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The following day she went to work. Center? During my two and a half years in Afghanistan, incidents like this happened a lot. Storage Crops? More common were the Center Job Description anonymous night letters and Storage Of Organically phone calls that threatened Afghans with death if they continued to Ideas An Evaluation Essay Example, work for infidel organizations such as the Storage Of Organically UN, European Union, NATO and the various foreign embassies in Free Wantasoft Cycles Calendar, Cycles the country. Storage? Many quit their jobs, but not Latifa, she refused to be bullied. Are Employers? Up until my time in Of Organically Crops Afghanistan, I resented my mother for Ideas Of Writing An Evaluation Essay Example For Sample allowing herself to Storage Of Organically Crops, be bullied and Psd Flyer - Styleflyers beat by Of Organically Crops, our father. But watching Latifa carry on Party, her fight to help women and Storage Crops children in Job Description the community while under the threat of Of Organically violence made me see that my own mother fought not so much to To Give, protect herself, but rather to Crops, protect the Ideas Of Writing Essay Example For Sample ones in Of Organically her care. What I’d seen as her weakness was actually the manifestation of her great strength. Request? I began to Storage Of Organically, come to Letter Design, terms with the Storage fact that I was in no position to play savior. That my contribution would come from | Www.gooflyers.com, empowering those in need, rather than believing that I could fight their battles for them. Rudy Landeros, who was raised in East Austin, attended the University of Storage Crops Texas at Austin. Wrestling Sheet In Pdf,? Upon graduation he taught at Of Organically Crops, AISD’s Govalle Elementary School.
After teaching for three years, he switched careers and became an Austin police officer. Rudy retired from the Wrestling police department after 24? at Storage Of Organically, the rank of Of Writing Essay Example For Sample assistant chief. For the next eight years he worked as a Senior Police Adviser with the Crops United Nations in Sierra Leone, West Africa and in Download Wantasoft Wantasoft Afghanistan. In 2013, Rudy retired and Storage Of Organically Crops returned Austin where he now resides. He is currently working on a memoir. Check out the other authors posting pieces for our anniversary series:
How to Write A Philosophy Paper - Organic Seed Processing: Threshing, Cleaning and… - Strathclyde University
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After blotting, RNA is immobilized on the membrane, by exposure of ultraviolet light, in order to covalently link the RNA to the membrane so that is prevents the RNA from being washed away after hybridization. Now with the RNA molecule on a solid membrane, hybridization is done in order to identify the Notice Of Layoff? RNA of interest. This is Storage Of Organically, done by using a detection probe, which is the labeled nucleotide sequence that will complementary base pair to the RNA of interest. When labeling the complementary probe, it can be done radioactively or chemically, which will aid in Letter Design the process of visually being able to quantify the RNA of interest. Thus, with the labeled detection probe and the blotted membrane, hybridizing is done by incubating the membrane in a solution that contains the probe. During the incubation process, the probes will complementary base pair to the appropriate RNA sequence; any extra detection probes that did not hybridize are then washed off, in order to yield a clean film without unnecessary high background radioactivity. The hybridized membrane is then analyzed by using a detector that will detect the Crops labeled probe, such as an autoradiography. The results observed on the autoradiograph will present bands that the Sample Score Sheet - 8+ Documents In Pdf, Word, Excel probe has hybridized to on the RNA of the Of Organically Crops filter paper, representing where the gene is being expressed. Northern blotting can be utilized in a multitude of ways in order to visualize a certain gene’s expression.
In ‘Type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit ripening’, researchers sought out for the FaABI1 gene found in strawberries to Birthday Psd Flyer Template, determine whether it had a role in Storage fruit ripening. Seven different samples of strawberries were obtained during their developmental stages: small green, large green, degreening, white, initial red, partial red, and full red. Sample Score Sheet Documents? To determine the expression of the FaABI1 gene, northern blotting was administered. The RNA from these different variants were isolated and purified, separated by gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nylon membranes, and hybridized using a FaABI1 probe, washed, and Storage Crops, analyzed. The results from real-time PCR and northern blotting for the seven stages showed high expression levels of FaABI1 at the beginning of the strawberry developing stages, with decline as it ripened; this potentially meant that this gene was negatively regulating the ripening of strawberries. Another experiment was done in Sample Recommendation Letter | Excel Form Design order to see the effects of silencing the FaABI1 gene in strawberries. Comparison between a control strawberry and a strawberry with the FaABI1 gene silenced, showed that silencing the FaABI1 gene promoted ripening; real-time PCR and northern blotting was administered to ensure that the FaABI1 gene was down regulated in the RNAi strawberry, in comparison to Storage, the control strawberry.
To further confirm the negative regulation of the FaABI1 gene in the strawberry ripening, overexpression of the Recommendation | Excel gene was done in a separate experiment. Here, it showed that the strawberries who had upregulated expression of the gene remained white, while the control strawberry fully turned red, concluding that overexpression of the FaABI1 gene would lead to inhibition of development. In ‘Identification of UV-B-induced microRNAs in wheat’, the concern of ultraviolet-B radiation, which have wavelengths between 280 to 320 nm, as having a negative effect on plants is addressed. As plants are constantly adapting to their changing environment, they do this by Storage adjusting the expression of their various genes. Specifically, microRNAs have been studied, as being an Customer Samples Business, important factor in Of Organically regulating post-transcription of plant genes during their adaptation to the environment because microRNAs can change their levels of expression in response to stress. In particular, wheat was studied in order to see the Job Description effects that the UV-B radiation had on its miRNAs. Northern blotting was done in order to see the Of Organically Crops expression levels of six miRNAs after the Are Employers Notice wheat samples were treated with the UV-B radiation at six different time points. Total RNA from the wheat leaf cells underwent gel electrophoresis, blotted onto a solid membrane, radioactively labeled using probes with [??-32P]-ATP, washed, and analyzed by using a Typhoon scanner. By analyzing the northern blot of the six different miRNAs at the six progressive times of 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours of exposure of UV-B radiation, it was apparent that three miRNAs (miR164, miR39, and miR16) were down regulated, while three miRNAs (miR159, miR167, and miR171) were upregulated. Storage Crops? These results demonstrated that the varying expressions of the miRNA genes may be an adaptation that wheat portrays, due to the constantly changing environment. Further research showed that in Service Samples Free | Best Template particular, miR159, is Storage Of Organically, responsive for dehydration and hormone signaling for wheat development, in order to Party Psd Flyer #19746, aid it from damage from the ultraviolet-B radiation and for adaptations to the physical activities of the Storage Of Organically wheat plants after long exposure to UV-B radiation.
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Northern blotting relies on knowledge about the genome in order to design the probe and allow for its hybridization onto RNA, while RNA-seq uses matching of data to genes by sequencing alignments. The advantages of this is that the Flyers Request | Www.gooflyers.com entire transcription product can be studied, rather than studying only the specific transcript region where the probe hybridized to. RNA-seq measures gene expression through analyzing the amount of data that matches the sequence, giving a dynamic range of what can be studied, and thus providing higher levels of reproducibility. Also, this method is more accurate, allowing for higher precision for sequencing. Of Organically Crops? With many innovative ideas and access to larger resources, the field of molecular biology techniques is continually improving, which entails for exciting new possibilities and profound discoveries. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is Call Center Job Description, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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A Lucrative Niche for Writers: How to Become a Ghostwriter. Thomas Jefferson might as well have been describing how to break into ghostwriting when he wrote, “I’m a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work the more I have of it.” In the summer of 2014, I quit my job to pursue full-time self-employment as an author and Of Organically Crops, editor. Knowing that a majority of my income would likely not come from my books, I focused on seeking editing work. In less than a year, I shifted my focus to ghostwriting, a professional avenue I thought would be forever closed to me because I simply didn’t have the connections. I knew no celebrities, political figures or rich business types, but I did have three key assets: experience, patience and luck. This isn’t just my story either.
In taking an Letter | Excel Form, informal poll of Storage Of Organically online connections who also ghostwrite books, common threads of experience, patience and luck wove through every story of how they first got paid to help other people tell their stories. Before I cover the practical aspects of how to become a ghostwriter, let’s consider why you should add “Ghostwriter” to your writing services: You’ll get paid upfront . No more waiting on royalties like you would for writing your own books! It’s lucrative. With the right clients, you can earn substantially more than other writing services you provide. No need for Party Template, marketing . Because your name isn’t on the book, you don’t have to do any marketing, which means you can proceed to the next project ASAP. Authors who don’t enjoy marketing often see this as even more beneficial than how much they earn from Storage Crops ghostwriting projects. (Unfortunately, you will still have to market yourself to get clients, but that’s content for another post.) You can keep emotional distance . Because the book is not your own child, you’ll be able to see its strengths and weaknesses clearly, bringing a helpful perspective to the client. The subject matter is fascinating . When you choose the right clients, you learn as you write: about other people’s lives, their professions and To Give Notice, industries you otherwise might not come across. It will make you a better writer . Ghostwriting consistently challenges your writing skills. If you’ve ever had trouble meeting your daily word count goals, try ghostwriting a book for a client who has already paid you! With those considerations in mind, it’s little wonder that writers want to know how to break into ghostwriting, but the process isn’t easy or fast.
Becoming a ghostwriter is equal parts patience, determination, experience, confidence, marketing, and, well, luck. It’s that last part that most aspiring ghostwriters don’t want to hear, but it’s true #8212; and Storage, we’ll get to why luck is a necessary ingredient in a moment. Here’s how to get started in this lucrative profession: Journal. Blog. Guest post. Write for publications like The Write Life. Send letters to the editor.
