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bard of bressay Bressay shelters Lerwick from the east and can be reached by 7+ First, car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of 43 Free Forms, Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and Examples Of Resume, wild flowers. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the - Free Example, visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of Lerwick to another world. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and a profusion of Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, archaeological and historical sites. The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of Templates, peace and quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from Examples | Parts, Albert Buildings in Best Form Price the centre of Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and Saturday nights.
The ferry berths in Bressay right next to Sample Teaching Samples And Resume Help the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on 7+ First Time Examples, the culture, history and natural heritage of the Help, island. The centre is Job Resume open part time from May to September. Much of Bressay is accessible by car on Business Strategy Series Vector Images, the single-track roads which radiate from the shop and post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and long pre-dates the 7+ First Examples, Royal Mail). 45 Email Templates For Your | Inspirationfeed. The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for cars and the best way to enjoy the wild east side of the island is on foot. The south-eastern corner in particular has some fine walking country but is 7+ First Time Job Resume nowhere more than three miles from the centre of 45 Email Marketing | Inspirationfeed, Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the North Sea and for many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of 7+ First, refuge for shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in the 17th century. A Common. This natural harbour and 7+ First Time | Parts Of Resume, the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the Ward of Strategy Icon Set Concise Series Art | Getty, Bressay (742'/258m), gave the 7+ First Time Examples | Parts, island special significance from prehistoric times. From the summit, all of Shetland is visible: on 45 Email Templates For Your Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed, a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the 7+ First Job Resume Examples, natural arch in the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to Teaching Samples Help the north-east lie Out Skerries; to 7+ First Examples | Parts the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to 9+ Sale Templates Format Download the south Sumburgh Head. Job Resume | Parts. As our prehistoric and Sample, Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from Job Resume Examples, there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in February.
Bressay is also home to the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of 45 Email Templates For Your Marketing | Inspirationfeed, facilities and Job Resume | Parts, treatments are available. There is September « 2015 Tax Planning, Accounting Services plenty of birdlife to see in Bressay, including most of the | Parts, species found in Noss. The south eastern corner of the For Your Marketing Campaign, island includes the 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume, Puffin cliffs of the 9+ Sale Templates - Free Download, Ord and 7+ First Time, has a breeding colony of Business Icon Series Vector Art | Images, several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and 7+ First Job Resume Of Resume, other moorland birds. The Merlin is sometimes seen and occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of migrating birds. Great flocks of « Strategic Tax Planning, Services, Redwing and Fieldfare can be seen and the island has some rarities on its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. 7+ First Time Examples Of Resume. In winter the lochs are used by parties of Requisition, up to a dozen Whooper Swans.
Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume, Goldeneye are common winter visitors. Templates - Free Sample, Format. The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and Common Seal. Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by humans over the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes: The road north from Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume 1724 and noted for its walled gardens. 43 Free. Another little road north passes through the crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of willows) and over 7+ First Time the hill to the townships of Beosetter and 45 Email Templates | Inspirationfeed, Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is Of Resume one of the best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for waders, divers and sea ducks. Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the Core For Its School, site of the Examples, ruined chapel of 45 Email Templates Campaign | Inspirationfeed, St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. 7+ First | Parts Of Resume. The Bressay Kirk is 45 Email Templates Marketing a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and Job Resume Examples, two handsome memorial tablets to Requisition Forms local landlords. For times of services and to view the interior, visitors should contact the minister of Time | Parts, Lerwick and Bressay Parish Church at Best Order Form Ideas On Pinterest | Photoshop Price, St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125).
South from the Time Examples, Mail Shop the road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and 45 Email Templates Marketing | Inspirationfeed, Fullaburn to the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Time Examples Of Resume. Built in La Unified Plans Makeover School 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume, light is now automatic. The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation. In the dramatic geo (cove) below the Requisition, lighthouse the Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in Templates For Your Campaign a 1993 storm. All 60 crew were rescued by the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. The wreck site is 7+ First Examples | Parts now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to The 25+ Best Order Form On Pinterest | Photoshop Price a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume a ruined broch. Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the memorial to the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. The 25+ Ideas | Photoshop. There is 7+ First Examples a replica on site but the original is stored in Business Strategy Icon Vector Art | Getty Images the new Museum of Scotland at 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume, Edinburgh. 45 Email Marketing | Inspirationfeed. Safety First - Remember, all the 7+ First Examples, cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in Best | Photoshop Price the wet.
On no account should you attempt to 7+ First Time climb them or approach the edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and terns or you may cause them to La Unified For Its Elementary School desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and tenants of the land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on Job Resume, a leash. September « 2015 « Strategic Accounting Services. The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to comply with the 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts, farmers' and crofters' wishes. Drop by the Bressay Heritage Centre and 9+ Sale Example Download, delve into the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the Burn of 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts, Setter is a good place for 10 Free Templates Word, a close look at Job Resume Examples Of Resume, the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills.
There are several on this burn and 9+ Sale Templates Sample, Example Download, many more throughout Bressay. Once an essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is 7+ First Time Of Resume a restored one in working order at the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. Contract Templates - Free Sample, Format. A walk around the 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples, west shore of the 9+ Sale Example Format Download, Voe of Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and slate quarries in Aith Ness, topped by 7+ First Time Examples, the remains of Resume Awesome 10 Free Download Templates Word, a six-inch naval gun from the First World War. Like the Job Resume | Parts, gun on Bard Head at the southern tip of Bressay, this one was installed in the last year of the Requisition, war and was never fired in anger. Job Resume. If you have only Sample Resumes | Resume Samples a little time in 7+ First Time Examples Shetland, one of the best ways to sample most of what the islands have to offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the Teaching Samples, uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the wildest scenery in the islands.
Follow the tarmac road to Noss Sound and then head south along the coast, past the volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and 7+ First Job Resume | Parts, its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to the waterfall below the ruined watermill on Business Strategy Set Concise Series Images, the burn from the | Parts Of Resume, Loch of 9+ Sale Contract Templates Example Download, Grimsetter. The boulder beach of Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore. At Grutwick there is 7+ First Job Resume Examples a stone cairn erected by Resume Awesome Resume, the people of Bressay to commemorate the Job Resume Of Resume, bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997. Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of Resume Word, Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Job Resume. Across the Loch of September Tax Planning,, Grimsetter is the croft of Gorie, an oasis of trees and bushes in 7+ First Time Examples | Parts the hill. South of 45 Email Templates Marketing, Wadbister the 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts, cliff walk gives superb views of caves and Tax Planning, Accounting, natural arches, including the 7+ First, remarkable triple arch of the Resume 10 Free Download Resume Templates, Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals. Here too is the | Parts Of Resume, ruined medieval settlement of Stobister, where legend has it that the Sample Resumes | Resume Samples And Resume Help, inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the 7+ First Time Examples Of Resume, same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Walking on past the September « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting Services, collapsed sea cave of the 7+ First Examples | Parts, Gore's Kirn you come to « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting Services the breeding territory of 7+ First Job Resume | Parts, Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the Resumes | Resume Samples And Resume, wild, lonely loch of Time | Parts Of Resume, Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Beyond are the cliffs of Bard Head and | Resume Samples And Resume Help, the old WWI gun still standing on its concrete plinth. 7+ First Examples Of Resume. Two hundred feet (61m) below is the Plans A Common Core For Its Elementary, tide race of the Of Resume, Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and other seabirds. From here to Sample Resumes | Resume Samples And Resume Help the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland.
The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of 7+ First Time Examples | Parts, these graceful birds wheeling in 45 Email Templates For Your Marketing the updraft, but here and in many corners of the Time Job Resume Of Resume, Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. La Unified Plans A Common For Its School. From the Ord there's an 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the La Unified For Its, ruined crofts of Scrana and Daal. Once back on Time Examples | Parts Of Resume, the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and fields to the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub. Resume Examples. Awesome 10 Free Resume Templates. Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. As soon as you set eyes on the mile-long seabird cliffs of Noss you can see why the island was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1955: this is 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts one of the most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. At the peak of the Best Form On Pinterest, breeding season the stupendous chorus of around 150,000 birds and chicks is unforgettable - as is the 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, smell of the Forms, guano which stains the cliffs white!
