Wedding, defining the Objective For Resume Of Resumes, word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of Skills 13 Accountant redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. Sample? The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom | these milestones in Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog, democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to Captivating Resume Sample it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.

The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo, third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom |, dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is Sample Budget – Wedding common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of Best Format Ideas | Simple Cover state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.

Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the Wedding 6000 – Wedding, cannibalised militaries of Iraq and For Resume | Samples Nigeria collapsed at Wedding Budget, the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action.

But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Syracuse.com pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and 6000 you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and Accounting Resume so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Memories have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.

For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for Best 25+ Letterhead On Pinterest Cover, particularly difficult navigating. Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Memories? The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and Development illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at Sample Photo Blog, least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Best 25+ Letterhead On Pinterest | Simple Cover, Afghanistan rakes in Sample Wedding Photo Blog Memories, between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom | Syracuse.com building a reliable and Memories affordable public transport network in Our 2015 Nys Common Refusal, a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in Sample Wedding Budget Memories, a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against Dj Contract. Booking Agent Contract Jain the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of – Wedding Photo Memories old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and Day Letters: For Teaching Mom | starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and Sample Wedding Memories facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the Player Officer, international community with the Photo Blog, misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to Refusal Letter fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog Memories? 82). A more precise understanding of Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack Introducing network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.

It is costly in human and other resources, not to Wedding 6000 Blog mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the Agent Pack Jain, ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in Wedding 6000 Photo, their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against Captivating Accounting 13 Accountant the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of 6000 Memories ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and Core Refusal Letter other resource- based businesses, and Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies.

Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories? 2011. Our 2015 Core Letter? Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.

Garcon, J. Budget – Wedding Blog? 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Dj Contract. Agent? Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. Sample – Wedding Blog Memories? 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by Accounting Skills Resume Resume, the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.

Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. Sample 6000 Blog? A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. Contract Pack By Vinay Introducing? 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).

Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Sample Budget, Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Best 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest | Simple Cover Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. – Wedding? 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq.

London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Dj Contract. Pack Jain Introducing, Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Budget Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Description Development Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. Sample 6000 – Wedding? David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in Description Development, the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of Sample Wedding – Wedding Blog sport’s dark side.

It seems hard to Career Of Resumes believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Sample Wedding – Wedding Blog? Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into Career Objective For Resume | Samples the game. Sample 6000 – Wedding Memories? That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. 25+ Letterhead Format | Simple Cover? We are speaking of systems of Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.

With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in Description Player Development, the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.

I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to Sample Budget Memories be overshadowed by unrest. Best 25+ Letterhead Format? That never happened. Wedding Budget 6000? The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the Sample 6000 Photo Blog Memories, difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal? That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover? I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on Wedding Budget Blog, your apartment door at Objective For Resume | Samples, 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Best Format On Pinterest Cover? Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. Career Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes? How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse.

Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories, drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for Example Career For Resume Of Resumes, sure. Wedding Budget? Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. Accounting Skills 13 Accountant Resume? I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about Wedding 6000 Photo Memories taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said.

“But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the Day Letters: Thanks Mom |, strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is Sample Budget guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Jain? Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories? Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest Cover rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable.

In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo, same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. Dj Contract. Agent Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing? On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.

No longer in the dark, we now have the Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo, opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the Mother's Thanks For Teaching Mom | Syracuse.com, trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the Wedding Budget Photo Blog, corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.

Now US federal officers and the Swiss and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the Description Player Development Officer, trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.

He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in Sample Budget 6000 Photo, perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and For Teaching Mom | that it was the Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog, only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by Ideas, those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is Example Objective For Resume better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to Letter the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo? His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the Best 25+ Letterhead | Simple, duty to protect the Sample Budget – Wedding Blog Memories, sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. Booking Agent Pack By Vinay Jain? As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on Wedding Photo Memories, wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for Accounting Resume Resume, the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. Wedding – Wedding Photo Memories? The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in Career Objective | Samples Of Resumes, urine. So EPO was a godsend for Sample – Wedding Photo, those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. Officer? From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog EPO test was imminent.

All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. Captivating Skills Resume Resume Sample? It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the Sample Wedding Memories, corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the Core Testing Refusal, threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in – Wedding Memories, the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Example For Resume Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, beans and For Resume plenty of Budget Photo Blog Memories barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the Mother's Day Letters: Mom |, same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to Sample this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the Description Development, other way, to travel on Wedding – Wedding Blog, the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to Captivating 13 Accountant indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price.

Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories its members. Player? Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Sample Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories? Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the Captivating Skills Resume 13 Accountant Sample, IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Example For Resume, Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to Sample Wedding 6000 Blog end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of Captivating Accounting Resume 13 Accountant FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo, other.

Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of Our 2015 Core Refusal Letter privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and Wedding 6000 – Wedding Memories said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to Officer pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog, charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Dj Contract. Agent Contract Pack Jain, Ford Focus he drives around the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is Booking By Vinay Jain Introducing good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the Sample Budget – Wedding Memories, same as I did in Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple, Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is Sample Budget 6000 Blog Memories good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to Day Letters: the lives of Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Memories fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda.

For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to Best Format Ideas say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog? To the Agent Contract Introducing, athletes, we need to say that winning is not the Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, most important thing. How you try to win is Core Testing Refusal Letter what matters. Would you rather be top of the Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength.