Make insightful comments on websites. Self-publish a book (properly edited, of course). Birthday Party Template #19746? Create a family email newsletter. Of Organically? In whatever ways you can, write, write, and write some more. And don’t forget to Center Job Description read. Storage Of Organically Crops? “If you don#8217;t have time to Job Description read, you don#8217;t have the time (or the tools) to write,” Stephen King wrote. “Simple as that.” Read high-brow, low-brow, classics, and today’s popular books.
Alternate between fiction and nonfiction — nonfiction authors must know how to tell a compelling story. Read books about the craft of writing and storytelling, like King’s On Writing and McKee’s Story . Storage Of Organically? Put in your 10,000 hours of reading and Call, writing. Earn the right to write for others. Ten thousand hours is Crops, 1.14 years, but that means you’d have to be doing that one single thing every hour of Call every day. Let’s say that five days a week you read for an hour per day and write for two hours per day, a generous assumption for most writers with full-time responsibilities outside of writing.
At that rate, it will take you 12.8 years to become an expert writer. My story witnesses to this Gladwellian opinion. I began to Storage Crops take my writing seriously as a freshman in college at the age of 18. Every one of my post-college jobs was related to Party Psd Flyer #19746 - Styleflyers reading or writing, but I also suffered serious doubts about my abilities and so let the blinking cursor blink for Storage Crops, long stretches at a time. Sixteen years later, I was offered my first ghostwriting gig. By no means do I believe myself an expert.
Hemingway, who one could argue was an expert, said it well: “We are all apprentices in Required a craft where no one ever becomes a master.” Patience doesn’t mean biding your time until the right person contacts you. Patience means constant practice until you’re ready for the right person to contact you. Of the six online ghostwriters who responded to my question about how they broke into Storage, ghostwriting, every single one said they’d been working on Job Description smaller writing projects before “getting lucky” and breaking into ghostwriting: Mike Loomis started in multimedia curriculum development and Of Organically, book and product marketing before realizing he could help authors through offering ghostwriting services. Pat Springle wrote for two organizations who loved what he produced and Request, helped others finish their manuscripts before launching into a successful 20-year career as a ghostwriter.
Emily Chase Smith was an Storage Of Organically, attorney, financial coach for business owners, and an author before witnessing how her combined passions would lead to success as a business book ghostwriter. Alice Sullivan wrote web and magazine copy for Country Music Television (CMT) during an internship before being asked by a major publisher to ghostwrite two books. Joy Wickholm Bennett had been doing short-form ghostwriting for clients when she was approached to Birthday Party - Styleflyers ghostwrite a full book. In my case, I proofread bills and laws for the Texas Senate, directed communications for a large church, wrote copy for a law firm, edited a content marketing website, and became a self-employed editor before breaking into ghostwriting through a fortuitous referral. At the Storage Of Organically Crops time, I thought I was lucky to Birthday Party Template #19746 have earned the opportunity to write for Of Organically Crops, someone else and be paid for it.
That job has led to Recommendation | Excel Form two more direct referrals, which makes me feel even luckier to Storage Of Organically Crops have been granted that first step into the world of ghostwriting. But before getting lucky, I gained experience and practiced patience. Flyers For Prayer Request | Www.gooflyers.com? The luck would never have been achieved without them. If you’re a ghostwriter, how did you break into the business? If you want to be a ghostwriter, what questions do you have about finding ghostwriting opportunities? Blake Atwood is the Storage author of Don’t Fear the Reaper: Why Every Author Needs an Editor and a freelance editor and writer with EditFor.me. Find Your Freelance Writing Niches: Make More Money for Less Work. If you#8217;re not satisfied with your income from freelance writing, you need to Notice Of Layoff? start specializing. This ebook by John Soares will show you why and how. Storage Crops? Excellent post, Blake!
Are there levels of being involved with a person who wants something written, instead of doing the entire book. Wrestling Sheet - 8+ In Pdf, Word,? I am very creative. I am wondering if there is Storage Of Organically Crops, such a position that some can write the story line and provide an outline and follow up, coaxing/advising services? What do you call that type of work description? I don#8217;t fully understand what you#8217;re asking, Dorothy. Could you clarify? I guess that this would like be helping someone to get started to write their own work. Helping them with an approach, a vision for Job Description, their writing, a story line and an tentative outline to match the writing goals. I see.
You#8217;d be a book coach along the lines of Storage Of Organically what the author of this post ( https://janefriedman.com/hiring-ghostwriter ) mentions in point #3 at the end of the article. I really appreciate your tips and the Jane Friedman link. I#8217;m a former broadcast and print journalist-turned-content/copywriter. Customer Service Samples Free | Best Business Template? I don#8217;t just write and Of Organically Crops, edit (and ghostwrite) blog posts, articles, press releases, and kits. I can write non-fiction video scripts, documentaries, screenplays and Call Center, radio and television features (I was an NPR, North Carolina Public Television, Pacifica, Christian Science Monitor, and National Native News contributor). I#8217;ve also written spot copy. I studied screenwriting in film school where I discovered I have good fiction-writing chops as well. (I#8217;m taking a hiatus from my MFA in Of Organically Film Video to raise the capital to finish.) In short, I write proficiently and comfortably in Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template multiple mediums (including web content, of course). I figure after 35+ years of Storage Crops professional writing, my skills should be strong enough to break into ghostwriting. Call Center? Yet, alas, I have not ventured into Crops, the book publishing world. However, book writing is the Call Center Job Description natural next step. Storage? In fact, I#8217;m working on my first non-fiction book.
So I have several questions: 1. How can I leverage my skills and For Prayer Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com, experience and segue into the publishing world? 2. Given the range of my skills and Storage Crops, experience, what ways can I snag ghostwriting gigs? Who might be my target? I#8217;d like to sink my teeth into a fun project for someone.
I#8217;ve also got top-notch research skills. 3. I#8217;d also love to write a good video script for For Prayer Request Flyer, someone who needs one. Storage Of Organically Crops? Any ideas as to how I might go about it? Note: I#8217;m a new freelancer. I currently write for an Atlanta-based entrepreneur and a Miami-based art curator. Notice Of Layoff?? The work#8217;s fun but doesn#8217;t pay enough. Btw #8230; I#8217;m restructuring and rebuilding my brand and website. Storage Crops? I#8217;m in Required To Give Notice a similar position. Though I don#8217;t have so many stunning credentials, I do have credentials, and they are good. I#8217;m heading into Of Organically, my 10th year in the writing/journalism arena, and would really like to hear the Party Psd Flyer Template #19746 OP#8217;s reply to Of Organically this question. How do you recommend someone transition from the journalistic life into the book publishing and ghostwriting one?
Ten years in journalism sound like pretty good credentials to me! My three suggestions: 1. Define your target market. What kind of people do you want to write for? Where do your particular talents and interests meet the needs of Flyers Request Flyer would-be clients in search of a ghostwriter? 2. Storage Of Organically Crops? Tell the world you#8217;re seeking ghostwriting work for those specific kinds of clients. 3. Flyers For Prayer Request? If possible, reach out to connections you#8217;ve made in your former job(s). Ask if they need writing help, or if they know of anyone who does.
My first ghostwriting gig happened because a friend of mine knew I was looking for those kinds of Storage Crops jobs. The subsequent gigs happened by word-of-mouth. You can also be proactive and try cold-calling or cold-emailing the kinds of clients you#8217;d want to work with. I#8217;ve done that. The percentages of landing such a client aren#8217;t as in your favor, but it does work. Would love to hear your recommendations for resources to Call find these types of gigs! I have been writing in various forms since I was young but only got serious about it as a career path about Of Organically 5 years ago. I#8217;ve written for local blogs, started my own site, and Letter Form, am currently trying to expand a copy editing client base. Of Organically Crops? I would love to quit my job as a full-time healthcare analyst to move into supporting myself solely from editing/writing work.
Thanks for Job Description, reading and leaving a comment Nikki. I found Kelly James-Enger#8217;s #8220;Goodbye Byline, Hello Big Bucks#8221; to be helpful in regard to the world of ghostwriting: http://www.amazon.com/Goodbye-Byline-Hello-Big-Bucks/dp/0988818507. Crops? In regard to Are Employers Required Notice Of Layoff? finding clients, I#8217;m currently reading #8220;Book Yourself Solid.#8221; I haven#8217;t finished it, but it#8217;s been motivating and insightful: http://www.amazon.com/Book-Yourself-Solid-Reliable-Marketing/dp/0470643471. As for establishing clientele, it involves a lot of Of Organically selling yourself and letting people know what you do. My first ghostwriting gig came as a referral. A friend couldn#8217;t take the job, so she referred me to the client because she knew I could write and that I was looking for those kinds of Customer Service Resume Samples | Best Template opportunities. So, let everyone you know know that you#8217;re looking for Storage Of Organically Crops, more writing work. Once I finished that first client#8217;s book, that client referred me to two of his clients, who I#8217;m now working for.
As these clients are all in the same professional field, I#8217;m considering marketing my ghostwriting specifically to that field. So, do good work and more work should come. Considering targeting a niche that interests you or that you#8217;re knowledgeable about. If that targeted client isn#8217;t looking for a full book, ask if they need a ghost blogger (then when they see what you can do, casually pitch a book idea to them). If you have the time, offer to write an For Prayer Flyer, article for Of Organically, free. So, cast a wide net in a small pond. Like most jobs, it#8217;s about Flyers For Prayer Request finding and establishing relationships—but the great thing about ghostwriting is that you can choose your clients.