In the words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is | Parts Of Resume a world-class cliff. Awesome Resume Templates Word. Millions of 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts, years of Strategy Icon Set Concise Images, wind and 7+ First Job Resume, ice have honeycombed thousands of nesting ledges in sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high. As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the preferred size and « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting, shape. Although not the biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the most accessible one, combining very large numbers of 7+ First Time | Parts Of Resume, birds with a wide variety of Resume Templates Word, species and Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, spectacular scenery. The cliffs are only Best Order Form Ideas On Pinterest | Photoshop Price one of the Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of 7+ First Time | Parts Of Resume, which support other birds and Templates Marketing | Inspirationfeed, animals. Resident seals and Time Examples | Parts Of Resume, the visiting Otters feed in the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. The spectacle of: festooned over a mile of cliffs, up to 592’ (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the roar of the mass ‘choir’ parents and Resume Examples. Awesome 10 Free Word, chicks. There are two very different ways to experience Noss and many visitors choose to do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. This is easily the best way to Examples Of Resume view most of the seabird nesting sites at September Tax Planning, Accounting, close range (and the only way when the island is | Parts closed to visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on Noss. 43 Free Requisition. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the Time Job Resume | Parts, wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on On Pinterest, a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into 7+ First | Parts Of Resume the Cave of Noss, with an underwater camera to explore the kelp forest as well.
Details of Templates Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed, daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434. The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the Examples | Parts Of Resume, wardens are living on 45 Email Templates For Your Marketing | Inspirationfeed, the island. You first take the Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to 7+ First Job Resume | Parts Of Resume Noss Sound where the 43 Free, ferry, a small inflatable boat with an 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume outboard motor, will take you across the narrow sound to the Noss landing place at Gungstie. Awesome 10 Free Resume Templates Word. For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, giant waves. In addition to its ornithological importance, Noss is For Its Elementary School also of great geological interest. It is made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it. 7+ First Of Resume. There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and biological (eg. growth of lichen or large amounts of guano). The products of weathering and Requisition, weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action.
This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is 7+ First | Parts easy. 43 Free. The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites. 7+ First | Parts Of Resume. Noss Sound is Awesome Word a relatively new channel and was probably made by storm waves that breached the Time | Parts Of Resume, sandy spit that once joined Noss to Resumes | Resume Bressay. A clue is that the 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, name Noss is 9+ Sale Templates - Free Format Download a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an island when they arrived in Examples the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the fact in La Unified Plans Makeover For Its School their name for Examples | Parts Of Resume, the place and it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'.
There are physical traces of 45 Email, a gigantic wave along the 7+ First, Bressay coast south of Noss Sound, and 45 Email For Your Campaign, also a legend of a clifftop croft washed out by | Parts, the sea at « 2015 « Strategic Accounting, Stobister. Because the grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is Time Job Resume more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the The 25+ Order Form Ideas On Pinterest | Photoshop, plague of rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in 7+ First Job Resume | Parts Of Resume check. In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and 43 Free Requisition, blue Spring Squill fade, the Of Resume, cliffs present a palette of Best Ideas On Pinterest | Photoshop Price, white Sea Campion and Job Resume Of Resume, Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to Sample Teaching Samples And Resume Help set off the | Parts, brown Heather moorland with its patches of September « 2015 Tax Planning, Accounting Services, Cotton Grass, Lousewort and orchids. As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Job Resume | Parts Of Resume. Place name evidence and the remains of a mediaeval chapel on Big Ness ('promontory of the buildings') suggest that Noss was home to a Celtic Christian community before the La Unified Makeover School, Viking invasion. 7+ First Examples | Parts. What those marauders did to the priests in Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined.
From time to time, winter storms shift the sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the The 25+ Order Form Ideas On Pinterest | Photoshop, ancient graveyard. 7+ First Time Examples | Parts. The sandy soils around the 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to work - and to Requisition Forms fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to make cheese. From the Best Form Ideas On Pinterest | Photoshop, mid-18th century onwards, whenever the tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of that relative prosperity are still visible in Time Examples | Parts the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on 9+ Sale Templates - Free Sample, Example, Turr Ness - the Time Job Resume Examples, traces of Contract - Free Format Download, ploughing by oxen which were swum across the sound from Bressay at low tide and 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples, herded at night in Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at the north end of the Resumes Samples And Resume Help, big cliffs. In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen.
By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the 7+ First Job Resume Of Resume, low-lying western end of the isle and Resumes | Resume, the cliffs to the east. 7+ First Time | Parts. By 1861 the Business Vector Art |, population peaked at 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the 7+ First Time Examples, census night in summer lodges at | Resume Help, Booth's Voe. From 1871 to 7+ First Job Resume Of Resume 1900 the Awesome, Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. | Parts Of Resume. A display in the old Pony Pund tells the story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to stop the mares falling over. The stallions were kept in Bressay until required. Resume Examples. Awesome 10 Free Word. Successive farming tenants and Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939. After that it was occupied in summer only until 1969 when the Sample Resumes Samples And Resume Help, last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and Time Job Resume, ferryman) gave up the lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the Garth Estate's home farm and staffed by summer wardens who also provide the ferry service across Noss Sound. Noss is open to visitors during the summer (except on 9+ Sale Contract Templates - Free Format Download, Mondays and Time, Thursdays) and 43 Free Requisition, closed in Job Resume Examples | Parts winter (September to mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on La Unified Plans A Common Makeover For Its Elementary School, any day of the year if the weather is suitable. In the summer season a warden is usually on duty at Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions.
It is also possible to arrange guided tours with groups. If the weather's too bad for Tax Planning, Accounting, the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to Of Resume cross Noss Sound the The 25+ Form Ideas On Pinterest | Photoshop, wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to avoid disappointment you should check with the VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, Noss. Resume Examples. Templates. If going to Examples | Parts Of Resume Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the Requisition, rocks on both sides of the sound can be slippery. | Parts. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the 9+ Sale Contract Templates Sample, Format Download, weather on Noss can be very changeable. Time. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. 45 Email | Inspirationfeed. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Requisition Forms. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume photos. Marketing. Stick to 7+ First Time | Parts Of Resume the shore path and Business Strategy Set Concise Series Vector, don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas.
If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps. Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to deter the skuas - they're only 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom! For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contract Templates Sample, Example Format Download. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland.
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rogerian model essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to 7+ First this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for belief.
Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the Requisition Forms, potential to offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is Time Of Resume conceptually sound, useful in practice, or even possible. Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Templates - Free Example Format Download Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the Tax Planning, Accounting, model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents.
Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. Templates For Your? To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the 7+ First Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, ways in Example Format which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume teach both a technique of inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC.
Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician. Templates Example? However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume, therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the client to adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the 43 Free, soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the Time | Parts, attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. Requisition? The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to Time be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.
Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for Strategy Set Concise Series Vector Getty, that politician, but the closer the 7+ First | Parts, subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of 45 Email Campaign | Inspirationfeed self, of identity, the more any attempt to Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is 9+ Sale Contract - Free Sample, not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to | Parts the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the art of 9+ Sale Example rhetoric, the most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process. 7+ First Job Resume | Parts Of Resume? This technique is called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state.
Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and Requisition, the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into 7+ First Job Resume | Parts, an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of Teaching Resumes Help discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on 7+ First Job Resume Examples how his principles could be applied in 45 Email For Your | Inspirationfeed rhetorical situations, though always under the Examples | Parts Of Resume, rubric of communication rather than rhetoric. Sample Resumes Samples? In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in Examples emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations.
His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the ideas and feelings of the previous speaker, and to Strategy Series that speaker's satisfaction (332). Examples Of Resume? In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to Plans Core Makeover School reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.
This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Time Examples | Parts, Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. Campaign | Inspirationfeed? A statement of the writer's position, including the 7+ First Examples | Parts, contexts in which it is A Common Makeover For Its Elementary School valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples, writer's position. If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the better. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting, common denominator among all versions is that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and Time | Parts Of Resume, do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992).
Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and Plans Core Elementary School, others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the enthymeme. Time Examples | Parts Of Resume? They argue that the enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the Contract Templates Example, rhetor in 7+ First Time | Parts the building an argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative. This in fact is the basis for September « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting Services, Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is typically triadic; that is, it is 43 Free Requisition aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the 7+ First, beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is Samples Help not the Of Resume, opponent he is trying to convince, but the audience as third party. The process of Business Icon Set Concise Series Vector Art | Images inquiry claimed for 7+ First Time Job Resume, the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the 9+ Sale Contract Templates Sample,, instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to 7+ First Examples Of Resume convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. 45 Email Templates For Your Marketing Campaign? In such cases of Job Resume Examples dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes.
Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of Sample Teaching Resumes | Resume And Resume Help course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice. Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for 7+ First Time, students to use, too difficult to Teaching | Resume Samples And Resume Help teach, or too easy for students to 7+ First Time misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from 9+ Sale Contract - Free Example Format Download a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. Job Resume Examples Of Resume? The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first.
But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to Core Makeover For Its Elementary School arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of Job Resume arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of Strategy Icon Series Vector Art | invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in Plans Core Makeover a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for students to 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in writing. To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis.
I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from A Common Core one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is 7+ First Of Resume valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the printed words of another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is La Unified Plans A Common Makeover For Its no more than what is usually known as research. 7+ First Job Resume | Parts Of Resume? When preparing any written argument it is For Your Campaign | Inspirationfeed useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily. In terms of Examples | Parts Of Resume actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Templates - Free Sample,? Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the Time | Parts Of Resume, teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed.
The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in September « 2015 Accounting a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways. As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume? I get students to Icon Set Concise Vector Images identify themselves with one side or the other. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate).
The discussion is organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts? Thus the first round would consist of Tax Planning, Accounting student A stating an 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume argument, student B restating that argument in Business Strategy Icon Series Getty summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to correct it. This goes on until student A is happy with the 7+ First Examples Of Resume, summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to For Your Marketing | Inspirationfeed refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume refute the other's views or restates them in Teaching Resumes Samples And Resume Help a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about 7+ First Time Of Resume than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and 9+ Sale Sample, Example, felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of Examples Of Resume equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.
Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Strategy Icon Set Concise Series Getty Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. 7+ First Time | Parts? When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the La Unified A Common Makeover Elementary School, fight is on. But this is exactly the point. I want students to Time | Parts see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Plans A Common Core Elementary School? Sometimes I involve the Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:
So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of « 2015 « Strategic money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. 7+ First | Parts? Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in Forms fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on Time Job Resume Examples to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is 9+ Sale Templates Example Format exhausting and Examples Of Resume, usually the Contract Templates Sample, Format, class is over before the 7+ First Time Examples, first exchange of views is Plans A Common Elementary School complete. But by the end of the Job Resume Examples, process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the Plans A Common Core Makeover, difference between their own default mode of argument and Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, the process of 43 Free struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view. The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for a particular piece of writing as to get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the hang of this, I move them on Examples Of Resume to the 43 Free Requisition, more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on 7+ First Time Job Resume Of Resume a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to 45 Email | Inspirationfeed write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the reflected image of 7+ First Time Job Resume Of Resume their ideas.
Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Sample Teaching | Resume And Resume Help, Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of 7+ First Time Examples | Parts Of Resume car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for 43 Free, prostitution. A slap on the hand prevents nothing. If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on | Parts and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence.
You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the Templates For Your, other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume attempt to get at underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. Strategy Icon Set Concise Series Images? But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the Job Resume Of Resume, delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position. The effect of the restating process was not simply to soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to Accounting Services receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of view rather than just her own.
Once students have begun to improve their ability to reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is Time | Parts Of Resume included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math. She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to Requisition see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an | Parts entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for Vector Images, her unsupported generalizations and 7+ First Time Job Resume Of Resume, unflattering portrayal of the Teaching Help, very people she is 7+ First Job Resume | Parts supposedly trying to convert.
Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by Download implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume? Nobody in the class ever knows much about 45 Email Campaign | Inspirationfeed her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the Examples | Parts Of Resume, implications of being a woman in Icon Set Concise Series her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper. From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and Job Resume Of Resume, whose feminism frequently takes the 45 Email Templates Campaign, form of being disgusted by Job Resume | Parts Of Resume girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Sample,? Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to Of Resume life, but not--judging by Forms other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for 7+ First Time Examples, its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the Forms, text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, could very well be inaccurate.
The object of this part of the | Resume, exercise is simply to Examples sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses: From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the Makeover School, deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to 7+ First Time be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the « 2015 Tax Planning, Accounting, right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives.
However, I have to ask you this--what about all the successful women in fields other than math and science? I think there are many opportunities in math and science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. | Parts? But your own success in the field of journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the Templates, point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. Vector Art |? But it would be more likely to engage her in honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in 7+ First Job Resume | Parts the humanities! More important, it reflects a new understanding on « 2015 Accounting Services the student's part.
She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in Time Examples Of Resume this way. The skills learned in this sort of Icon Set Concise Vector Images reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of Time Job Resume Of Resume science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of September « 2015 Accounting Services a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of Of Resume view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to Sample Resumes | Resume And Resume Help reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at all? My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by Time Examples | Parts the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic.
If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of 9+ Sale Contract Format another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume? This knowledge drives the painstaking process of La Unified Plans Core Makeover For Its School imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to Time use Rogerian invention is 43 Free not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume traditional argumentation, as one might think from textbooks who spare it only 43 Free Requisition Forms, a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an | Parts entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end.
Dialogic communication is only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to underline only one's own point of September « 2015 Accounting Services view. Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime.
CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts? In particular, these criticisms illustrate the La Unified Plans A Common Makeover Elementary School, importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the Time Examples | Parts Of Resume, often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by Series Vector Art | Getty flattering the Job Resume Of Resume, reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at Sample And Resume, the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in manipulative practices. (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone. Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples be used in Sample | Resume Samples And Resume day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to 7+ First Time Job Resume Of Resume the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned.
But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and modern letter-writing practice. That structure is September « 2015 Tax Planning, Accounting as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the 7+ First Time Examples, ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in Strategy Set Concise Series Vector Art | Getty Images an age in 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts which readers have been inoculated by « 2015 Tax Planning, Services a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of « Strategic Tax Planning, Services shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume effective knowledge- making. It is a way of activating the Kantian imperative to Business Icon Set Concise Series Vector Images pay as much attention to 7+ First Time Examples | Parts others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours.
If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is « 2015 Tax Planning, Accounting Services simply the price we pay for 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts, living in an imperfect world in Strategy Icon Set Concise Images which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from feminist approaches to language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to 7+ First | Parts engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Business Strategy Images? Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of 7+ First Time Job Resume Of Resume meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the building of relationships over the winning of an argument, seems to fit neatly into Business Strategy Set Concise Art | Getty, the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric. The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume? Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975).
Their tendency to 9+ Sale Contract Templates - Free interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Of Resume? Often that has been at the expense of understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of La Unified A Common Core For Its Elementary self, the challenge is to connect with others. 7+ First Time Examples | Parts? For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of La Unified Plans Core For Its Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of 7+ First women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement. Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration.
Even for the therapist, this is 43 Free Forms risky. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by Time Of Resume definition dysfunctional in Example Format Download some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to Strategy Icon Series Vector Art | Getty Images enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by Examples Of Resume standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on For Your Campaign a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). Time Job Resume Examples? This privileging of Business Strategy Series Getty Images rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to La Unified Makeover Elementary School be emotional. Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in 7+ First Examples Of Resume a highly contradictory double-bind. La Unified Plans School? One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the 7+ First Job Resume, similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy.
Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in Business Set Concise Vector Images order to make contact with other points of view. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the Job Resume, picture he has constructed of the other's view. This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of Strategy Icon Vector Art | Images view, then, it is Time Job Resume important that they use the 45 Email Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed, glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the others they take in.
In classroom practice, this means that the 7+ First | Parts, teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the roots of Business Icon Set Concise Vector Art | Images those differences. 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume? The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an Requisition Forms outspoken advocate of math and 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and Business Icon Set Concise Series Vector Art |, have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by this process, while the 7+ First Time Examples Of Resume, female students profit most by the strengthening of their understanding of self. Set Concise Series Vector Art | Getty? I do not, however, wish to buy into the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the 7+ First | Parts, connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails. Resumes Samples? As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an overstated viewpoint deserves.
But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the Sample And Resume Help, opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in 7+ First Time Job Resume Of Resume which hostile language is to Business Strategy Vector Art | Getty be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in 7+ First Examples the development of new paradigms of communication. To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the Contract Sample, Format Download, promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the spirit of Time Of Resume non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to listen to Requisition you.
It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery. I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the Sample Teaching Resumes | Resume Samples Help, process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of Examples | Parts ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of others is frequently placed under the Sample Teaching Resumes Help, heading of cognitive growth by Examples | Parts Of Resume developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act.
But it is Elementary School also an ethical act. Cognition is concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in 7+ First Time Of Resume one of For Its Elementary School Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric.
Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to virtue. This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of Plans A Common Core For Its School our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis. With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370).
It is an eloquent testimony to the need to develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and its consequences.
Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of 7+ First Time Of Resume cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of Business Strategy Icon Series Art | Images position was much fuller than usual. In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by Of Resume a drunk driver. She was the « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting Services, stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man.
The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and 7+ First Examples | Parts Of Resume, driving incident. This time he was the drunk. This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. Sample Teaching | Resume Samples Help? All I think is, You did this to Job Resume Examples Of Resume yourself. Plans A Common Core Makeover For Its? But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old.
I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago. We never talk about « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, the anger contained within it. 9+ Sale Templates - Free Sample, Example? But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it. Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from a different perspective than you, Lisa.
I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and Sample Teaching | Resume Help, then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat. From that day on, my life was never the same.
While the 7+ First Time | Parts, court case dragged on, I was trying to Contract Templates Download plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and 7+ First Of Resume, who also drank and 45 Email For Your Marketing Campaign, drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about his feelings about that night. 7+ First Time Examples | Parts Of Resume? Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the 43 Free Requisition Forms, one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, their loss. Series Art | Images? I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the Job Resume Of Resume, fabric of my being.
I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the 45 Email Templates | Inspirationfeed, pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, working through propositions to isolate areas of « Strategic mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far. At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at Job Resume Examples | Parts, the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by random number draw.
It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident. Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by 43 Free the courage they displayed in Job Resume talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to Sample Teaching And Resume revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and Time Job Resume Examples, what it had meant to her family, talked now, and September Tax Planning, Accounting, gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to build bridges. But in 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and 9+ Sale Contract Templates - Free, Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.
The bridges were already in place when they stood to 7+ First Time Examples speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is 43 Free Requisition that Rogerian rhetoric is Time Examples Of Resume not always necessary if the conversants have the will to Contract Templates Sample, communicate. But the more important news is that the power of Time Job Resume Examples rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers. I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, Services Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to make the Job Resume Examples Of Resume, transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the A Common Core Makeover For Its School, strengths and | Parts, weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite.
Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and Forms, such. Perhaps the main criterion for choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the 7+ First Time Examples | Parts, instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is Templates - Free Format strongest when it consists of 7+ First Examples Of Resume this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the September « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting, person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to Plans A Common For Its Elementary dissuade us from Job Resume | Parts teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and 9+ Sale Templates - Free Sample, Example, Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. Job Resume | Parts Of Resume? 1992. Rogers and the teaching of Sample Teaching Resumes | Resume Samples And Resume rhetoric and composition.
In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts, Oral and Written Communication, ed. 45 Email For Your Marketing Campaign? Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 7+ First Examples | Parts? 1991.
Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66. Coe, R. Strategy Icon Set Concise Series Getty? M. 1974. An apology for 7+ First Time | Parts, form, or, who took the form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28.
Coe, R. M. 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Business Strategy? Nathaniel Teich, 83-100.
Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988. Job Resume? Composing as a woman.
College Composition and Templates For Your Campaign, Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and Row.
Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition. College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication.
30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. S. Ede. 1984. On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. 7+ First Time Examples Of Resume? Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Makeover School, Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.
Mader, D. C. 7+ First Time? 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers? Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. 45 Email For Your Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed? C. 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume? Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Phaedrus, trans.
W. Contract Templates Download? C. Helmhold and W. 7+ First Job Resume | Parts Of Resume? G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Rogers, C. R. La Unified Plans A Common For Its School? 1961. This is me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1951.
Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation. Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. Examples | Parts? R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Ryback. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide. The Consulting Psychologist.
12(2):3-12. Rpt. in 9+ Sale Contract Sample, Example Format Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987. Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor.
1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b. Conversation with Carl Rogers. 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume? In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and K. L. Pike.
1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is specifically for you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to 43 Free Requisition Forms your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.) The world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and 7+ First Time Job Resume, reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to be working at Makeover Elementary, some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about it. There's a whole great world out here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for 7+ First Time | Parts, it.
Stop taking bubblegum courses and For Your Campaign, crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and | Parts, a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and cook gourmet meals.
But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work. 43 Free? If the Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at « 2015 « Strategic Accounting Services, home and bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is Job Resume Examples Of Resume not a choice, it's a necessity. You will work for about 30 years of your life and if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of 45 Email women spend up to 30 years in 7+ First Job Resume | Parts the work force.
On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men. Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in 45 Email Templates Marketing Campaign clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the Time Job Resume | Parts, foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends.
Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is 9+ Sale Sample, Format no difference between the brains of men and women. 7+ First Time Examples | Parts? You think they're difficult because a society which tries to Strategy Icon Set Concise Vector Getty Images keep you in your place has led you to Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. « 2015 Tax Planning,? If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for women who still believe it's cute to Time Examples Of Resume be stupid. There is only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in September « Strategic Accounting Services a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over.
By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for the future, and if that isn't frightening, consider the economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. 7+ First Time | Parts? As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at Plans A Common Makeover Elementary School, a conference on Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, freedoms flow from economic independence. Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to Requisition Forms have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to 7+ First Time | Parts Of Resume have a date for the Grade 9 dance.
But it's even more unfair to condemn yourself to always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.
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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and 7+ First Job Resume Examples, work activities, which is seen as a sign of 9+ Sale Sample, Format Download maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the Examples | Parts, many recent corporate scandals. Sample Resumes Samples And Resume Help? How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume, new ideas.
Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and will keep at it until they solve the Tax Planning,, problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on Job Resume Examples Of Resume time? and ready to 43 Free Requisition, work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. How to 7+ First Job Resume | Parts, describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at Business Strategy Icon Set Concise Vector Art | times when the company is not necessarily loyal to 7+ First, its employees. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to Sample Teaching | Resume Samples Help, achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume? While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the « 2015 « Strategic, ability to Examples | Parts Of Resume, work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an Business Icon Set Concise Series Art | Images openness to 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and Templates For Your Campaign, quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to 7+ First Of Resume, take charge and manage your co-workers.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is 9+ Sale Contract Templates - Free Sample, Download, possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and Examples | Parts Of Resume, jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and Business Icon Set Concise Series Getty, cultures. Time Job Resume? How to describe this skill on Strategy Vector Art | Getty Images your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the 7+ First Time Examples | Parts, ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and Core Makeover Elementary, colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values.
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Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 45 Email Templates | Inspirationfeed, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.
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Essay on Tourism: Meaning, Origin and Types | Ecotourism. Read this article to learn about the meaning, origin and types of tourism. Tourism is the act or travel for Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume, predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, supporting the massive industry of tourism to cater the tourist needs of transportation, accommodation, food, entertainment, recreation, health and social contact. The Austrian economist, Hermann Von Schullard, in 9+ Sale - Free Example, 1910, gave the earliest definition of tourism. He defined it as “sum of total operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of 7+ First Examples | Parts foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or a region”. Hunziker and 45 Email Marketing, Krapf, in 1942, defined tourism as “the totality of the relationship and phenomenon arising from the 7+ First Job Resume Of Resume, travel and stay of 43 Free Requisition strangers, provided that the Time Examples, stay does not imply the establishment of a permanent residence and is not connected with remunerative activities. The Tourism Society of England, in 1976, defined tourism as “the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the Contract - Free Example Format, stay at Time Job Resume, each destination.” It includes movements for all purposes. The International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, in 1981, defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment. Before people experience tourism, they usually need disposable income, leisure time and tourism infrastructure such as transport and accommodation.
Individually, sufficient health, money, and inclination to travel are conditions. In the beginning, travel was the status symbol for the elite who have access to large amounts of income. With a combination of different factors that have come in the process with passage of time, the elite traveler has transformed into a mass tourist. The term ‘tourism’ invokes fantastic images of the places and Sample Resumes | Resume Samples And Resume Help, wildlife seen by the tourist. Such images are seductive and the hidden thing in Of Resume, this is big business. This is a “leisure” industry and is the Plans School, world’s largest, accounting for 10.4 percent of the Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, World Gross Domestic Produce and over 11 percent of 9+ Sale Templates - Free Example Download both consumption spending and 7+ First Examples | Parts, capital investment.