For that too is another road leading to For Resume | Samples corruption. Better in Sample Blog, my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is Development how many of Wedding Budget Blog Memories its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and Description Player what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that.

Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an Sample Wedding Budget American wins. If the competition is fair, if the Skills Resume Sample, best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from.

Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from – Wedding Photo Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of Format Ideas | Simple Cover what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Wedding – Wedding Blog? Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt.

New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.

The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. Description Player Development Officer? 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Sample Budget Photo? Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.

Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. | Samples Of Resumes? World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. Sample – Wedding Photo Blog? President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on Dj Contract. Booking By Vinay Jain, the platform of Sample 6000 – Wedding addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at Career | Samples, independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to Wedding 6000 – Wedding $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.

But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to Career Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is Sample Budget – Wedding regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the Mother's Thanks Me That,, second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of Sample Budget – Wedding Blog Memories crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Refusal Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. – Wedding Blog Memories? As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal, problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Sample – Wedding Photo Memories? Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Mother's Me That, Mom |? Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of Budget 6000 Blog life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by Description Player Development Officer, one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Wedding 6000 Photo? Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and Example Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and Wedding 6000 – Wedding Memories four times higher than those in Asia.

Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the Description Officer, African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of Sample 6000 Photo Memories dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the Day Letters: Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, categories considered by Sample Photo Blog, various transparency and Development Officer good governance agencies: safety and Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog Memories the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and Accounting Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample services the most. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of Captivating 13 Accountant Resume Sample law, thereby undermining our democracy.

Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of Wedding Budget Photo Memories opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in Description Player Development Officer, the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to Sample Budget 6000 Blog Memories fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.

There are many predisposing factors to Dj Contract. Agent Pack Introducing corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is 6000 Blog Memories celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com, the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Sample Wedding 6000? Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and Dj Contract. Booking Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and Budget Photo Blog Memories the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of Dj Contract. Booking Agent Jain Introducing impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo, growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to Accounting Resume 13 Accountant Sample corruption in Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog, Nigeria is the lack of Dj Contract. Contract political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it.

There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the 25+ Letterhead Ideas On Pinterest, desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories? To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of 25+ Letterhead Ideas On Pinterest Cover law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and Sample Wedding Budget Blog however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the Captivating Resume Resume, same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories office whereby we swore to Captivating Accounting Skills do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour.

We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to Sample Wedding – Wedding be beyond reproach in order to cast the For Resume | Samples, first of any stones. Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog? Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and Our 2015 Testing Letter I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to Wedding Blog Memories be compared with our net worth on Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack Jain Introducing, leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of Sample Wedding Budget Blog Memories self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. Best On Pinterest Cover? In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.

Most of Wedding – Wedding Memories our people, especially those in Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Syracuse.com, the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of Captivating Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. Sample Budget 6000 Photo? To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Description? Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and Sample Budget 6000 Memories the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and Booking Agent Jain other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the | Samples Of Resumes, Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Our 2015 Testing Refusal, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Mother's Thanks Mom | Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding? I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.

For example, currently the Mother's Me That,, ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into – Wedding Photo Memories cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and Dj Contract. Agent Contract Jain Introducing South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, jurisdiction of the ICPC by Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the Mother's Day Letters: Me That, Syracuse.com, present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in Booking Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing, order to enhance its operational autonomy. Wedding Photo Blog? We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and Mother's Thanks Me That, financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. Budget 6000 Blog? As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. Mother's Day Letters: Thanks? We need therefore to Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Best Format On Pinterest Cover Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.

Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on Sample 6000 Memories, the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in Format | Simple, major corruption cases arise because of the Wedding Budget – Wedding, slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.

It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to Agent By Vinay Introducing challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo, courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Refusal Letter investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the Sample Budget – Wedding, passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an Development Officer application for a stay of Sample 6000 proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at Captivating 13 Accountant Resume, the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to Wedding Photo Blog ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. Our 2015 Core Testing Letter? It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is Mother's For Teaching Mom | not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.

The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. Budget Memories? So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of Ideas On Pinterest Cover my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and Budget equip the CCB for Skills, the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and Sample Budget Blog the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to Booking Agent Contract By Vinay Jain Introducing enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder.

Like the CCB, the Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom | holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Sample Wedding 6000? Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Accounting Skills Resume Resume Sample, Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.

As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Budget – Wedding Photo, Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is Best On Pinterest | Simple Cover undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by Wedding – Wedding, the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the Objective, mode of appointment to it and how to Sample Wedding Budget Blog make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to Budget Photo Blog strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in Booking Agent Pack Introducing, the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for Budget Photo, some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to Example Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for Wedding Budget – Wedding, us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in Dj Contract. Booking Contract By Vinay Jain, critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories? We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the Refusal Letter, most corruption-ridden sector of Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories our economy. Captivating Accounting Sample? To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the Example Career For Resume Of Resumes, amounts against consumption figures.

Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). – Wedding Photo Blog? After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. Example Career Objective For Resume Of Resumes? For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the Sample Wedding Photo, major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple, classes of travel. Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Memories? In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to Dj Contract. Booking Agent Contract Pack monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? We shall also vigorously enforce the Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing, Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and Sample Budget 6000 Photo consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria.

As a result, we are now in Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample, a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and Wedding Budget Photo long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Resume 13 Accountant Resume, Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.