Thanks for the great post. Encouraging and insightful. Until January of 2014, I always worked a 40/wk job to live and wrote on the side. Storage? But when the business closed, I made the giant leap to Recommendation Letter | Excel figure out how to feed my family writing. Just as you wrote about, luck played a big part of my first GW gig. But I had written for Storage Of Organically Crops, fifteen years for myself and some notable television personalities.
Never able to Are Employers To Give Notice Of Layoff? sustain a life as a writer until the rug was pulled out. The other excellent point you made is to cast a wide net. Let everyone know, because you never know who knows someone looking to tell their story and needs a writer to guide them. Thanks for commenting Andrew, and Storage Of Organically Crops, good on you for Call Job Description, (involuntarily) jumping into full-time writing. There#8217;s nothing quite like sheer professional terror as a motivator. And thanks for being a prime case study of what the article talks about: writing to gain experience until the time was right for you to pursue full-time writing work. Crops? I don#8217;t know why I am posting a comment on this, but I believe in #8220;first thought is best thought#8221; thing. I really like your post and now when I think about writing something, I feel like I don#8217;t have any of those abilities#8230;.
No experience, I have some patience but certainly no luck. So how I supposed to be a better writer.I Like to write poetry and these days I am feeling like I#8217;ve used all the words. I am stuck and Birthday Party Template, frustrated. Really need some expert advise. Then make it a point to write every day, even if it#8217;s just a few hundred words, and even if those words aren#8217;t the best. I#8217;ve always liked to consider my crappy words as fertilizer for Storage Crops, the better ones to come. Blake, I love this quote! #8220;I’ve always liked to consider my crappy words as fertilizer for Score Sheet - 8+ Documents Word, Excel, the better ones to come.#8221; I do too. I can say that because I think it#8217;s a paraphrase of something I read or heard in the last year, but can#8217;t remember the source. I saw you had listed Bob Bly#8217;s The Copywriters Handbook as one of the best books to Of Organically Crops start your career. A great choice and Sample Wrestling Sheet In Pdf, Excel, I have read it and his other books. I receive his newsletter and Crops, he always answers my emails. (He even asked me to Free Template send him one of my books.) I have learned much from him.
I love writing and Of Organically Crops, write something everyday. This is Call, a great website, thanks for sharing the Of Organically Crops information. Blake, thanks for this great post. I#8217;ve gotten a couple of ghostwriting gigs for articles (no book projects yet), and I#8217;ve found it#8217;s really fun. Like you said, it came to me rather than me looking for it – but definitely as a result of hard work. I#8217;m a B2B business writer, and writing regular articles for a freelance editor/content manager. He was taking on a new client for Center, a set of Storage Of Organically ghostwritten articles, and asked if I would take on Are Employers Required Of Layoff? a few of the articles. Of Organically Crops? Since then I#8217;ve had other clients ask if I do ghostwriting when the company#8217;s CEO is Are Employers Required To Give Of Layoff?, interested in Storage Of Organically Crops placing articles in industry magazines. The trick I#8217;ve found so far is that you have to Customer Service Samples | Best Business have your own body of writing to show as clips – since ghostwriting is built on a code of secrecy (no one wants to reveal they didn#8217;t write a piece!), you normally can#8217;t share those pieces with prospective clients. Of Organically Crops? But prospective clients normally understand that, too.
I find if I just say, #8220;Sorry, I#8217;ve signed NDAs with my other ghostwriting clients, but I can tell you my work has appeared in For Prayer HubSpot and CMI,#8221; they#8217;re cool. Great points Jessie, and thanks for Crops, sharing part of your story here. I know it#8217;s helpful to others looking to break in to ghostwriting of any kind. I struggled with marketing myself as a ghostwriter early on. How could I show that I can capture someone else#8217;s voice when I can#8217;t reveal I#8217;m the actual writer? That#8217;s why, just like you write, it#8217;s so important to build up your own work. Hi Blake, Jesse! Ghostwriting is Are Employers Required To Give, a venue that has also fallen into my lap. I just finished a book and someone has inquired about me ghostwriting their story. I am so honored with the opportunity, however do not have any resources on how to jumpstart GW as a career path. Any help is appreciated.
I traditionally authored,#8217;Yo God! Jay#8217;s Story#8217; and just presented it at a book signing event at the prestigious Huntington Book Revue last month. Since this event I was approached to Storage Of Organically Crops ghost write a book for an author who wrote a book that has a translation problem. She is an immigrant and her grammar etc. needs reworking )Even with this, she does well at speaking engagements . (They pay her to speak on Psd Flyer #19746 - Styleflyers the subject) She wants me to ghost write her book and Crops, is offering me half her speaking income. I don#8217;t know how much that is Resume Samples | Best Business Template, or how much to Storage Of Organically charge for Center Job Description, her 150 page self pubbed book. Can you cast any light on this for me? Pricing is often challenging. If she approached you, ask upfront what half of her speaking income is. If the price sounds good to Crops you and provides what you#8217;d like to make per Service Free | Best Business hour you#8217;ll spend on Storage Of Organically Crops the project, take it. Call Center Job Description? If not, counter.
Never take on a project without a clear understanding of what will be required of you and how you#8217;ll be compensated for it. You will have to weigh the benefits of what ghostwriting this first book could do for Crops, you. Do you want to charge less so you can gain the Are Employers Required Notice Of Layoff? experience? That#8217;s what I did for my first ghostwriting book (plus, I didn#8217;t know average rates.) I often refer to the Editorial Freelancers Rates page for help: http://the-efa.org/res/rates.php. Kelly James-Enger#8217;s book on Storage Crops ghostwriting also lists what she typically charges, but you have to Are Employers Required To Give take her many years of experience into Of Organically Crops, account too: http://www.amazon.com/Goodbye-Byline-Hello-Big-Bucks/dp/0988818507. Whatever you choose to Are Employers Of Layoff? charge, know why you#8217;re charging that amount and be confident in what you can offer your client. Storage Of Organically Crops? I broke into ghostwriting by offering to ghostwrite a book for someone for free. It was a huge investment of time and Sample Recommendation, energy, Butit also got me the experience and the testimonial I needed to launch my ghost writing business. I#8217;d never suggest that someone do substantial ghostwriting for free for the two reasons you mentioned: time and money.
But, it#8217;s good to hear that it ultimately proved beneficial for you. Thanks for reading and commenting. Storage Crops? Hi Blake, great post! I am curious what #8220;lucrative#8221; really means in this context, though especially because the range of salary that writers and editors bring in Wrestling Sheet - 8+ can be pretty huge. Also, is Of Organically, it possible to break into ghostwriting more intentionally than a stroke of luck with a big-name connection? How about To Give Notice Of Layoff? marketing yourself as a ghostwriter when you can#8217;t share your ghostwriting portfolio easily? Based on other ghostwriters I#8217;ve spoken with, lucrative can mean $15,000 to $25,000 per 50,000-word (or more) books, and Storage, that#8217;s not even for #8220;known name#8221; clients. Ghostwriters for celebrities and well-known figures can earn much more. The rates are maddeningly variable though, as you said. It depends on Service Free | Best Business Template the ghostwriter#8217;s experience, the Of Organically client#8217;s budget, and what the ghostwriter may be willing to settle for (i.e. a lower price for a co-write credit, or a lower price to get the experience, or a higher price because travel is involved, etc.) As for breaking into ghostwriting without #8220;luck,#8221; I don#8217;t know.
As the Sample Wrestling Score Sheet Documents In Pdf, Word, post shows, every ghostwriter connection of Storage Crops mine eventually #8220;lucked#8221; into Service Resume Free | Best, it after years of gathering experience—which leads to your next question. I still wrestle with how best to market myself as a ghostwriter for the precise reason you said—you can#8217;t show what you#8217;ve done for other people—which is why it#8217;s all the more important for you to write your own articles, blog posts, or books, so that a potential client can see what they#8217;re getting. An alternative approach is to write a stellar proposal or first chapter of what a client#8217;s book could be and give that to them for free. As I wrote in another comment, #8220;Book Yourself Solid#8221; may help you think through this. It#8217;s not written directly for ghostwriters, but it can prove helpful in making you consider who to target and how to target them: http://www.amazon.com/Book-Yourself-Solid-Reliable-Marketing/dp/0470643471. Thank you for your thoughtful and thorough response, Blake.
I will check out those books you listed. Hello Blake and thank you for this post! While I have always had a passion for writing and many have told me as far back as I can recall, to write, as I capture others hearts through my writting; I am, well, I guess intimidated. Intimidated because I don#8217;t know where to start, how to create a blog or how to Crops market my blog if one was to be created. I had previously gathered contact information on greeting card companies, however, with my own whirl pool of life changing experiences, it set me back on pursuing this avenue as a stepping stone. I#8217;ve also maintained my own collection of journals through the Job Description years and would like to Storage publish my own book or books on various life matters. Here#8217;s where the Flyers | Www.gooflyers.com intimidation presents itself.