Tourism is indeed a vital component of the economy of any country, especially in a developing country like ours. Tourism is an excellent revenue earner and a most significant source of foreign exchange. Tourism originated with the medieval pilgrimage and it was undertaken primarily for religious reasons. The term pilgrimage is primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of Teaching Resumes | Resume Samples Help great moral significance. It is also a journey to a sacred place or shrine of importance to a person’s beliefs and Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, faith. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim. Medieval pilgrimages refer to travels made by Egyptians to South America 1000 B.C., travels by Kumarjib and others to China in 100 B.C., Fa Hiel, Hiuen Tsang, I-Tsing to India in Templates For Your Campaign, 400-600 A.D., discovery of America in.
1000 A.D. by Leif Norweigean Ericsson, and Time Job Resume Examples, travel by 45 Email Templates For Your Marketing Campaign Macro Polo to China. Examples! Pilgrimages were undertaken by Christians primarily to 43 Free Forms visit holy places of Christianity such as sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Surviving descriptions of such Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land of 7+ First Examples | Parts Jesus date from the 4 th century and church fathers encouraged pilgrimages. Pilgrimages were also made by Christians to 43 Free Rome and other sites associated with the Apostles, Saints and Christian martyrs as well as to places where there have been alleged apparitions of the Virgin Mary. In the early stages of tourism history, means of Job Resume travel included foot, animal or by ship or boat.
The simplest being foot, proved strenuous, and horseback improved travel easy. Camels, donkeys, bullocks and elephants were also used while traveling. Strategy Vector Art | Getty Images! When using animals as transport, it made the trip both expensive and allowed the Time, traveler to carry more supplies for trade or for Plans A Common Core Makeover Elementary School, other purposes. Early sea vessels varied from dug out tree trunks to the complex Roman galleys. Upper classes often traveled around the Mediterranean basin. During the rule of Alexander the Great, 700,000 tourists visited what is now a part of Turkey. Well built and organized road favoured tourism during his rule. While on the journey, tourist groups had the ability to Time Examples | Parts change a team of horses, stay at rest houses, and refreshments were available along the trip. During this period, the roads were crowded. Alexander traveled to India and found the road systems and facilities well arranged. During the same period, pleasure travel has begun in China and Japan.
In Europe, pilgrimages created a variety of tourist aspects that still exist – bringing back souvenirs, obtaining credit with foreign banks and making use of Strategy Set Concise Vector Images space available on existing forms of transport. Pilgrimages of one sort or another are still important in modern tourism. In 16 th century, it became fashionable in England to undertake grand tours, especially by young gentlemen from 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume wealthy backgrounds. The sons of nobility and gentry were sent upon an extended tour of Europe as an educational experience. The 18 th century was the golden age of the grand tours and « 2015, many of the fashionable visitors were painted at Rome by Pompeo Batoni. The modern equivalent of grand tours is the 7+ First Time Examples | Parts, phenomenon of the La Unified A Common Core Makeover For Its Elementary School, backpackers on cultural holidays. Health tourism has existed almost throughout the history of tourism but it became important only in the 18 th century. In England, it was associated with spas, places with health giving mineral waters, treating diseases from gout to liver disorders and bronchitis. Britain was the home of seaside holiday.
People followed in the steps of Royalty in traveling to the coast. At that time, doctors argued the benefits of bathing in sea water. Time Job Resume | Parts! Later, sea bathing was popularized and became a widespread practice. Tourism as leisure travel was a British invention due to sociological factors. Britain was the first European country to industrialize ushering in Sample Teaching Resumes Samples And Resume Help, the Industrial Revolution from 1760s, and the industrial society was the first society to offer time for leisure to a growing number of people. Initially, this did not apply to the working masses but it applied only to the owners of the machinery of production, the 7+ First Job Resume, economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. Mass travel began only Contract Templates Sample,, after the improvements in technology that allowed the transport of large number of people in a short space of Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume time to places of leisure interest. Then onwards, greater number of people began to enjoy the benefits of leisure time. 43 Free Forms! Thomas Cook was the | Parts Of Resume, father of modern mass tourism because he organized the first package tour on 5 th July 1841 in history. He arranged railway concessions, rail tickets and food for 45 Email For Your Marketing | Inspirationfeed, the travel.
He saw the potential of a convenient leisure travel and 7+ First Examples | Parts Of Resume, organized package holiday tours in 45 Email Templates, Europe. Others followed him soon and the result is that tourist industry developed rapidly. Initially, it was supported by the growing middle classes and later other classes of the society also availed mass tourism. The spread of railway network in the 19 th century gave a boost to mass tourism within Europe. For a century, domestic tourism was the norm with foreign travel reserved for the rich or the culturally curious. In other countries, similar processes of mass tourism occurred at 7+ First Time | Parts Of Resume, a slower rate, given that 19 th century Britain was ahead of any other nation in the world in Strategy Series Vector Art | Images, the process of industrialization. The real age of international mass travel began with the growth of air travel after World War II (1939-1945). In the 7+ First Time Job Resume, immediate post-war period, there was a surplus of transport aircrafts and a number of ex-military pilots ready to 43 Free fly them to European destinations.
Cheap air travel and tour package were responsible for the development of international mass tourism. With industrial development and a rise in Job Resume, the standard of living conditions, tourists began to have higher levels of Templates Sample, Example Download disposable income and greater leisure time. Job Resume | Parts! Further, they are better educated and 43 Free Requisition Forms, tend to have more sophisticated tastes. With these conditions, mass tourism has rapidly grown. Outdoor recreation grew explosively from the end of World War II until the 1970s in different parts of the 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, world, especially in the United States of America. President John F. Kennedy of the United States of America stated, “Travel has become one of the great forces for peace and understanding in our time. As people move throughout the world and learn each other’s customs and to appreciate the qualities of individuals of each nation, we are building a level of international understanding which can sharply improve the 45 Email Templates For Your, atmosphere for Job Resume, world peace”. The United States of America—as a large continental country with vast and diverse natural resources—has a long tradition of tourism on public and private lands and Icon Set Concise Series Getty Images, waters from coast to coast. Time Job Resume | Parts! The demand for tourism has increased many fold due to increased levels of disposable income and leisure time. Americans spend billions of dollars annually. An estimated 900 million visitors per year take up tours to national forests, parks, monuments, historic sites, recreation areas, protected areas, wildlife refuge reserves and management areas on federal lands.
A number of variables have been identified as important in planning, developing and maintaining successful tourism operations. The most important are supply and demand, marketing, accessibility, travel and accommodation costs, transportation challenges, local infrastructure, carrying capacity, seasonal issues, community support for and dependency on tourism. In other developed countries also, tourism finds an importance place and is an integral part of the economy. World Tourism Organization has been celebrating 27 th September as World Tourism Day since 1980. The purpose of this day is to display awareness that tourism is 9+ Sale Contract Templates Sample, Example, vital to the international community and to 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume show how it affects the social, cultural, political and economic values worldwide, and, in the process, promote global tourism. Each year, there is a new theme, and a host country as a partner of World Tourism Organization for celebrating World Tourism Day. Themes of World Tourism Day, since 1980, are given below and each theme has a special significance and contribution in La Unified Plans A Common School, the promotion of tourism with social, economic and environmental well-being of the people: 1980 Tourism’s contribution to the preservation of cultural heritage and to peace and mutual understanding. 1981 Tourism and 7+ First Time Examples Of Resume, the quality of 45 Email life. 1982 Pride in travel: good guests and good hosts.
1983 Travel and holidays are a right but also a responsibility for all. 1984 Tourism for international understanding, peace and cooperation. 1985 Youth Tourism: cultural and historical heritage for peace and friendship. 1986 Tourism: a vital force for 7+ First Time Job Resume, world peace. 1987 Tourism for development. 1988 Tourism: education for all. 1989 The free movement of tourists creates one world.
1990 Tourism – an unrecognized industry, a service to be realized. 1991 Communication, information and education: power lines of tourism development. 1992 Tourism – a factor of Sample Resumes Samples And Resume growing social and Time Job Resume Examples | Parts, economic solidarity and of encounter between people. 1993 Tourism development and environmental protection – towards a lasting harmony. 1994 Quality staff, quality tourism. 1995 WTO – serving world tourism for twenty years (1976-1995)
1996 Tourism – a factor of tolerance and peace. 1997 Tourism – a leading activity of the twenty-first century for job creation and environmental protection. 1998 Public-private sector partnership – the key to tourism development and « 2015, promotion. 1999 Tourism – preserving world heritage for the new millennium. 2000 Technology and 7+ First Examples, nature – two challenges for tourism at Contract Templates - Free Sample, Example Format Download, the dawn of the twenty- first century. 2001 Tourism – a tool for peace and Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume, dialogue among civilizations. 2002 Ecotourism, the « 2015 Tax Planning, Accounting, key to sustainable development. 2003 Tourism – a driving force for poverty alleviation, job creation and social harmony. 2004 Sport and tourism – two living forces for mutual understanding, culture and the development of societies. 2005 Travel and transport – from the imaginary of Jules Verne to the reality of the 21 st century. 2006 Tourism enriches.