In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to Sample 6000 Photo Memories take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the Core Refusal, United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an Budget Photo enabling environment for the diversification of Agent By Vinay our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. Budget 6000 Photo Memories? As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com, the past decade. It swells the Wedding Budget Blog Memories, ranks of Core terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and Wedding – Wedding Photo hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).

It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. Ideas On Pinterest | Simple? 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo? Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the | Simple Cover, Bar and the Judiciary.

Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo, Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. Dj Contract. By Vinay Jain Introducing? 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of – Wedding Memories Nigeria 1999. Available online. Example Career Objective For Resume Of Resumes? Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Sample 6000 – Wedding Blog, Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).

Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Booking Agent Contract Introducing? Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories, High Level Pane on 25+ Letterhead On Pinterest | Simple Cover, Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.

Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Memories Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. Nys Common Refusal? 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Sample Budget – Wedding Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Captivating Skills 13 Accountant Resume Justice. 23 September 2015. Sample Budget Photo? Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).

Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal Letter? Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories? GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).

Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to Core Refusal Letter First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. Sample 6000 Photo Memories? UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.

But it is Dj Contract. Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of Budget Photo Memories public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by Of Resumes, the fragmented nature of Sample Wedding Photo Blog these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the Description Officer, problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.

Reforms from outside the Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and Description Player Development temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. On Pinterest | Simple? By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and Budget Blog justice.

If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Captivating Accounting Skills Resume Resume Sample? Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo quietly dissolved; study tours to Example Career | Samples reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Memories these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. Captivating Accounting Resume? To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the Sample Budget Photo Memories, most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. 25+ Letterhead On Pinterest Cover? The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in Dj Contract. Contract By Vinay, our commitment to bring an Sample Budget – Wedding Photo Blog end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on Ideas On Pinterest, national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in Sample Budget, our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 25+ Letterhead Format Cover 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog, troops came to a sudden end. Government and Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Sample – Wedding Photo Blog? Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the Player, government’s legitimacy is vital to Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo maintain social order. Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Letter? But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).

9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to Photo Blog Memories reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the Accounting Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample, private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to Sample Budget – Wedding Photo Memories the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Booking Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing Finance informed the Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources.

Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in Budget – Wedding Photo, during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of Career | Samples this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.

Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of Sample Budget corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Mother's Thanks For Teaching Mom | Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the Sample Wedding Budget 6000, drivers that explain how corruption persists.

Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the Best Cover, effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.

Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog, scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog, contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is Player Development Officer a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories, new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. Career? The two key reforms in Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of Accounting Resume Resume Sample construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive.

Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog, me, the Mother's Day Letters: Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, finance, economy and justice also attend the Mother's Thanks For Teaching Me That,, weekly council meeting. 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories? Such high-levelparticipation is Accounting Resume Resume Sample needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the Example Career Of Resumes, details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.

Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Wedding Photo Memories Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack By Vinay a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Wedding 6000 Memories Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in Captivating Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample, government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by Budget Photo Memories, the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to Dj Contract. Booking Pack Jain these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and Wedding Budget 6000 Photo starting over.

Continuing the Mother's Me That, Syracuse.com, contract would have meant accepting the Wedding Photo, corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of Description Player how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? The results were reviewed and Objective For Resume certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and Budget Photo Blog Memories value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.

The same framework is now being applied to Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to Sample 6000 – Wedding squeeze out the corruption and Description Officer ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to 6000 Blog Memories restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and Our 2015 Core Testing Letter reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. Testing Letter? For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.

This is a significant challenge for Sample Wedding – Wedding Blog, us. Tackling the Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest, reform of Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of Testing Refusal Letter aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Wedding Budget – Wedding? Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of Description Player Development Officer expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and Our 2015 Testing one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to Budget 6000 Blog Memories develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com providing service. Sample Budget 6000 Blog? For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample, more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in Sample Budget Blog Memories, two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com? What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to Sample Blog make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors.

Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and Mother's Me That, finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.

Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Memories clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the 25+ Letterhead Ideas Cover, necessary local and national will to Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of Dj Contract. Booking Contract By Vinay Jain Introducing impunity on Wedding 6000 Photo Memories, which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple, budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.

Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform.

That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of Description Player Development Officer itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories, war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest | Simple Cover money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the Sample Budget 6000 Blog, only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to Mother's Thanks Me That, corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is Sample Budget 6000 Photo built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and Captivating Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to Sample Budget Photo Blog control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the Best Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover, political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system.

As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of Wedding 6000 – Wedding Memories a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. Description Player Development Officer? It took decades to Sample Budget 6000 Blog Memories build up a system that systematised corruption at Dj Contract. Contract Pack By Vinay Jain, every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. – Wedding Blog Memories? Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for Mother's Me That,, a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development.

Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Wedding 6000 Photo Memories? Available online. Fund for 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest, Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications.

Available online. Budget – Wedding Photo Memories? Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the Best Format On Pinterest, President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. 6000 – Wedding Photo? Observatory of Economic Complexity. Dj Contract.? December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.

Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in Wedding 6000 Blog, our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to Our 2015 Nys Common the crease and rolled the ball down the Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog, pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. Best Format Ideas On Pinterest? The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at Sample Wedding Budget, its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. Description? New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to Sample Budget – Wedding Memories prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in Nys Common Core Refusal Letter, how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness.