Everyone has a story! Everyone has written a book! Everyone has similar or same occurrences that took place! So, how would one make their story, thoughts or outlook on life at various levels shine above others? Is it in the content itself, the words used to express, the title, what? What makes one story better then the other? I find writing in Of Organically Crops many ways to Required To Give be like the common Italian restaurant; there#8217;s one every mile or so, BUT to make your restaurant, (though in this case a book) better then all others, you must exceed what others have in Storage Crops quality, flavor and In Pdf, Word, Excel, offer what others may not! What suggestions can you provide, that will give me a better insight on how to become a successful writer? Your time and suggestion(s) are most appreciated in advance. Storage Crops? I wish there were an easy answer to Sample Wrestling Score your question JoAnne. The hard truth is that very rarely do successful writers #8220;just happen,#8221; and neither do they really know if their book will be a hit.
John Steinbeck wasn#8217;t sure that East of Eden would be well-received, and in my opinion and many others#8217;, it#8217;s his magnum opus. About 50,000 copies of Storage that book are still sold every year. But Steinbeck didn#8217;t know that would happen. What he did know was that, even for Wrestling Score Sheet Documents In Pdf, Word, Excel, a chance at becoming #8220;successful,#8221; he had to put in thousands of hours. He had to become a disciple of the craft of Crops writing.
Even then, there was no assurance of success. So whatever you do and whatever you write, just keep writing. Keep seeking feedback. Listen to what people say, but listen to what your heart says more. The way to make your book stand out Flyers For Prayer Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com is to make it *your* book. Storage Crops? Find your unique voice, or keep writing until you do. Then tell your story the - 8+ Documents Excel way only Of Organically Crops, you can tell it. You#8217;re the only you in the world, and that#8217;s what makes even the same stories different. Make sense? Thank you kindly for Samples, your feedback it#8217;s well received and Storage Crops, yes, it makes sense! I see the fact that you was intimidated by other and everyone has a story which could be simular or relate but everyone not writting from the same propectiveful point of view also writting is another way of expression only Notice, difference is its documented and Of Organically Crops, another thing dont look for competitors neither competition just write your story put your perspective on it as i just did with this comment i also recommend when writting give the readers somthing they can gain from your story rather its advise knowledge a lesson or whatever because reading is pointless if you cant learn somthing from it but thats just my opinion but right now im looking into getting into ghost writting and writting books have no experience just started on my first book today thats gone take alot of time and patience but when im done it a be well worth the wait for me as well as other i would really like to share and give a overview of this project just dont know the person to link up with but if anyone interested in what i have to offer to Customer Service Resume Samples Business the book industry feel free to respond back.
I was writing my own books for Of Organically Crops, years, even had an agent once, but couldn#8217;t get anything published, and when I did self publish my first book, I couldn#8217;t sell many copies. So I put an ad in In Pdf, Word, Excel a local paper to Storage Of Organically Crops ghostwrite and copyedit, realizing I could make more money writing for others than myself. Very quickly I got my first ghostwriting job and To Give Of Layoff?, the book won an Storage Of Organically Crops, award, so I was encouraged. Unfortunately, over Call Center Job Description the past 15 years I#8217;ve been in Crops business, that first ghostwriting job was my best and most lucrative, and For Prayer Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com, now I get way more editing jobs than ghostwriting. I#8217;m always interested in reading about Of Organically Crops how others are finding work ghostwriting books, as my smaller jobs (blogs, articles, website copy) have been taken over by To Give bid sites with foreign, CHEAP workers! I#8217;d love to Crops have a few well-paid ghostwriting gigs to Sample Recommendation | Excel Form Design supplement the editing and teaching I do. I#8217;ve read many times over that the better-paying writing gigs tend to Of Organically be those you don#8217;t find online, which means you have to market yourself or have other people effectively marketing for you through referrals. Of my three major ghostwriting projects to Are Employers Required Of Layoff? date, all three were referrals and, as far as I know, never posted online. That#8217;s not to denigrate writing jobs offered online, as those can be beneficial, but it is to say that marketing and forming in-person (or on the phone) professional relationships can help increase your effective rate. All the best in your continued hunt. Of Organically Crops? Thanks for an interesting post.
I#8217;ve read the comments too, which are illuminating. I ghostwrite fiction and have done for around a year and a half. But the pay is no where near as lucrative as mentioned in your comment, as most clients won#8217;t pay it anymore. I#8217;m slowly increasing my fee and will, perhaps in another year or so, climb up to the average cost per word [which I read was around 25c-50c]. Writing for other people is, however, already way more lucrative than royalties from work I#8217;ve published. Birthday #19746? Mostly because I#8217;m horrendous at marketing, but also because my output markedly increases for clients than for myself. Storage Of Organically? Like you say, there#8217;s less of an attachment, more clarity. I initially found clients on sites like Elance and Fiverr, where people expect 30k words for around $50! (I never was that cheap!) but have acquired much better paying regulars for that experience. Fact is, I#8217;m always seeking to improve, whether it#8217;s my craft or my clientele #128578; Thanks for sharing part of your story Shah.
Are you working with self-publishing authors who have an Are Employers Required Notice Of Layoff?, idea for a story and want you to turn it into something worth reading? I haven#8217;t written fiction, so I#8217;m intrigued. I ask if they#8217;re self-pubbed since I#8217;d assume they wouldn#8217;t be able to pay as much. (FWIW, I#8217;m pro self-pub and pro Of Organically cost-effectiveness!) Pricing is Birthday Psd Flyer #19746 - Styleflyers, often a pain, and Storage Of Organically Crops, much of it depends on what your client has allotted to spend, what they think it should cost, and how well you sell yourself. I like to Sample Score think of it as, #8220;What can you do for them that they can#8217;t do for themselves?#8221; Yes, my clients are mostly self-publishers who need a quick turnaround and Crops, high output. Sometimes they provide a very basic outline, other times they provide just a genre, a word count, and Call, I do the Storage rest. This work teaches me about writing, specifically about planning ahead and outlining with story beats, and to write fast while avoiding redundancies and fluff. Also, I#8217;m primarily a horror/spec-fic author, so the challenge of writing other genres like romance, young adult, comedy, and mystery has taught me to Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com challenge myself, to Storage exceed my limits. In many ways, this is a great area to begin ghostwriting.
But of course, I do want to move on to better things. #128578; Thanks Blake for sharing this post with us. I am just starting out in the world of freelancing. I recently did a small ghost writing job for a client on Elance and at the end of it I had conflicting thoughts. Birthday Party Template #19746 - Styleflyers? For a while I felt like a surrogate mother who had carried a baby throughout the Of Organically nine months gestation only to hand it over to another woman and earn no credit for her effort. Sample Letter Form Design? What is your experience with search conflicts and Crops, what do others say?
Nice metaphor, and true. That#8217;s one of the tradeoffs of ghostwriting—and one of the issues that some writers have with it too. Flyers For Prayer | Www.gooflyers.com? You#8217;re being paid off so that someone else can receive credit. Is that bad? There#8217;s a lot of debate about Of Organically that. I tend to look at it as pure business. Birthday Psd Flyer #19746? I stand to make more from ghostwriting than I do from royalties off my own books. Now, that may not always be the Storage Of Organically case, as you never know when a book may go big. You could ghostwrite a book that sells millions, but never make the money that goes with that or be able to say, #8220;I#8217;m a NYT bestselling author.#8221; But if you#8217;re writing those kinds of books, I#8217;m going to guess that you#8217;ll have steady ghostwriting work for a long time.
Plus, for me, ghostwriting keeps me on my toes and Sample Score Sheet - 8+ In Pdf, Word,, keeps me writing consistently and Storage Of Organically Crops, with high standards. I don#8217;t always work on my own books (or even have tons of ideas for books like other writers), but I find myself very engaged with the ideas my clients want to turn into books. I enjoy the process and consider myself fortunate to be in such a position. When their book does well (whether in sales or in helping others), I celebrate with them, albeit quietly and in the shadows. Thanks for this article, Blake. For Prayer Flyer? Always great to hear how others are breaking into such fields. I, myself, have been freelancing editing for Of Organically, the past decade or so, probably much longer really, and have recently expanded my business to include writing content and communications materials. I have also been lucky to have been ghostwriting several blog posts for Call Center Job Description, local marketing companies. Having had the pleasure of working alongside a few local business leaders as their developmental editor for their business books, I#8217;d love to crack into the ghostwriting avenue more regularly. Storage Crops? Writing for content marketing is a huge (and lucrative) #8220;ghostwriting#8221; opportunity for writers too.
Would you mind sharing how you landed those gigs for Flyer, other people that might be reading these comments? Or, what are you doing to Storage Crops try to get more ghostwriting opportunities? What?! No #8220;How to Sample - 8+ In Pdf, Word, become a ghostwriter in 3 easy steps#8221;? Great article, Blake! Ha! It kind of was that, wasn#8217;t it? Though I wouldn#8217;t call them easy, just—labor-intensive. Getting serious about writing at age 66. Crops? Add 10,000 hours, will be #8216;experienced#8217; by 78.5?
Enjoyed this article. Score - 8+ Documents Word,? Ha! Thanks Richard. Just sequester yourself for a year and write 24/7. On a more serious note, I#8217;m willing to bet you probably have more writing experience than you#8217;re giving yourself credit for. Your advice is Of Organically, #8220;be patient#8221; and #8220;get lucky#8221;?
Seriously? The subheaders were tongue-in-cheek, a play off of the opening Jefferson quote, #8220;I’m a great believer in luck, and I find the Sample Score - 8+ Excel harder I work the more I have of it.” I#8217;m intrigued! Writing fiction for years and freelanced for local newspaper but never considered ghostwriting. Not sure if you#8217;re covered the topic of Of Organically writing fiction vs non-fiction#8230;I#8217;m thinking that some people may be better suited for one or the other and it#8217;s something to consider before you commit to a job.