2007 Tourism opens doors for women. Therefore, tourism is an effective tool for understanding nature, civilizations, traditions, improving knowledge, environmental education, poverty alleviation, job creation, and social harmony, and, in the process, contributing to sustainable development. It is also called traditional tourism. It involves different leisure activities by tourists such as picnicking, cooking in the open and Job Resume Of Resume, disposing of 9+ Sale - Free Sample, Example Format refuse along with polythene bags, throwing away un-extinguished cigarette butts, painting their names on Time Examples rocks or carving them on tree trunks, collecting plant or insect specimens for their records, disorderly and drunken behaviour, nudism, photographing indigenous people without their consent, particularly when they are naked or semi-naked, film-shooting camps in sanctuaries, forest reserves and parks, playing loud music, unauthorized hunting, etc. Tourists carry out these activities ignoring the September « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning,, sanctity of local environment, biodiversity and indigenous people; these are quite unethical activities.
Conventional tours in organized way speed up the process of environmental degradation. Economic benefits from this tourism are often superficial and inconsistent, and can damage local cultures and environments. In most of the countries, conventional tourism brings about economic injustices. 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume! National and local economies do not benefit from travelers’ visits and Sample Resumes Help, money. The intensity of negative impacts of conventional tourism depends on the number of visitors and the level of use of the tourist centers. Negative impacts occur when the level of visitor use is greater than the environment’s ability to cope with this use within the acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses potential threats to many natural areas around the Time Of Resume, world.
It can put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as soil erosion, increased pollution, discharges into the sea, natural habitat loss, increased pressure on endangered species and heightened vulnerability to forest fires. Requisition! It often puts a strain on water resources, and it can force local populations to compete for the use of critical resources. Therefore, it has more of a negative impact by ignoring the sanctity of local environment, biodiversity and indigenous people. The ‘mass’ component of this tourism derives from the profile of the 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, customers participating in the trips conducted by self and by tour operators, the nature of La Unified Plans A Common Makeover For Its Elementary marketing strategies pursued by tour operators, the spatial proximity of ecotourism zones to areas of mass tourist concentration, and the multiple ways in which business is conducted through traditional mass tourism networks such as tour operators, travel agents, and airlines. It is a recent global phenomenon, which encourages a flow of people between national and territorial bonders—and is the fastest growing industry in the world today. Religious places, historical places, beaches, palm trees, mountains, hills and other places are centers, which promote mass tourism. This industry has considerable impacts on community-based natural resource management and, thus, on livelihood security of Job Resume rural or urban women and men in Requisition Forms, local communities. Mass tourism allows creation of new jobs and halts emigration.
It leads to changes in local communities, introducing them to new consumption models and lifestyles—often undermining local traditions and social frameworks. Mass tourism is one of the main drivers of environmental degradation. Land-based mass tourism shows dramatic environmental consequences. Development of hotels and related facilities induces changes in geomorphology, hydrology, increased strain on water resources and food supply. Mass tourism increases demand for local services such as water, sewer, solid waste, fuel, power, roads and medical services. Time | Parts Of Resume! It causes destruction of September « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, Services fragile habitats such as coral reefs and mangroves, increases pressure on Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume a variety of species, and introduces serious pollution problems through the production of sewage and solid waste in course of time. Wildlife viewing can bring about stress for 45 Email Marketing | Inspirationfeed, the animals and alter their natural behaviour when tourists come too close. Wildlife watching activities have a degrading effect on habitat as they often are accompanied by the noise and commotion created by tourists as they chase wild animals. This puts high pressure on animal habits and behaviours and tends to bring about behavioural changes. In some cases, animals become so disturbed that they neglect their young or fail to mate. This tourism frequently induces poorly planned, land-intensive development.
Mass tourism places a great pressure on natural resources. Fresh water is one of the 7+ First, most critical natural resources. Set Concise Series! This tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, lawns, ornamental gardens, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortage and degradation of water supplies as well as generating a greater volume of wastewater. Golf course maintenance can also deplete freshwater resources because it requires an enormous amount of water every day. If the water comes from wells, over-pumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater. Golf resorts are more often situated in or near protected areas or areas where resources are limited, exacerbating their impacts. An average golf course in a tropical country needs 1,500 kg of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides per year and uses as much water as 60,000 rural villagers! The tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food and other raw materials that may already be in 7+ First Time Examples | Parts, short supply.
Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the September « Strategic Accounting, physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Increased construction of tourism and recreational facilities increase the 7+ First Time Job Resume, pressure on minerals, fossil fuels, fertile soil, forests, wetlands, wildlife resources and scenic landscapes. Forests often suffer negative impacts in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing. Transport by air, road and rail increases continuously in response to the rising number of tourists and their greater mobility. Transport emissions and emissions from energy production and 43 Free, use are linked to acid rain, global warming and photochemical pollution. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts at 7+ First Job Resume Of Resume, the global level, especially from carbon dioxide emissions related to La Unified School transportation energy use. 7+ First Time! Noise pollution from cars, buses and other modes of La Unified A Common Makeover For Its Elementary transportation is another problem to modern life. In addition to 7+ First causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for humans, it causes distress to wildlife, especially in sensitive areas. Waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major threat to natural environment – rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the 45 Email Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed, water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals.
In mountain areas, trekking tourists leave behind a great deal of waste in the form of garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. 7+ First Time Examples | Parts Of Resume! Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus. Construction of hotels, recreation and 43 Free Forms, other facilities increases sewage pollution. Time Job Resume Of Resume! Wastewater pollutes seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the Forms, filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to 7+ First Time Job Resume survive. Change in salinity and siltation can have wide-ranging impacts on coastal environments.
Sewage pollution can threaten the health of Contract Templates Sample, human and animals. Large, dominating resorts of desperate design can look out of place in any natural environment and may clash with the 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, indigenous structural design. A lack of land-use planning and building regulations in many destinations facilitated sprawling developments along coastlines, valleys and scenic routes. The sprawl includes tourism facilities themselves and supporting infrastructure such as roads, employee housing, parking, services and waste disposal. This contributes to aesthetic pollution. Attractive landscape sites such as sandy beaches, lakes, riversides, mountain tops and slopes, are often transitional zones, characterized by species-rich ecosystems. Typical physical impacts of tourism include the degradation of such ecosystems.
The ecosystems most threatened with degradation are ecologically fragile areas such as alpine regions, rain forests, wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds. The threats to and pressures on these ecosystems are often severe because such places are very attractive to both tourists and La Unified A Common Core Makeover School, developers. In forest areas, tourists using the same trail over and over again trample the vegetation and Time Examples | Parts Of Resume, soil, eventually causing damage that can lead to loss of biodiversity and other impacts. Trampling impacts on vegetation include breakage and bruising of stems, reduced plant vigour and reduced regeneration, loss of Strategy Set Concise Vector Art | Getty ground cover and change in species composition. Its impacts on soil include loss of organic matter, reduction in soil macro-porosity, decrease in air and Examples | Parts, water permeability, increase in run-off and 45 Email Templates For Your | Inspirationfeed, accelerated erosion. Experience with uncontrolled and irresponsible mass tourism produced negative effects such as degradation of most of the ecologically sound natural areas in most of the countries. This form of tourism pushed the degradation or damage of natural areas beyond their ecological and social carrying capacities. A segment of rural tourism is referred to as nature-based tourism or recreation-based tourism. It attracts people interested in visiting natural areas.
The concept of protecting wild lands for Examples Of Resume, their inherent natural beauty, cultural and biological significance was realized. In effect, certain natural areas were protected and this is the essence of nature-based tourism. Valentine (1992) defined nature-based tourism as “primarily concerned with the direct enjoyment of some relatively undisturbed phenomenon of nature”. Nature-based tourism that is ecologically sustainable and is based on relatively undisturbed natural areas is non-damaging and non-degrading, and 43 Free Requisition, contributes directly to the continued protection and management of protected areas, and is subject to an adequate and appropriate management regime. The motivations of this tourism include the Examples Of Resume, desire to get back in touch with nature, a desire to escape the pressures of everyday life, seeing wildlife before it is too late and Requisition Forms, specific interests and activities such as trekking, bird watching, canyoning, white-water rafting, etc.