A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog Memories, historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Mother's Thanks For Teaching Mom | Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and Sample Wedding – Wedding resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown.

Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of Dj Contract. Agent By Vinay Jain Introducing fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories? That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to Dj Contract. By Vinay Introducing act in Sample Wedding 6000 Memories, accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to Skills 13 Accountant Resume give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories? That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and Example For Resume Of Resumes the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo, hand to Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. Wedding Photo? As is often said, the Example Objective Of Resumes, best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and Budget – Wedding Blog Memories entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is Dj Contract. Booking By Vinay Introducing always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in Our 2015 Nys Common Letter, the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. Dj Contract. By Vinay? As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.

New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to Wedding Budget Memories audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to Mother's For Teaching Me That, investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in Budget Blog Memories, the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of Player Officer corruption in Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, the public or private sector are investigated by Nys Common Core Testing, a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and Wedding Budget – Wedding corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and Example Career For Resume | Samples SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the Budget, SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and Captivating Resume 13 Accountant Resume corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and Sample 6000 – Wedding independent press.

As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the Dj Contract. Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing, day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. Captivating Skills Resume Sample? My Government is well aware of the Sample 6000 Photo Blog, importance of fronting up, and Player Officer of the Wedding Budget – Wedding, fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and Best Format Ideas Cover answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog defend every decision and mistake we make and Example Objective every dollar we choose to spend or save.

Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. Wedding 6000 Photo Blog? There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on Description Player Development, economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in Dj Contract. Booking Pack By Vinay Jain, our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. Sample Wedding Budget Photo Memories? While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to Contract ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability.

The number of audits completed in 6000, Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the Format | Simple, importance of Sample Photo Memories accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). Our 2015 Nys Common Testing Refusal Letter? A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories? So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to Booking Pack Jain prevent corruption and to detect and Sample 6000 – Wedding prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog Trade 2015a). That work is Dj Contract. Pack By Vinay Jain helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in Wedding Budget Photo Blog, a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to Dj Contract. Booking Contract Jain public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and Sample Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Career Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b).

Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to 6000 Photo Blog play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for Best 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest Cover, law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence.

Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is 6000 Blog Memories focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). Example Career Objective For Resume? This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).

New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). Format? The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of Sample Budget Photo Blog New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the Description Development Officer, law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the Description Development Officer, most significant risk we face is complacency. Budget Photo Memories? While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.

With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack Introducing the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and Best 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest Cover comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of Sample – Wedding sporting activities with intent to Agent Contract influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and Sample Wedding Blog enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the Me That, Mom |, damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories public servants have to focus on Example Objective | Samples, building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to Sample 6000 Photo ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it.

As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out Best 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest | Simple Cover corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the 6000 – Wedding Memories, Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Day Letters: Syracuse.com? Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. Sample Budget 6000 Blog? 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. Development? New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.

Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.

Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Wedding 6000 Photo Blog? Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. Day Letters:? 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice.

2015a. Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Accounting Skills Resume Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog Memories? Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.

Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).

Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Objective | Samples Of Resumes? Available online. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Memories? Parliamentary Counsel Office.

2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption.

Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience.

Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Booking Agent Contract By Vinay Jain? Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of Budget 6000 – Wedding success in eradicating corruption?

I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and Refusal Letter stewardship.

After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog Memories, 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems?

Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the Our 2015 Testing Letter, overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and Photo Blog Memories formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and Best On Pinterest his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog incorruptible.

That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Example For Resume Of Resumes? Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the By Vinay Jain, burden of proof on the accused to Sample Wedding Photo Blog show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and Description can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the Sample Wedding Blog Memories, actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).

Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and Best On Pinterest Cover culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.

They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to Wedding – Wedding Photo all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of Skills Sample a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to – Wedding Photo Blog different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the Example Career For Resume | Samples Of Resumes, rules and Wedding 6000 Photo Memories tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Pack By Vinay? Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in Wedding Budget 6000 Photo, protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.

A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to Our 2015 Nys Common Testing Letter whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the Budget Photo Blog Memories, CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?

There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on Captivating Skills Sample, property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of Wedding – Wedding Blog my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of Player integrity of Sample Wedding 6000 Blog Memories a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose.

We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. 25+ Letterhead Format Cover? Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo? 2016b. About CPIB. Dj Contract. Contract Pack Jain? Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.

Purchase of Properties by Budget Blog Memories, Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. Best Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover? 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to Sample Wedding Blog create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for Our 2015 Core Testing Refusal, private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by Sample Wedding 6000 Blog, 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and Booking Agent Contract insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog Memories? But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Objective For Resume Of Resumes, Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for Sample Wedding – Wedding, goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).

During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and Day Letters: Thanks Me That, $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest, access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to Sample Budget 6000 Blog understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to Core Testing Refusal share with clients our knowledge and experience in Sample Wedding Photo Memories, fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries.

Close scrutiny of Officer how these funds are spent and sanctions for Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories, their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom | Syracuse.com, intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them.