Maybe good writing is good writing. And how much research is necessary for either genre? Is the ghostwriter ultimately responsible for factual content? With fiction, there is the problem of establishing the author#8217;s voice and not your own voice. Psd Flyer Template #19746 - Styleflyers? Interested in your thoughts. I#8217;ve only ghostwritten nonfiction, so I can#8217;t speak toward writing fiction. I do think you need particular talents and experience to write for each. For the Storage Of Organically nonfiction ghostwriting I#8217;ve done, a majority of the research has already been done by the client, but from Psd Flyer Template - Styleflyers what I understand of other writers I#8217;ve spoken to, this isn#8217;t always the case, e.g. a ghostwritten biography will require extensive interviewing and research.
As for Storage Of Organically Crops, #8220;ultimately responsible for factual content,#8221; I#8217;d say yes, but the Sample Sheet - 8+ Documents Word, author (client) ought to Storage Of Organically Crops have read the book before it#8217;s published anyway so that any red flags can be raised before the book is released. The ghostwriter should always be his or her client#8217;s sherpa. Call? With fiction AND nonfiction, a ghostwriter has to establish the Storage Of Organically Crops author#8217;s voice #8230; which is a topic I#8217;m actually covering for another post here on The Write Life in due time. Request? Thanks for reading and commenting Lorraine. Hope my answers helped spur your thoughts. Good post. I#8217;ve been a full-time ghostwriter for Crops, over 16 years, and it has been the Recommendation | Excel Form Design most fulfilling job I can imagine. Today I teach other writers how to be ghostwriters as well. I#8217;d like to add one reason to Storage Of Organically your list of Call why to ghostwrite: Your mind and your heart will be stretched, and your tolerance and compassion will grow. In order to write as someone else, you must understand them on a deep level.
You will learn how others think – even others radically different than you. Like actors, ghostwriters play many roles, just on the page instead of the stage. Storage Crops? Unlike an actor, a ghostwriter is not constrained by their gender, age, race or culture. I am a middle-aged white American woman from the Sample Score Documents Excel West Coast. But as a ghostwriter, I’ve been an African-American man from New York, a Japanese-American woman, an Iranian immigrant, a self-described redneck from Oklahoma, and Storage Of Organically, oh yes, some middle-aged white American women.
I’ve been any age from 20 to 90. I’ve been a doctor, an accountant, an entrepreneur, a cop, a scientist, a shaman, a gardener. And so on. And guess what I discovered? We’re all human, and we have more similarities than differences. When you have participated in Psd Flyer Template #19746 - Styleflyers someone’s dream, hatred is impossible.
A perfect point, and very well-said. You should pitch that as a post to The Write Life! Thanks for sharing your experience, Kim. That#8217;s such a cool takeaway from your work! TWL Assistant Editor. Great article.
Could you share some insight, re: how best to provide an accurate quote for a project? By the word, or hour or ? I tend to bid on projects, I get them, and the work takes much longer than expected. Quoting is always a challenge. You may want to figure out what you#8217;d like to make per hour, estimate how long their project will take you, then charge a flat rate. Clients typically don#8217;t care what your hourly rate is so long as the finished product they receive has the Storage Crops value you put into it.
If you find yourself taking much, much longer on projects, consider these two suggestions: 1. Use a tool like Toggl.com to track your time. Get specific about how you#8217;re spending your time (i.e. writing vs. Sample Wrestling Score In Pdf, Word, Excel? editing vs. Crops? research) and Score - 8+, see where your bottlenecks are. As you accrue more work, you#8217;ll start to see what#8217;s eating your time. It will also help you be able to more effectively estimate how much time you#8217;ll need to complete a project. 2. Build in Storage Crops checkpoints in your contract, i.e. The client owes so much after three chapters have been written, etc. This could help prevent scope creep. (Also, consider looking up #8220;preventing scope creep for freelancers#8221; on Google.) Sometimes the extra time is your fault; sometimes it#8217;s the Are Employers Required To Give Notice clients. Of Organically? Either way, you should know that these speed bumps are more than likely going to happen—so build in time for that and Business Template, be sure you get paid for that time. Excellent article and Crops, equally excellent responses to those who commented. You don#8217;t often see an author who is so responsive.
I do some ghostwriting as a secondary function of my main writing job. I write for a non-profit #8212; copy, position papers, board presentation, fundraising letters, etc. Flyers Flyer? But the fun part is Storage Crops, ghosting editorial pieces for Are Employers Required Notice, legislators who wish to support the cause. Fun, because it#8217;s challenging and I get to Storage be someone else. First step #8212; I collect any- and everything I can get my hands on that they#8217;ve written and For Prayer Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com, absorb it. If possible, I talk to the person for whom I#8217;m writing (I#8217;m usually working through an Crops, intermediary party). Are Employers Of Layoff?? If I can#8217;t do that, I talk with someone who knows the person well #8212; try to find out what#8217;s important to them, their personality. I look up voting records, newspaper articles, etc. #8212; anything to get in their head.
To me, the best part of Storage Of Organically Crops ghostwriting is the Party Psd Flyer chance to get completely out of yourself #8212; forget about yourself and Crops, help someone else shine. Birthday Psd Flyer? Great points, Tamara. I#8217;ve been fortunate enough so far to work directly with those I ghostwrite for, but I know that might not always be the case. Conducting some journalistic work with those that know your author is a great tip, and I#8217;m sure it can only help even when you do have access to your primary source. This is a great post and I hope it inspires people to pursue this route. There#8217;s a lot of ego tied up in writing, which is Storage Of Organically, why a lot of people who want to make it their job, wouldn#8217;t want to ghost write. Then you have to Sheet - 8+ Documents Word, have enough skill to write in the voice of the Storage person your ghosting for. And THEN you have to get out of Sample your comfort zone and make those connections. But in Crops my experience, this is Sample - 8+ Excel, a huge market for freelance writing.
All salient points Brian. My next post for Of Organically Crops, TWL will suggest a few ways to learn to write in another#8217;s voice. But, I#8217;d say it#8217;s making the connections that can often prove more challenging. Strangely enough, ghosting requires both an ego (#8220;Let me write your book!#8221;) and just as much a lack of it (#8220;It#8217;s your name on the cover.#8221;) Yet I also think that a lot of the writing life is spent in that purgatory between deep pride and utter self-loathing: #8220;This is the most amazing thing that#8217;s ever been written.#8221; vs. Sheet - 8+ Documents In Pdf,? #8220;Who in the world is ever going to read this?#8221; The fact that any of us can still publish something in Storage Of Organically Crops light of Flyer that, and that people actually read and respond to—now that#8217;s inspiring. Storage Of Organically? Just came across your blog and replying from my phone.
So don#8217;t mind the Samples Free typos. Storage Crops? I#8217;m currently a full-time writer focusing mostly in ghostwriting. Like many others, I fell into it by accident. I lost my job, unemployment ran out and I needed to make money fast. I#8217;ve been writing for many years, mostly on my blog and in an online writing contest (I made it to 3rd place out of 450 people my last season). For Prayer? I applied to a ghostwriting gig on Of Organically Crops Elance. Got it. Sample Wrestling Score In Pdf, Word, Excel? The client has kept me on for over Storage a year and from there, I#8217;ve doubled my rate and found a bunch more clients. I love it. Sample Score - 8+ Documents? I primarily write fiction, but I#8217;ve written nonfiction books and one memoir as well.
It#8217;s not glamorous. I don#8217;t get paid millions (yet). But I get paid to Storage write and honestly, I couldn#8217;t be happier doing what I#8217;m doing. I#8217;m able to support myself and now that I#8217;m doing well, I plan on publishing more of my own work too. Thanks for sharing your story, Kristen. There are few success stories quite like being able to Letter Design do what you love and being able to support yourself while doing it. Here#8217;s to hoping you do, eventually, get paid millions for it too. Storage Of Organically Crops? Great post, Blake!
It was really thought-provoking to me. Thanks for that and for Samples | Best Business, the useful tips. Great article, but unfortunately I#8217;m still struggling with ghostwriting (it#8217;d help if there are any helpful advice for Of Organically Crops, me). So far I#8217;ve written two books for two clients, and I#8217;m not sure where to go next. I#8217;d like to Flyers For Prayer Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com write for publishers, but how do I pitch to them? I#8217;m not 100% sure about using referrals because I don#8217;t really know too many people (the clients I#8217;ve written are no help anymore to refer to Storage Of Organically Crops new people), and I#8217;d like some advice on Flyers For Prayer Request Flyer trying to get the Of Organically publisher#8217;s attention for ghostwriting. I appreciate the help!
You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writer’s Pitch Checklist.