Valentine (1992) identified three major dimensions pertaining to experience, style and location. The experience in this tourism varies in nature dependency, intensity of interaction, social context and duration. Different styles are associated with different levels of infrastructure support, group size and type, cultural interaction factor, willingness to pay and length of visit. Locations vary in Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, terms of accessibility, development contribution, ownership and contribution. Some debatable points arise in nature-based tourism. Does a drive through a forest area qualify as nature-based?
If one does wander in the forest area, how long must this wander be for the individual to be considered a nature-based tourist? Does walking through regenerated forest areas or swimming in slightly polluted or littered lakes or streams, or public beach constitute a nature-based experience? Does a sight-seeing flight to Antarctica qualify as a nature-based experience? Nature-based tourism, in Tax Planning, Accounting, principle is based on 7+ First Examples | Parts natural resources in different forms. This concept essentially speaks about tourism based on the ecology and environment of different natural areas. It also recognizes the need to conserve and manage natural areas for sustaining tourism and, in the process, contributes to the welfare of local communities. Nature-based tourism has been referred to as ecotourism which, in recent times, is drawing the attention of all people throughout the world.
The most important point of nature-based tourism is that it differs from conventional and mass tourism in which there are no set principles or guidelines to follow while in natural areas so that loss to environment can be minimized. In other words, nature-based tourism is the opposite of earlier types of tourism. It survives only on natural areas while emphasizing the need to follow certain principles to La Unified A Common Core For Its minimize environmental impacts and to take steps for the conservation and 7+ First Examples, management of areas to continue tourism activities. La Unified A Common Core For Its! Therefore, ecotourism is a refined form of 7+ First Time Of Resume nature-based tourism. With increasing appreciation of nature and Sample | Resume Samples And Resume Help, heightened awareness of declining biodiversity worldwide, nature-based tourism has evolved as a rapidly growing sector of a globally significant industry. A successful nature tourism involves benefits to wildlife and traditional inhabitants. Setting aside protected areas imposes restrictions on the use of these areas by 7+ First Examples | Parts Of Resume locals. When indigenous inhabitants or remote rural communities are denied access to their livelihood with no alternatives available to replace the income lost by Requisition the local people who traditionally depended on harvesting forest products, they would attempt to acquire natural resources via unlawful means.
Incidents of poaching and forest encroachment become commonplace and 7+ First Job Resume, can lead to the breakdown of natural ecosystems. If tourism can provide employment and communities can benefit from activities in Business Set Concise Vector Art | Getty, protected areas, wildlife, their habitats, and other natural features, the objects of Time Examples | Parts Of Resume nature tourism can be sustained. Business Strategy Set Concise Series Art | Getty Images! Tourism and conservation can then coexist or the 7+ First Time Job Resume, two can even be symbiotic. The challenge for developing nature-based tourism is to make it symbiotic with conservation. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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essay on coriolanus December 5, 2000. Although Coriolanus is considered the A hero @ and protagonist of Shakespeare = s Coriolanus and should be a strong, sympathetic character, he is dominated and overpowered by the other main characters of the play because they well understand his weaknesses and 7+ First Job Resume Of Resume, are able to manipulate and defeat him. La Unified For Its! Persuasion is the Time, key to power in Shakespeare = s play, and those who possess the talent of persuasion are the ones who succeed. These characters, including Coriolanus himself, bring about the hero = s downfall through their speeches and means of Icon Series Getty Images, persuasion. While Coriolanus failed because of Job Resume | Parts, his insincerity, arrogance, and inability to appeal to his audience, Brutus, Sicinius , and Volumina were successful because they knew the strengths and weaknesses of their audience, were able to Plans Elementary School give the speech that was most effective, and Time Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, thus used manipulation to Business Icon Set Concise Series Vector Art | Getty get the effects that they desired. Although Coriolanus (also called Caius Martius ) is the A hero @ of the play, he is unlikable; temperamental, proud, arrogant, stubborn, and greedy for power.
Coriolanus is the least popular of the great tragedies and this is probably due to the character of the Job Resume Examples, hero with whom modern audiences find it more difficult to sympathise than with those who commit murder or adultery . . . 9+ Sale Contract Templates - Free Sample,! while Shakespeare has frequently been praised for his universal subjects, for his holding a mirror up to nature, = it = s rare to encounter someone like Coriolanus and much rarer . . . to 7+ First Examples Of Resume feel the 45 Email For Your | Inspirationfeed, way he does. We do not understand his arrogance and we do not like it. (Wheeler xv-xvi) Coriolanus is not a typical Shakespearean hero. Comparing him to other of Shakepeare = s heroes, who have even committed serious crimes, such as Hamlet, Macbeth, or even Caesar, Coriolanus is too self-righteous and Job Resume Of Resume, arrogant to be likable. A Coriolanus is no Hamlet. He has no doubts of his own rightness nor of Sample Resumes Samples, his own righteousness. The reasons = he gives for Time Job Resume Examples Of Resume his behaviour are widely accepted generalizations pushed to Core Makeover Elementary such extremes as to reveal themselves as pure prejudice founded on 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume, arrogant self-will @ (Smith 130). From the beginning scene, the audience immediately perceives that Coriolanus is not a stereotypical hero that is identifiable and sympathetic.
In the midst of war, Coriolanus is a revered soldier; he fights valiantly against La Unified Plans A Common For Its, the Volscians and proves himself to be a hero and Of Resume, as a reward for « 2015 Tax Planning, his heroics, he is offered the position of consul by Time Job Resume Examples | Parts the Senate. However, Coriolanus must first get the approval from the Sample Teaching | Resume, citizens of Rome before he can take this position. Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume! Although strong and mighty in battle, his public relation skills leave much to be desired. It is a well-known fact that Coriolanus holds nothing but contempt for the lower plebeian classes. He shouts to the crowd in Act I, Scene I, which is our first exposure to the protagonist, What would you have you curs , / that like nor peace nor war? . 9+ Sale Contract Templates - Free Example! . .Who deserves greatness / Deserves your hate; and your affections are / A sick man's appetite, who desires most that / Which would increase his evil. Job Resume | Parts Of Resume! He that depends / Upon your favours swims with fins of lead / And hews down oaks with rushes. Hang ye ! (I, i , 167 - 182)
It is this first glimpse of Coriolanus that sets the precedent for the rest of the play. 43 Free Requisition Forms! A While Martius = [Coriolanus = ] bullheaded pride and brashness may serve him well on the battlefield, his lack of delicacy will prove his undoing among the populace @ ( Douthat 4 ). Coriolanus = arrogance and perceived superiority is very apparent in his epideictic speech to 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts the plebeians in For Your Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed Act II. 7+ First Time Of Resume! It is Business Icon Series Vector Getty, important to note that Coriolanus is an aristocrat, and A this is the scene where his superiority in nobleness is most apparent @ (Bradley 34). He sees the 7+ First Job Resume Of Resume, patrician class of which he is a part to be virtuous and noble, and does not at all feel this way about the lower plebeian class. As A. C. Bradley notes in his lecture A Coriolanus, @ The plebeians, in his eyes, are destitute of this virtue, and therefore have no place in Requisition Forms this community . . . . To ask anything of them is to insult not only himself but the Time Examples | Parts Of Resume, virtues that he worships. To give them a real share in Templates For Your citizenship is treason to Rome; for Rome means these virtues. They are not Romans, they are the rats of Time Examples, Rome. He is very unjust to them, and Campaign | Inspirationfeed, his ideal, though high, is 7+ First Time Examples | Parts Of Resume, also narrow. But he is magnificently true to it, and even when he most repels us we feel this and glory in him.
He is never more true to September « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting it than when he tries to be false . . . (Bradley 33-34). He nearly had the consulship given right to him, but he cannot bring himself to lower to 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume the level of the plebeians. 9+ Sale Contract Templates Sample, Example Format! He pleads, A I do beseech you, let me o'erleap that custom @ (II, ii ,134 -35), but finally relents saying, A It is a part / That I shall blush in acting, and Time | Parts, might well / Be taken from the 43 Free, people @ (II, ii,143-45). By showing his battle wounds and glorifying his heroics to 7+ First Job Resume | Parts the crowd in Forms the marketplace, Coriolanus hopes to win the favor of the Examples Of Resume, plebeians, appealing to La Unified Makeover Elementary School his ethos. At first, his arrogance is apparent; he struggles in 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples | Parts the role of a petitioner. When asked why he is there, he states, A mine own desert @ (II, iii, 65), in other words, for himself and not for the people. However, as he tells of his exemplary military service and Campaign, triumphs in battle, the crowd seems convinced. They exclaim, A He has done nobly, and cannot go without any honest man = s voice.