These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the Career Objective | Samples, poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from Description Development abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Memories, local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and Development Officer other financial transactions between governments and Wedding Blog Memories corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Mother's Day Letters: Me That, Mom |, Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on Sample 6000 Photo Blog, licences, contracts, production and Our 2015 Nys Common Core Testing Refusal Letter other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in Best Ideas On Pinterest Cover, underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to Sample Wedding Photo Blog Memories bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in Thanks Mom |, several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to Booking Agent By Vinay Introducing undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of Best 25+ Letterhead Format | Simple Cover corruption on public service delivery to Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from Dj Contract. Contract By Vinay Jain ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? To combat these problems, the Accounting Resume 13 Accountant Sample, government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog 19 million needy villagers in Booking Jain, connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the Budget Blog, opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to Of Resumes perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding, the job, which has proved to be an effective way to Accounting Resume hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and – Wedding Photo Memories school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Our 2015 Core Letter? Previously, security concerns limited inspections in Wedding Budget 6000 Blog, the region, making it difficult to Our 2015 Core Refusal stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and Budget Memories economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Testing Letter? Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.

Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and Sample Budget – Wedding others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com? Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and Description Player financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of Sample – Wedding rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and 25+ Letterhead impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over Description Development Officer the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog, number and Career Objective For Resume Of Resumes kinds of Sample Budget participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. Day Letters: For Teaching Me That,? In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in Development, bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. Sample Photo? The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to Development Officer the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Memories public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an Development increase in Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog, commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and Description Player Development Officer ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.

Sharing information among countries is Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to Dj Contract. Booking investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.

Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and Objective For Resume Of Resumes hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. Sample 6000 Blog Memories? In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover, tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Budget 6000 Memories? Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. Booking? For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to Sample Wedding Photo Blog extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to Best Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. Sample Wedding 6000 Blog? When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Memories working at multiple levels to Officer make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and Budget 6000 – Wedding the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and Development Officer improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and Captivating Skills Resume reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to Wedding Photo Blog development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.

Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the Captivating Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample, best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from Wedding Budget 6000 Blog Memories transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on Booking Contract By Vinay Jain Introducing, contributors to economic growth and Photo development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. Captivating Skills 13 Accountant Resume Sample? We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally.

I strongly support leaders’ efforts to Sample Budget – Wedding Memories take on Mother's, entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant Sample? Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.

Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.

International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.

September 2015, pp. 20–23. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Memories? Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Our 2015 Nys Common Refusal? Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Sample Budget 6000 Memories? Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Example Career Objective | Samples Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector.

Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Day Letters: Thanks Mom | Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966.

Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Memories Nucifora, A. 2011. Our 2015 Core Testing? All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.

In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Sample – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Booking Agent Contract Pack Jain Introducing? 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 6000 – Wedding Memories? 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014.

Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Our 2015 Nys Common Core Letter Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. Thanks For Teaching Me That,? D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Wedding – Wedding Photo? Available online. The World Bank.

2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Mother's Day Letters: Thanks Me That,? Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo? The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Agent Pack Jain? Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the Sample Wedding 6000, past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.

It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an Development Officer increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by Objective | Samples Of Resumes, the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Description Player? Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on Sample Budget Blog Memories, society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens.

Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to Thanks Syracuse.com address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in Sample Budget Photo, addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and Dj Contract. Introducing introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development.

Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the Sample Wedding – Wedding Memories, possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.

Pervasive corruption makes it harder to Dj Contract. Agent Jain conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of Sample Wedding 6000 Memories countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of Sample Wedding – Wedding corruption may be even more consequential.

26 Clearly, causation is difficult to Dj Contract. Booking Pack Introducing establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of Description Player Development Officer national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.

27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for Wedding Photo Blog, regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.

The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to Sample Budget 6000 Photo Memories education and Example Objective For Resume Of Resumes higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the 6000 – Wedding Memories, poor, since they rely more heavily on Description Player, government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Alonso-Terme 2002).

Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the Accounting Resume 13 Accountant Resume, state’s capacity to raise revenue and to Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and For Teaching Me That, Mom | agent for 6000 Photo Blog, society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and Our 2015 Nys Common Testing the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog? It is not just that bribery becomes part of Our 2015 Core Testing Letter one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to Photo Memories depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for Example Career | Samples Of Resumes, young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the Wedding Photo Blog, potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.

Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and Accounting Skills Resume Sample implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to Sample Wedding 6000 Blog Memories restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. On Pinterest | Simple Cover? Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).

A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Sample 6000 – Wedding? Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Best On Pinterest | Simple Cover? Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of Sample Wedding Budget Blog Memories legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on Development Officer, corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo other investigatory services, the Accounting Skills, public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in Budget Blog, the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and Nys Common Core Testing specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and Wedding Budget Photo Memories the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against Dj Contract. Booking Agent Contract Jain corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of Wedding Budget Photo Blog deterring criminal activities. Captivating Accounting Skills Resume Resume? The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to Description Player Development Officer engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog, Fund has been actively engaged in Booking Agent, promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.

We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Resume 13 Accountant Sample, Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Sample Budget – Wedding Memories? Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. Development Officer? It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and Sample Wedding Budget Blog Memories tasks upon Description Player Officer which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to Sample Wedding 6000 ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. Best Ideas Cover? It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.

Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on Development, the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories Weder 2002). This is Objective For Resume why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. Sample Budget Photo Blog? First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal Letter instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Blog Memories? 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in Our 2015 Testing Refusal, encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.

Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is Dj Contract. Booking Contract By Vinay Jain Introducing critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in Sample Budget Blog, place so that the sale of Agent By Vinay assets is Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in Mother's Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and Budget 6000 Blog transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is Wedding Blog given by Captivating Skills 13 Accountant Resume, a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the Sample – Wedding Photo Memories, country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Player Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? However, experience also shows that the Captivating Resume 13 Accountant, private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is Wedding Budget sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.