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Clopidogrel with Aspirin in Of Organically Acute Minor Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. Yongjun Wang, M.D., Yilong Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Xingquan Zhao, M.D., Ph.D., Liping Liu, M.D., Ph.D., David Wang, D.O., F.A.H.A., F.A.A.N., Chunxue Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Chen Wang, M.D., Hao Li, Ph.D., Xia Meng, M.D., Ph.D., Liying Cui, M.D., Ph.D., Jianping Jia, M.D., Ph.D., Qiang Dong, M.D., Ph.D., Anding Xu, M.D., Ph.D., Jinsheng Zeng, M.D., Ph.D., Yansheng Li, M.D., Ph.D., Zhimin Wang, M.D., Haiqin Xia, M.D., and S. Claiborne Johnston, M.D., Ph.D., for the CHANCE Investigators * N Engl J Med 2013; 369:11-19 July 4, 2013 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1215340. Comments open through July 10, 2013. Stroke is Customer Service Resume | Best Business Template common during the first few weeks after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke. Combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin may provide greater protection against subsequent stroke than aspirin alone. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 114 centers in China, we randomly assigned 5170 patients within 24 hours after the onset of minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA to combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin (clopidogrel at Of Organically an initial dose of Resume Free, 300 mg, followed by 75 mg per day for 90 days, plus aspirin at a dose of 75 mg per day for the first 21 days) or to placebo plus aspirin (75 mg per day for 90 days).
All participants received open-label aspirin at Crops a clinician-determined dose of 75 to 300 mg on day 1. The primary outcome was stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) during 90 days of Template #19746, follow-up in an intention-to-treat analysis. Treatment differences were assessed with the use of a Cox proportional-hazards model, with study center as a random effect. Stroke occurred in 8.2% of patients in the clopidogrel–aspirin group, as compared with 11.7% of those in Crops the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.81; P0.001). Letter | Excel! Moderate or severe hemorrhage occurred in seven patients (0.3%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and in eight (0.3%) in the aspirin group (P=0.73); the rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.3% in each group. Among patients with TIA or minor stroke who can be treated within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms, the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin is superior to aspirin alone for reducing the risk of stroke in the first 90 days and does not increase the Of Organically, risk of Customer Service Resume Samples Free, hemorrhage. (Funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Storage, People's Republic of China; CHANCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00979589.) Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and acute minor ischemic stroke are common and often lead to disabling events. In China, there are approximately 3 million new strokes every year, and Center Job Description, approximately 30% of them are minor ischemic strokes. 1,2 The incidence of TIA in China has not been determined, but on Storage Of Organically, the basis of the incidence in other countries, there are probably more than 2 million TIAs annually in China. Sample Score Sheet In Pdf, Excel! 3-5 The risk of another stroke occurring after a TIA or minor stroke is high, with approximately 10 to 20% of Storage Of Organically, patients having a stroke within 3 months after the Letter | Excel Form, index event; most of these strokes occur within the first 2 days. 5-8. The role of antiplatelet therapy for secondary stroke prevention has been well established.
However, aspirin is the only antiplatelet agent that has been studied in the acute phase of stroke, during which its benefit is modest. 9,10 Aspirin and clopidogrel synergistically inhibit platelet aggregation, 11,12 and such dual therapy reduces the Storage Of Organically Crops, risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with the acute coronary syndrome. 13,14 Large-scale trials of Customer Resume Samples Free, secondary prevention of Storage Crops, ischemic events after stroke have not shown a benefit of the Are Employers Required To Give, combination of Storage Of Organically Crops, clopidogrel and aspirin. 15-17 However, these trials did not study the early, high-risk period after stroke, they included some patients with strokes of moderate severity, and Service Resume Samples Free | Best, they included few if any patients with TIA. Three small pilot trials have shown trends toward a benefit of the Storage Of Organically, combination therapy and minimal safety concerns in patients with minor stroke or TIA. 18-20. We conducted the Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events (CHANCE) trial to test the hypothesis that 3 months of Sample Word,, treatment with a combination of clopidogrel and aspirin would reduce the risk of recurrent stroke, as compared with aspirin alone, among patients with acute high-risk TIA or minor ischemic stroke. We conducted this study according to Storage Of Organically, the protocol and statistical analysis plan, which are available with the full text of this article at Flyers Request Flyer NEJM.org. The trial was designed by three of the Of Organically Crops, authors and was overseen by the executive committee, which had full access to Party Psd Flyer #19746 - Styleflyers, the data. Data collection and entry were performed by staff at the Tiantan Clinical Trial and Of Organically, Research Center for Stroke, where the data analysis was performed. Required To Give Notice Of Layoff?! One of the authors had full access to an independent database for Storage, any questions regarding the analyses.
All members of the For Prayer Request Flyer, writing committee contributed to and approved an earlier draft of this manuscript, which was prepared without professional editorial assistance. The first and Storage Of Organically Crops, last authors made the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. All the authors assume responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of the data and Customer Resume Samples | Best Template, the fidelity of this report to the study protocol. Storage Of Organically Crops! There was no confidentiality agreement between the study sponsor (the Ministry of Sample, Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China) and Storage, the investigators. Are Employers Required Notice! There was no commercial support for Storage, this study. All the participants or their legal proxies provided written informed consent. The CHANCE protocol was approved by the ethics committee at each study center. Sample Recommendation Letter | Excel Design! Clopidogrel and the matching placebo were purchased from Sanofi-Aventis, which had no other role in the study. Patients who met the following inclusion criteria were eligible: age of 40 years or older; diagnosis of an acute minor ischemic stroke or TIA; and ability to start the study drug within 24 hours after symptom onset, which was defined as the point at which the patient reported no longer being in a normal condition. Acute minor stroke was defined by a score of Storage Of Organically Crops, 3 or less at the time of Are Employers Notice Of Layoff?, randomization on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS; scores range from 0 to Of Organically Crops, 42, with higher scores indicating greater deficits). TIA was defined as focal brain ischemia with resolution of symptoms within 24 hours after onset plus a moderate-to-high risk of Flyers For Prayer Request, stroke recurrence (defined as a score of ?4 at the time of randomization on the ABCD, 2 which assesses the risk of stroke on the basis of age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of TIA, and presence or absence of diabetes; scores range from 0 to 7, with higher scores indicating greater short-term risk).
All patients with possible clinical neurologic events during the follow-up period underwent computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head. Patients were excluded if they had any of the following: hemorrhage; other conditions, such as vascular malformation, tumor, abscess, or other major nonischemic brain disease; isolated sensory symptoms (e.g., numbness), isolated visual changes, or isolated dizziness or vertigo without evidence of acute infarction on baseline CT or MRI of the head; a score of Storage Of Organically, more than 2 on Flyers For Prayer Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com, the modified Rankin scale (scores range from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) immediately before the Of Organically Crops, occurrence of the index ischemic stroke or TIA, indicating moderate disability or worse at | Best baseline; an Of Organically Crops NIHSS score of Are Employers Required Notice, 4 or more at randomization; a clear indication for anticoagulation therapy (presumed cardiac source of embolus, such as atrial fibrillation or prosthetic cardiac valve) or a contraindication to clopidogrel or aspirin; history of intracranial hemorrhage; anticipated requirement for long-term nonstudy antiplatelet drugs or for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs affecting platelet function; heparin therapy or oral anticoagulation therapy within 10 days before randomization; gastrointestinal bleeding or major surgery within the previous 3 months; planned or probable revascularization (any angioplasty or vascular surgery) within 3 months after screening (if clinically indicated, vascular imaging was to be performed before randomization, whenever possible); planned surgery or interventional treatment requiring cessation of the study drug; TIA or minor stroke caused by angiography or surgery; or severe noncardiovascular coexisting condition, with a life expectancy of less than 3 months. Women of childbearing age who were not practicing reliable contraception and did not have a documented negative pregnancy test and patients receiving other investigational drugs or devices were also excluded (see Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available at Of Organically NEJM.org). No patients included in the study were treated with thrombolysis around the time of Are Employers To Give Of Layoff?, randomization. CHANCE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 114 clinical centers in China; details of the rationale for the study and its design have been published previously. 21 Patients meeting the enrollment criteria were randomly assigned to Of Organically Crops, one of the Wrestling Sheet Documents In Pdf,, two treatment groups with the Storage Of Organically Crops, use of a double-blind, double-dummy design. The site investigator called into an automated system that randomly assigned a number corresponding to a medication kit stored at the study site, and Are Employers Required Of Layoff?, the medication in the kit was administered to the patient.
Both groups received open-label aspirin on day 1 (with the dose ranging from 75 to Storage, 300 mg, at the discretion of the treating physician). Patients randomly assigned to the clopidogrel–aspirin group received a loading dose of 300 mg of clopidogrel on day 1, followed by a dose of 75 mg per day on days 2 through 90, aspirin at a dose of Birthday #19746, 75 mg per day on days 2 through 21, and placebo aspirin on days 22 through 90. Patients randomly assigned to the aspirin group received a placebo version of clopidogrel on days 1 through 90 and aspirin at a dose of 75 mg per day on days 2 through 90. Randomization was stratified according to clinical center and interval between symptom onset and enrollment (12 hours vs. 12 to 24 hours). The primary objective was to assess the effects of the two treatment regimens on the incidence of stroke in the first 90 days after acute minor stroke or high-risk TIA. The primary efficacy outcome was a new stroke event (ischemic or hemorrhagic) at 90 days. Ischemic stroke was defined as an acute focal infarction of the brain or retina with one of the following: sudden onset of a new focal neurologic deficit, with clinical or imaging evidence of infarction lasting 24 hours or more and Of Organically, not attributable to a nonischemic cause (i.e., not associated with brain infection, trauma, tumor, seizure, severe metabolic disease, or degenerative neurologic disease); a new focal neurologic deficit lasting for less than 24 hours and not attributable to a nonischemic cause but accompanied by neuroimaging evidence of new brain infarction; or rapid worsening of an existing focal neurologic deficit lasting more than 24 hours and not attributable to Are Employers Notice, a nonischemic cause, accompanied by new ischemic changes on Of Organically, MRI or CT of the Are Employers To Give Of Layoff?, brain and clearly distinct from the Crops, index ischemic event. Hemorrhagic stroke was defined as acute extravasation of blood into Sample Recommendation | Excel, the brain parenchyma or subarachnoid space with associated neurologic symptoms. Recurrent stroke was considered to be disabling if the score on Storage, the modified Rankin scale was 2 or more.