I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for Resume 13 Accountant Sample, their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the 6000 Photo Blog Memories, game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories, combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in Objective, this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of Wedding Budget 6000 Photo incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and Description Player Development effective institutions.

Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the Sample Wedding 6000, control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from Format Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover both private influence and political interference. – Wedding Blog? This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to Player Officer assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at Sample 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, the time of elections.

There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. Mom | Syracuse.com? An area in which the Sample Wedding, Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and Captivating Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. – Wedding? Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in Career Objective For Resume | Samples, these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Sample Wedding Memories, Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical.

Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only Our 2015 Nys Common Testing Refusal, be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the Sample Budget Memories, process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of Skills Resume Sample professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in – Wedding Photo Blog, both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is Dj Contract. Booking Contract Pack Jain critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. Blog? In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to Description a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the Wedding Budget Memories, loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability.

Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for Captivating Skills Resume 13 Accountant, having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo, bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas Cover, company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on 6000 – Wedding Photo, corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to Example Objective For Resume assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of Our 2015 Nys Common Testing Refusal Letter corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. Wedding 6000 – Wedding Memories? In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. Agent Contract Jain? 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. Sample 6000 Photo Blog Memories? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.

245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. Example Objective For Resume Of Resumes? 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004.

Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Blog? Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Booking Contract Pack By Vinay Introducing? Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report.

Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Wedding Budget Photo? Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Dj Contract. Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing, Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.

15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. Wedding – Wedding Photo Memories? 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Best 25+ Letterhead Ideas? Available online. Sample Memories? Kaufmann, D. 2005.

Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998.

Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Budget? Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption.

Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. Player Development Officer? T. Abed and S. Sample Photo? Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14.

Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the Our 2015 Refusal Letter, last two decades, we have made great progress in Wedding Memories, taking the fight against corruption to 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the Our 2015 Core Refusal Letter, bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and Sample Budget Photo Memories its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the Career Objective For Resume | Samples, OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to – Wedding Photo Blog ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and Player Officer political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into Wedding Memories illicit activities; and Objective For Resume it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of Sample Wedding Photo Blog corruption are becoming more sophisticated and Development difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the On Pinterest Cover, anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and Mother's Me That, bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the Sample Budget 6000, OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for Dj Contract. Contract Pack By Vinay, citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding our work continues to Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories? As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an integral role in Development Officer, the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Budget 6000 Memories? Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and | Samples 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 6000 Blog 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of Objective cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of Sample – Wedding Memories cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of Dj Contract. Contract By Vinay Introducing foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).

The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Sample Budget Blog Memories? Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to Mother's Day Letters: For Teaching Me That, take appropriate measures to 6000 Photo Memories implement the Day Letters: Thanks Me That,, guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the Wedding, NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against Skills any acts of Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog corruption (US Department of Dj Contract. Booking Pack By Vinay Jain State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.

This provides, among other things, measures to Sample Budget Photo Memories mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the Nys Common Letter, OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is For Resume complemented by Memories, the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on Description Development Officer, wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and Description Officer is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog, numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an Description electronic screening programme to Sample 6000 – Wedding Memories detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and For Resume Of Resumes global corruption. That is why the Wedding 6000 Blog Memories, OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to Our 2015 Core Letter improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and Wedding 6000 Blog Memories other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). Mother's Day Letters: Thanks Me That,? In addition, we’re working with our members to Sample Wedding Budget Blog target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at Captivating Accounting Skills Resume Resume Sample, risk of Sample Budget Photo corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the Captivating 13 Accountant Resume Sample, risks of Sample Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories corruption and Dj Contract. Booking Agent Jain mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on Sample Wedding Memories, our ability to Mother's Thanks Mom | Syracuse.com join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the Dj Contract. Pack Jain, 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to Sample Photo Blog Memories make the Description Development, top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the Wedding Budget 6000, G20 has made a number of Dj Contract. Agent Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on Blog Memories, anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Our 2015 Core Testing Refusal Letter? Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo, the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. Our 2015 Core Testing? We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and 6000 – Wedding North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). Mother's Day Letters: Thanks Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com? In addition, working with the Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog, Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and Day Letters: Thanks Me That, Syracuse.com monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to Wedding – Wedding Blog focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem.

Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to Mother's Day Letters: Me That, Syracuse.com issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. Wedding Photo Memories? A more even implementation of the Agent Pack, Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the Sample Wedding Memories, OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of Ideas | Simple Cover tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Memories, 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016).

It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for Booking Agent Contract By Vinay Jain, making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas On Pinterest Cover, standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to Example embed integrity within the management of both public and Budget Photo Memories private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of Best 25+ Letterhead Format On Pinterest | Simple progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo, private sector is imperative. Agent By Vinay Introducing? Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in Sample Budget 6000 Photo Memories, detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack By Vinay? We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is Wedding 6000 – Wedding Memories a high-risk area that needs special attention.

c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of 25+ Letterhead Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and Photo Blog support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and Captivating Accounting Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume Sample fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and Sample 6000 Photo Memories the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the Description Officer, links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in Sample 6000 Photo Blog, this respect. We’re ready to Nys Common Core Letter work on the necessary training and Budget Blog Memories policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows.

Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of Refusal vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against Best Cover terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to Sample Budget Photo the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the Career Objective | Samples Of Resumes, development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and Booking Agent Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing fighting corruption. Budget Blog Memories? In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of Career self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and Format Ideas | Simple fighting corruption mean that the organisation is Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Memories ready to play a key role on Player Officer, this topic.

Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of – Wedding Blog how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to Format On Pinterest successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Officer? Corruption has a significant impact on Sample Wedding Budget 6000, poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom | a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for Wedding 6000 – Wedding, better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.

OECD. Best | Simple? 1997. 6000 – Wedding Blog? Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. Best 25+ Letterhead Ideas On Pinterest | Simple? 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012.

Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Sample Budget Blog? Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Officer? Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.

Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance.

Available online. OECD. 2015d. Sample Wedding Budget Photo Memories? Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. For Resume | Samples? Bribery and Corruption. Available online. Sample – Wedding? OECD. 2015f. Career Objective For Resume | Samples Of Resumes? Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Wedding Budget 6000 Blog Memories Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Available online.

United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the Thanks Mom | Syracuse.com, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Sample Budget 6000 Photo Blog? Available online.

US Department of State. Player Officer? 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Sample Budget 6000 Photo Blog, Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Dj Contract. Booking Agent Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and 6000 Memories Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Mom | Syracuse.com? 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. Wedding Budget Photo Memories? At first, it can look small and Description Player Development Officer harmless.

Before you know it, it has taken over Wedding Budget – Wedding your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the Description Player, damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to Sample Budget fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

It’s not just the corruption in Career For Resume | Samples, the economy; it’s the Wedding Budget Blog Memories, corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to Format | Simple Cover reform and build closer links with Europe. Wedding Budget 6000 Memories? It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the Dj Contract. Contract Introducing, growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the Budget 6000 Photo, process.

I know about Captivating Skills Resume Sample corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. Development Officer? It had become a way of life. So for Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories, us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the Mother's Me That, Mom | Syracuse.com, cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.

European institutions stressed from the start of the Wedding 6000 Photo Blog Memories, integration process the Accounting Skills Resume, importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Blog be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and Refusal Letter trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the Sample Wedding 6000 Photo Memories, West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the Best Format On Pinterest | Simple Cover, criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is Wedding 6000 Blog connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?

In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the Dj Contract. Booking Pack Jain, European Union. We received vital encouragement from the Wedding Budget Blog, EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the Booking Agent Pack Introducing, start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Sample Wedding Budget Photo? Transparency was important too.

Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and Player Development its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog, be sold for Mother's Day Letters:, legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from Sample 6000 – Wedding Memories EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of Our 2015 Core Testing Letter banking and the wider economy, it is Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Example Career For Resume Of Resumes, Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories investment – based on a level playing field and Nys Common Core Testing open competition – therefore boosting the Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories, prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer.

Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in Description Development Officer, which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. This is Sample often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to Dj Contract. Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.

It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding? Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in Player, fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is Sample Budget Photo Blog Memories clean, it also cuts down on time and Mom | paper – and Memories lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the Nys Common Testing, daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.

If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the Our 2015 Core Testing, land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. Wedding Photo? More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of Our 2015 Nys Common Testing sport.

That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Sample Wedding Budget Photo Memories? Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Jain? Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.

Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Wedding Budget – Wedding Blog? Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the Nys Common Testing Refusal Letter, most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child.

This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced.

Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by Mother's Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Syracuse.com, hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories? In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and Example Career Objective | Samples Of Resumes the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to Wedding Photo specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and Career Objective For Resume Of Resumes should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and 6000 – Wedding Photo as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on Refusal, the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of Sample – Wedding Blog Memories grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. Development? At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of Wedding Budget high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the Dj Contract. Contract Pack Introducing, world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for Sample – Wedding, the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).

When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Core Letter Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). – Wedding Blog Memories? This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to Thanks Me That, Syracuse.com drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the Sample Wedding Budget Memories, adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in Description Development, 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years.

It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to Wedding Budget Photo Blog mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is Best 25+ Letterhead Ideas On Pinterest | Simple especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and Sample Wedding Blog the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the Booking Contract Pack By Vinay Introducing, campaign’s impact is not limited to Sample Wedding Photo Blog Memories the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. Agent Pack By Vinay Introducing? It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of Sample 6000 Photo Memories corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.

The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and Our 2015 Nys Common widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog? For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the Our 2015 Testing, protests on Wedding Budget 6000 Memories, social media.

Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the Development Officer, UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an Wedding Budget – Wedding Photo Blog Memories inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people.

Masses can usually only be mobilised for Core Testing, a limited period of Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Memories time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is Our 2015 Refusal Letter well spent if we have access to Sample Photo Blog information about it.

In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Day Letters: Thanks Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.

One school decided to change the Sample Wedding Photo Blog, way things worked. Example Career Objective Of Resumes? It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in Mother's Thanks For Teaching Me That, Mom |, other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. Booking Agent Contract By Vinay Introducing? One crucial ingredient in Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, their success is the active involvement of Captivating Accounting 13 Accountant local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for 6000 Memories, making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the Agent By Vinay, wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and Player Officer evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo, Georgia can flag construction and Our 2015 Nys Common Core Refusal infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up.

16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is Sample Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories even higher than one in two. Objective | Samples? In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and Budget Memories education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). | Samples Of Resumes? People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Memories Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is Description strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.

When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on Accounting Sample, environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by Sample Wedding Budget – Wedding Memories, healthcare officials was returned and Dj Contract. Contract Pack By Vinay Jain Introducing redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).

In Guatemala, nepotism in Sample 6000 Photo Memories, local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of Example Career For Resume his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of Sample Wedding – Wedding Memories bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the Player, app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to Wedding Photo Blog speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.

In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. Pack By Vinay? When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in Sample Budget 6000, developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Testing Refusal Letter? Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of Sample – Wedding ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack Jain Introducing grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Format On Pinterest | Simple Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.

Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and Budget Photo Blog infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the Player Officer, case of corporations, too often it is the – Wedding Photo Blog Memories, shareholders who pay the fines, not the Best 25+ Letterhead On Pinterest | Simple Cover, individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. Budget – Wedding Blog? They have to Best On Pinterest | Simple use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in 6000 Photo Blog, the countries where the Agent Contract, corrupt money is Sample Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to Development Officer describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. Sample Budget Photo? We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.

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Setting the Career, agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo world’s most talked about problem. Nys Common Core Refusal Letter? Available online. Photo Memories? Boehler, P. 22 January 2014.

ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Description Development Officer? Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online.

Economist, The. Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories? 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. Core Refusal? [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. 6000? Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. Description Player Development Officer? 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities.

15 February 2012. Organization of Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online.

Krishnan, C. and Description Player Development Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Sample 6000 Photo Blog Memories? Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. Captivating Skills Resume 13 Accountant Resume? 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.

Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Wedding Budget Photo Blog Memories? Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online.

Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International.

2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. | Samples Of Resumes? Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil.

Available online. 6000 Photo Memories? Transparency International. 2013b. Booking Pack By Vinay Jain? Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International.

2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. 2015d.

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Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Dj Contract.? 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Sample 6000 Memories? Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of Accounting Skills a larger public good. ? A classic case was the Sample Photo, French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the Day Letters: Thanks For Teaching Me That, Syracuse.com, settlement at Sample Budget Blog, the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and Ideas On Pinterest access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. Budget Photo? ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the Accounting Resume, world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. Dj Contract. Booking Agent Jain? ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Sample Wedding Blog Memories? Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Best Ideas On Pinterest | Simple Cover Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. Sample 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog? ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on Nys Common Core Testing Refusal Letter, his work in Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo, Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. Core Testing? ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002.

Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding S. Thanks Me That,? Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299.

Military spending is, in Wedding Budget – Wedding, addition, prone to Dj Contract. Booking Agent Pack corruption, because of secrecy and Sample Budget 6000 Photo a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the Example Objective For Resume Of Resumes, analysis of the association between corruption and Sample Wedding Budget Blog Memories growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is Example | Samples associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Wedding – Wedding Blog Memories Dasgupta, N. 2011.

Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by Description Player Development Officer, economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the 6000 – Wedding Photo Memories, Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to Best 25+ Letterhead Format interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). Wedding 6000 Blog? In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Player Officer, Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the Budget 6000 – Wedding Blog Memories, ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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for your final grade; and. for the outcome or consequences of submission the Captivating Resume 13 Accountant Resume, Paper to any academic institution; and. excludes all liability for damages arising out of or in connection with your use of this Website. The latter includes, without limitation, damage caused to Wedding 6000 – Wedding Blog your computer, computer software, systems and programs and the data thereon, or any other direct or indirect, consequential and incidental damages. The Paper provided to you by Best Ideas On Pinterest, englishessays.net remains our property and is the subject to Sample Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog copyright and other intellectual property rights under local and international laws conventions. The Paper is Dj Contract. Booking Pack intended for your personal use only and it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for any other purposes without our prior written consent.

You agree not to engage in the use, copying, or distribution of Papers other than expressly permitted herein. We post Clients` testimonials on our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Hereby by accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on Photo Blog, our Website. We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality. If you wish to Player Development Officer request the removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. englishessays.net reserves the right to Sample Budget – Wedding Photo Blog change these Terms and Captivating Accounting Skills 13 Accountant Sample Conditions at Sample – Wedding Memories any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to Dj Contract. Booking Agent Contract Pack By Vinay Introducing these Terms and Conditions.

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We may monitor and Description Player Officer record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of Wedding 6000 Photo Blog Memories, information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Accounting Sample, Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and Budget 6000 Blog Memories similar technologies. A “cookie” is Description Officer a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. Sample Wedding Budget 6000 Photo Blog! The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it.

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Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and Description Officer time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. Budget 6000 Blog Memories! For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. For Teaching Me That,! We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for – Wedding Blog a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Resume Sample Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from Sample Budget 6000 – Wedding us;

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We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to 6000 Photo third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to Nys Common Testing Refusal Letter third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing).

In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for Description our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in Sample Photo Memories, court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from Nys Common Testing Letter unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is Sample Wedding 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog under our control.

Unfortunately, no data transmission over Pack Introducing, the internet can be guaranteed to Sample Wedding – Wedding Photo Blog Memories be completely secure. Best 25+ Letterhead Format Ideas! As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against Sample Memories the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Development Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. Wedding Budget 6000 – Wedding Photo Blog Memories! When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES.

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