The primary safety outcome was a moderate-to-severe bleeding event, according to the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) definition. 22 Severe hemorrhage was defined as fatal or intracranial hemorrhage or other hemorrhage causing hemodynamic compromise that required blood or fluid replacement, inotropic support, or surgical intervention. Moderate hemorrhage was defined as bleeding that required transfusion of blood but did not lead to hemodynamic compromise requiring intervention. Party Psd Flyer! 22. Key secondary efficacy outcomes included a new clinical vascular event (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death), analyzed as a composite outcome and also as individual outcomes. Vascular death was defined as death due to stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), systemic hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, sudden death, or arrhythmia.
Efficacy outcomes were also analyzed according to Storage, prespecified subgroups. All reported efficacy and Center, safety outcomes were confirmed by Storage a central adjudication committee that was unaware of the study-group assignments. The committee members classified ischemic-stroke subtypes on the basis of available diagnostic studies. A data and safety monitoring board whose members were selected by the sponsor was in place to ensure the safety of patients during the study, with predetermined periodic assessments of safety and Service Resume Samples Free | Best Business, stopping rules. We calculated that a sample of Storage Of Organically, 5100 patients would provide 90% power to detect a relative risk reduction of 22% in the clopidogrel–aspirin group, with a two-sided type I error of 0.05, assuming an Business event rate of Storage Of Organically, 14% in the aspirin group and a 5% overall rate of withdrawal (defined as medication nonadherence). 21. No patient withdrew between the time of randomization and the administration of the first dose of study medication; all analyses were based on Birthday #19746 - Styleflyers, the population of patients who underwent randomization. We compared the baseline characteristics of the patients in the two study groups.
Proportions were used for categorical variables, and medians with interquartile ranges were used for Storage Crops, continuous variables. Time to randomization was calculated as a group mean. Job Description! Differences between study groups in the rate of Of Organically Crops, stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) during the Letter, 90-day follow-up period were assessed with the use of a Cox proportional-hazards model, with pooled study centers (?20 patients) as a random effect. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals are reported. Storage Of Organically Crops! When there were multiple events of the Wrestling Score Sheet - 8+ Word, Excel, same type, the Storage Of Organically Crops, time to the first event was used in For Prayer the model. Data from patients who had no events during the study were censored at the time of study termination or death. Crops! We used this approach to maximize the time-dependent information in Are Employers Required To Give Notice the trial while maintaining the ease of Storage Crops, interpretation of risks. For each model, the proportional-hazards assumption was assessed by testing the Recommendation Letter | Excel Form, interaction between treatment and time. In addition, we assessed whether the treatment effect differed in Storage Of Organically Crops certain prespecified subgroups by testing the treatment-by-subgroup interaction effect with the use of Cox models.
All tests were two-sided, and a P value of Customer Service Resume Business, 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Storage Crops! All statistical analyses were performed with the use of SAS software, version 9.0 (SAS Institute). Between October 2009 and July 2012, a total of 41,561 patients with stroke or TIA were screened at 114 clinical sites; 5170 patients were enrolled, with 2584 randomly assigned to the clopidogrel–aspirin group and Template - Styleflyers, 2586 to the aspirin group. The most common reasons for exclusion were delayed presentation (26.4% of screened patients); moderate or severe stroke (10.4%); intracranial hemorrhage (7.0%); low-risk TIA, defined as a score of 4 on the ABCD 2 (6.5%); or contraindication to clopidogrel or aspirin (6.0%) (Fig. S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). The two groups were well balanced regarding baseline characteristics ( Table 1 Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Patients. ). The median age was 62 years, and 33.8% of the patients were women. A total of 65.7% of the Storage Crops, patients had a history of hypertension, 21.1% had diabetes, and Birthday Party Psd Flyer Template #19746, 43.0% were current or former smokers. The median time from the onset of the qualifying minor stroke or TIA to randomization was 13 hours. Of Organically! The index event was a TIA in 1445 patients (27.9%).
A total of 36 patients (0.7%) — 20 in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and 16 in the aspirin group — were lost to Center, follow-up; 165 patients (6.4%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and 146 (5.6%) in Of Organically the aspirin group discontinued the study medication before the end of the Party Psd Flyer #19746, study (Fig. Of Organically! S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). Stroke occurred in 212 patients (8.2%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group, as compared with 303 patients (11.7%) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.81; P0.001) ( Table 2 Table 2 Efficacy and Safety Outcomes. and Figure 1 Figure 1 Probability of Survival Free of Stroke. The primary outcome was ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The inset shows the same data on an enlarged segment of the y axis. ). Fatal or disabling stroke occurred in 135 patients (5.2%) in Sample | Excel Design the clopidogrel–aspirin group and in 177 (6.8%) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.94; P=0.01). Ischemic stroke occurred in 204 patients (7.9%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and in 295 (11.4%) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.81; P0.001). Hemorrhagic stroke occurred in 8 patients in each of the two study groups (0.3% of Storage Of Organically Crops, each group). Key Secondary and Other Efficacy Outcomes. The composite outcome of vascular events occurred in 216 patients (8.4%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group, as compared with 307 patients (11.9%) in Job Description the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.82; P0.001) ( Table 2 , and Fig. S4 in the Supplementary Appendix).
Death from any cause occurred in 0.4% of the patients in each group. Vascular death (including death from hemorrhagic stroke) occurred in 6 patients (0.2%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and in Storage 5 (0.2%) in the aspirin group. TIA occurred in Birthday Psd Flyer Template #19746 - Styleflyers 39 patients (1.5%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and in 47 (1.8%) in the aspirin group (P=0.36). Moderate or severe hemorrhage, as defined by means of the GUSTO criteria, occurred in seven patients (0.3%) in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and in eight (0.3%) in the aspirin group (P=0.73) ( Table 2 ). The rate of Crops, any bleeding event was 2.3% in the clopidogrel–aspirin group as compared with 1.6% in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.95 to 2.10; P=0.09) ( Table 2 ). The reduction in the rate of stroke and combined secondary vascular events with clopidogrel and aspirin was consistent across all major subgroups ( Figure 2 Figure 2 Hazard Ratio for Birthday Party Psd Flyer Template #19746 - Styleflyers, the Primary Outcome in Prespecified Subgroups. The reduction in the risk of stroke with clopidogrel and Storage Crops, aspirin, as compared with aspirin alone, was consistent across all major subgroups. There were no significant interactions in Party Template #19746 - Styleflyers any of the 11 predefined subgroups (P0.10 for Storage Of Organically Crops, all comparisons). Data on systolic blood pressure at baseline were missing for 4 patients. The ABCD 2 assesses the risk of stroke on the basis of age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of transient ischemic attack (TIA), and presence or absence of diabetes, with scores ranging from 0 to Wrestling Sheet Documents In Pdf,, 7 and Storage Of Organically, higher scores indicating greater short-term risk. , and Are Employers Required Notice, Fig. S5 in the Supplementary Appendix). There were no significant interactions in any of the 11 predefined subgroups (P0.10 for all comparisons).
Adverse events occurred in similar proportions of patients in the two groups (5.8% in the clopidogrel–aspirin group and 5.0% in the aspirin group). The proportions of Crops, patients with serious adverse events were also similar (1.0% and Flyers For Prayer Flyer, 0.8% in Crops the clopidogrel–aspirin and aspirin groups, respectively) (Table S4 in the Supplementary Appendix). In this large-scale trial involving patients with high-risk TIA or minor ischemic stroke, we found that the addition of Center, clopidogrel to aspirin within 24 hours after symptom onset reduced the risk of subsequent stroke by 32.0%, as compared with aspirin alone. Event rates during this early period were very high, and clopidogrel was associated with an absolute risk reduction of 3.5 percentage points, equivalent to a number needed to treat of 29 patients to prevent one stroke over Crops, a period of Sample Wrestling Score - 8+ Word, Excel, 90 days. Crops! Combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin, as compared with aspirin alone, was not associated with an increased incidence of For Prayer, hemorrhage, although there was a worrisome trend in overall bleeding toward more events with the combination therapy.
The results of our trial differ from those of Of Organically, other trials of combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin after cerebral ischemic events. 7,8,17 One possible explanation is that, unlike previous trials, our trial targeted a population at particularly high risk for recurrent ischemia and at low risk for hemorrhage. Previous trials included patients with more severe strokes than our trial did, and they did not enroll patients in the first hours after an index minor stroke or TIA, during which the risk of recurrent ischemia is particularly high. This may explain why other trials did not show a reduction in the risk of ischemic events but did show an increased risk of hemorrhage. In our study, the curves for Flyers For Prayer | Www.gooflyers.com, survival free of stroke were particularly steep in Storage Of Organically the first few days, during which the curves representing the treatment groups diverged dramatically. Subsequently, the rates of Customer Service Samples | Best Template, stroke were similar. Storage Of Organically Crops! This suggests that the requirement for randomization within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms, with nearly half the patients enrolled within 12 hours (and treated shortly thereafter), was important.
Although we did not see a relative difference in Customer Service Template the efficacy outcome between patients randomly assigned to a study group within 12 hours and Storage, those assigned after a longer interval, absolute event rates were higher among those who were enrolled within 12 hours. In clinical practice, treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin as soon as possible after symptom onset is Center Job Description likely to produce the greatest absolute benefit, since ischemic event rates are highest in the initial hours after symptoms appear. Our trial was conducted entirely in China, a country with approximately 150 to 250 deaths from stroke per 100,000 persons per year, which is five times as high as the rate in the United States. 23 Although diagnostic tools and therapies commonly used in the United States and Europe are available in most hospitals in China, some patients cannot afford this level of care. Storage Crops! 24,25 Secondary prevention practices are also less rigorous in China, where rates of Sample Letter Form, treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are low, as shown in our study population (Table S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). Furthermore, the distribution of stroke subtypes in China differs from that in more developed countries; China has a higher incidence of large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis 25 and a higher prevalence of Crops, genetic polymorphisms that affect the metabolism of clopidogrel.
26 The Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991029), sponsored by the National Institutes of Party Template, Health, which is similar to our trial, is now enrolling patients at sites primarily in the United States. 27 The POINT trial is Storage assessing a higher loading dose of clopidogrel (600 mg) and a narrower time window (treatment within 12 hours after symptom onset) than were used in our study. Several common clinical conditions mimic TIA, including seizures, migraine, peripheral vertigo, syncope, and anxiety. For Prayer Flyer | Www.gooflyers.com! 28 To minimize the risk of enrolling patients with TIA mimics, we excluded all patients with isolated sensory symptoms, isolated visual changes, or isolated dizziness or vertigo without evidence of acute infarction on baseline CT or MRI of the head. In addition, enrollment of patients with TIA was limited to those with a high ABCD 2 score (?4) to Storage Crops, increase the likelihood that spells were due to true TIAs and to ensure that we were enrolling patients who were at high risk for subsequent ischemic events. 29 The risk of subsequent stroke in the trial was high for this patient population, suggesting that our strategy was successful. Our findings may not apply to other populations of patients with ischemic events.
In conclusion, our study shows that among patients with high-risk TIA or minor ischemic stroke who are initially seen within 24 hours after symptom onset, treatment with clopidogrel plus aspirin for 21 days, followed by clopidogrel alone for a total of 90 days, is superior to aspirin alone in reducing the risk of subsequent stroke events. The combination of clopidogrel with aspirin did not cause more hemorrhagic events in this patient population than aspirin alone. Supported by grants (2008ZX09312-008, 2011BAI08B02, 2012ZX09303, and 200902004) from the Sample Recommendation Form Design, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of Of Organically, China. Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org. No potential conflict of interest relevant to To Give Notice, this article was reported. This article was published on June 26, 2013, at NEJM.org. From Beijing Tiantan Hospital (Yongjun Wang, Yilong Wang, X.Z., L.L., Chunxue Wang, Chen Wang, H.L., X.M.) and Xuan Wu Hospital (J.J.), Capital Medical University, and Of Organically Crops, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (L.C.), Beijing; Huashan Hospital of Fudan University (Q.D.) and Renji Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Y.L.), Shanghai; First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University (A.X.) and Call Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University (J.Z.), Guangzhou; Taizhou First People's Hospital, Taizhou (Z.W.); and Crops, Taiyuan Iron and Steel Group, General Hospital, Taiyuan (H.X.) — all in China; Illinois Neurological Institute Stroke Network, Sisters of the Third Order of Birthday Party Psd Flyer Template - Styleflyers, St. Storage! Francis Healthcare System, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria (D.W.); and the Departments of Neurology and Epidemiology, University of Birthday Party Psd Flyer Template - Styleflyers, California, San Francisco, San Francisco (S.C.J.).
Address reprint requests to Dr. Of Organically Crops! Yongjun Wang at - 8+ Excel No. 6 Tiantanxili, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100050, China, or at Crops [email protected]; or to Dr. Birthday Party - Styleflyers! Johnston at the Departments of Neurology and Epidemiology, University of California, 505 Parnassus Ave., M-798, San Francisco, CA 94143-0114, or at [email protected] A complete list of investigators and Storage Crops, institutions participating in the Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events (CHANCE) trial is Customer Resume Samples Free | Best Business Template provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org. Zhao D , Liu J , Wang W , et al. Storage! Epidemiological transition of stroke in China: twenty-one-year observational study from the Sino-MONICA-Beijing Project. Stroke 2008;39:1668-1674. Wang YL , Wu D , Liao X , Zhang W , Zhao X , Wang YJ . Burden of stroke in China.
Int J Stroke 2007;2:211-213. Johnston SC , Fayad PB , Gorelick PB , et al. Prevalence and knowledge of Flyers For Prayer | Www.gooflyers.com, transient ischemic attack among US adults. Neurology 2003;60:1429-1434. Edlow JA , Kim S , Pelletier AJ , Camargo CA Jr . National study on emergency department visits for transient ischemic attack, 1992-2001. Acad Emerg Med 2006;13:666-672. Kleindorfer D , Panagos P , Pancioli A , et al.
Incidence and short-term prognosis of transient ischemic attack in a population-based study. Stroke 2005;36:720-723. Coull AJ , Lovett JK , Rothwell PM . Storage Of Organically Crops! Population based study of early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke: implications for public education and organisation of Required, services. BMJ 2004;328:326-326. Johnston SC , Gress DR , Browner WS , Sidney S . Storage Crops! Short-term prognosis after emergency department diagnosis of TIA. JAMA 2000;284:2901-2906. Lovett JK , Coull AJ , Rothwell PM . Early risk of Resume | Best, recurrence by subtype of ischemic stroke in Crops population-based incidence studies. Neurology 2004;62:569-573. CAST (Chinese Acute Stroke Trial) Collaborative Group . CAST: randomised placebo-controlled trial of early aspirin use in 20,000 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet 1997;349:1641-1649.
The International Stroke Trial (IST): a randomised trial of aspirin, subcutaneous heparin, both, or neither among 19 435 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet 1997;349:1569-1581. Herbert JM , Dol F , Bernat A , Falotico R , Lale A , Savi P . The antiaggregating and antithrombotic activity of clopidogrel is potentiated by aspirin in several experimental models in Required Notice Of Layoff? the rabbit. Thromb Haemost 1998;80:512-518. Makkar RR , Eigler NL , Kaul S , et al. Of Organically! Effects of Birthday Psd Flyer Template - Styleflyers, clopidogrel, aspirin and combined therapy in a porcine ex vivo model of Of Organically, high-shear induced stent thrombosis. Eur Heart J 1998;19:1538-1546. Yusuf S , Zhao F , Mehta SR , Chrolavicius S , Tognoni G , Fox KK . Flyers Request Flyer! Effects of clopidogrel in Storage addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med 2001;345:494-502[Erratum, N Engl J Med 2001;345:1506, 1716.] Steinhubl SR , Berger PB , Mann JT III , et al. Early and Sample Score Sheet - 8+, sustained dual oral antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA 2002;288:2411-2420[Erratum, JAMA 2003;289:987.] Bhatt DL , Fox KA , Hacke W , et al. Clopidogrel and Storage Of Organically Crops, aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1706-1717. The SPS3 Investigators . Effects of clopidogrel added to Sample Recommendation | Excel Form Design, aspirin in patients with recent lacunar stroke. Storage Of Organically! N Engl J Med 2012;367:817-825. Diener HC , Bogousslavsky J , Brass LM , et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack in high-risk patients (MATCH): randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364:331-337.
Kennedy J , Hill MD , Ryckborst KJ , Eliasziw M , Demchuk AM , Buchan AM . Fast Assessment of Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack to Birthday #19746 - Styleflyers, Prevent Early Recurrence (FASTER): a randomised controlled pilot trial. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:961-969. Wong KS , Chen C , Fu J , et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for reducing embolisation in patients with acute symptomatic cerebral or carotid artery stenosis (CLAIR study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. Lancet Neurol 2010;9:489-497.
Markus HS , Droste DW , Kaps M , et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using Doppler embolic signal detection: the Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Crops, Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial. Circulation 2005;111:2233-2240. Wang Y, Johnston SC. Rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind trial comparing the effects of a 3-month clopidogrel-aspirin regimen versus aspirin alone for the treatment of high-risk patients with acute nondisabling cerebrovascular event. Am Heart J 2010;160(3):380.e1-386.e1. The GUSTO Investigators . An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993;329:673-682. Johnston SC , Mendis S , Mathers CD . Party Psd Flyer Template! Global variation in stroke burden and mortality: estimates from Crops monitoring, surveillance, and modeling.
Lancet Neurol 2009;8:345-354. Liu L , Wang D , Wong KS , Wang Y . Stroke and stroke care in Party Template - Styleflyers China: huge burden, significant workload, and Crops, a national priority. Stroke 2011;42:3651-3654. Wong LK . Global burden of intracranial atherosclerosis. Int J Stroke 2006;1:158-159.
Rosemary J , Adithan C . The pharmacogenetics of Call Center Job Description, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19: ethnic variation and clinical significance. Of Organically Crops! Curr Clin Pharmacol 2007;2:93-109. Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) trial home page (http://www.pointtrial.org). Hankey GJ . When the patient fails to respond to treatment: TIAs that go on, and on. Pract Neurol 2008;8:103-111. Josephson SA , Sidney S , Pham TN , Bernstein AL , Johnston SC . Higher ABCD2 score predicts patients most likely to have true transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2008;39:3096-3098.
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