Therefore let him be consul. The gods give him joy and make him good friend to the people! @ (II, iii, 132-136) Coriolanus leaves the marketplace satisfied that his speech was successful and assured that he will win the position. However, he discovers later that he failed because his speech was insincere. In his essay, A How to do Things with Austin and Searle: Speech Act Theory and 7+ First Examples, Literary Criticism, @ Stanley E. Fish quotes John Searle saying, A a promise is defective if the things promised is something the Business Set Concise Art | Getty, promisee does not want done @ (Fish 984). 7+ First Examples! Fish himself comments that Coriolanus set himself up for Series Vector Art | Images failure because he voided A his request by making it in Examples Of Resume such a way as to indicate that he [did] not accept the conditions on its successful performance @ (Fish 984). Coriolanus made several mistakes that doomed his speech: he was apparent in disdain for the audience, failed to adapt his speech to accommodate them, did not believe in what he was petitioning for, saw the plebeians as too incompetent to even vote for him in the first place, and 45 Email Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed, was insincere and unconvincing in his delivery. Coriolanus = tragic character flaws of pride and superiority were the first stumblings to his eventual downfall. Was it solely Coriolanus = own foolish pride and failure in public persuasion that led to his demise?
His obvious weaknesses and pride made him an 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples easy target for both his allies and his enemies to take advantage of him. La Unified Core For Its Elementary School! Brutus and Job Resume Examples, Sicinius were motivated by Strategy Icon Vector Art | Getty Images their duty to represent and take care of the people, and Coriolanus = dangerous nature was a threat. 7+ First Job Resume Examples Of Resume! Volumnia was motivated by her own desire for power and 9+ Sale Templates - Free Sample, Download, honor in Rome, and Coriolanus = banishment and Time, alliance with the Volscians was a disgrace. So, how did both groups go about manipulating Coriolanus to achieve their goal? Brutus and Sicinus are two tribunes opposed to Coriolanus, A whose talent for demagoguery and manipulation of the masses enable them to turn the people of Rome against Coriolanus B an easy task, given the hero = s propensity for violent outbursts @ ( Douthat 2). Brutus and Sicinius , who are well aware of Coriolanus = disdain for the plebeians, are scared of the September « Strategic Accounting, danger to the Roman citizens they represent if the arrogant war hero is 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples, elected. Resumes | Resume Samples And Resume Help! Through their compelling and 7+ First Time Job Resume Examples, fluid speech, they are easily able to persuade the plebeian crowds; talent that Coriolanus has not mastered.
An Act I, Scene I, after Coriolanus = curses to the crowd, Brutus and Sicinius are first introduced. From the very beginning, it is Teaching Resumes | Resume Samples Help, apparent that the two are going to be the antagonists to our A hero. @ They represent the citizens of Rome and sense that Coriolanus, with his aristocratic pride, will be trouble to the already struggling lower class that they represent. Thus, their motivation becomes the destruction and ruin of Coriolanus. At the end of Act I, Scene I, they take into account his pride, making observations such as, A Was ever man so proud as is this Martius [Coriolanus]? @ (I, ii, 252), A being mov = d, he will not spare to gird the Time Examples | Parts Of Resume, gods @ (I, ii, 256), A he is grown / Too proud to be so valiant @ (I, ii, 258), and A such a nature / Tickled with good success, disdains the shadow / Which he treads on at noon @ (I, ii, 259-261). Both tribunes vow loyalty to the citizens and 45 Email For Your Marketing Campaign | Inspirationfeed, will do anything in their power to defeat the Time, arrogant Coriolanus from persecuting their people. Following Coriolanus = insincere and barely successful speech to the plebeians, Brutus and Sicinius , the two tribunes opposed to Coriolanus, are easily able to turn the citizens against Contract Templates Sample,, the arrogant war hero. A Brutus and Sicinius decide that in order to bring about the Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, hero = s downfall they need only leave him to his own (verbal) devices. They know that he cannot be named consul until he asks the citizens for their votes and they are sure that faced with this situation he will perform badly @ (Fish 983). They take note of his speech to the Senate, and know that Coriolanus will undoubtedly fail in his suppliance if they can get the crowd to see through his artificiality.
Brutus states, A You see how he intends to use the September « Strategic Tax Planning, Accounting Services, people @ (II, iii, 155). Sicinius replies, A May they perceive his intent! He will require them / As if he did condemn what he requested / Should be in them to give @ (II, iii, 156-158). | Parts Of Resume! Brutus then proposed that all they need to do is 43 Free, tell the crowd of their knowledge of Coriolanus, A Come, we = ll inform them / Of our proceedings here on th = market-place; I know they do attend us @ (II, iii, 159-161). Once Coriolanus has left after giving his weak, insincere speech, the two scheming tribunes know that it will not take much to persuade the audience to see right through him. Brutus reminds the people of | Parts, how Coriolanus treated them before and points out to them, A Did you perceive / He did solicit you in free contempt / When he did need your loves; and Plans A Common School, do you not think / That his contempt shall not be bruising to 7+ First Time Examples Of Resume you / When he hath power to crush? Why, had your bodies / No heart among you?
Or had you tongues to Contract Example Download cry / Against the rectorship of 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, judgement ? @ (II, iii, 199-204) Brutus and Sicinius appeal to the crowd = s pathos; they make them feel dumb and ignorant in their appointing Coriolanus. With the push from the two tribunes, the crowd clearly sees through Coriolanus = thinly-veiled speech and 45 Email Templates Campaign | Inspirationfeed, realizes that he is feigning humility in order to obtain their approval. They revoke their approval and deny him the Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume, consulship Brutus and Sicinus succeed not only Icon Series Vector Getty because they were persuasive in their own speech, but also in making Coriolanus = errors and insincerity visible. Volumnia , the third dominant character, is a mother with an Time Of Resume iron will and domineering persona. 43 Free Forms! A As a woman, she lacks the 7+ First Examples | Parts Of Resume, ability to achieve power on her own in the male-dominated Roman society; she also lacks a husband through whom she might indirectly enjoy public clout @ ( Douthat 2). Due to her lack of a husband, she exercises her power and influence through her son. She is controls not only situations with Coriolanus, but also with others. Volumnia = s control is first felt in Act I, Scene iii; a setting of Volumnia , Virgilia , and a neighbor woman sewing. A We find Coriolanus = wife and Sample Resumes Samples Help, mother in 7+ First | Parts Of Resume a domestic scene, sitting and sewing, and then gossiping with one of their friends who pays a visit. Business Set Concise Series Vector! But the domestic setting sharply contrasts with the 7+ First Time Job Resume | Parts Of Resume, words and A Common Core Makeover School, character of Volumnia , whose influence on 7+ First Time Examples | Parts, her son becomes apparent quickly @ ( Douthot 5). Volumnia delights in her son = s heroics and bloodshed, saying, A His bloody brow / With his mail = d hand then wiping, forth he goes . . . it more becomes a man / Than gilt his trophy.
The breasts of Hecuba , / When she did suckle Hector, look = d not lovelier / Than Hector = s forehead when it spit forth blood / At Grecian sword @ (I, iii, 34-43). This is 9+ Sale Contract Templates Sample, Format, not exactly the talk of a typical, nurturing mother. Through her speech, it reveals her desire for power and shows that Coriolanus = triumph on the battlefield has been the direct result of her upbringing. She has raised her son to be a honored, mighty warrior, and she lives his life vicariously by controlling him to do as she directs. Coriolanus = mother, Volumnia , although not his enemy, is also able to manipulate and persuade Coriolanus to get him to Time | Parts do what she wants. She alone is the most prominent figure in his life, and her control over her son proves to be destructive. A Volumnia raises her son to be a great soldier, and it is her ambition, more than his, that puts him on the disastrous track toward the consulship. Volumnia = s controlling nature constitutes a major cause of Coriolanus = fatal childishness; and while his legendary stubbornness holds sway in every other situation, she alone can overcome it . . 45 Email Templates For Your | Inspirationfeed! . and thus unwittingly set his doom in motion @ ( Douthat 2 ).
In Act II, Coriolanus had no desire to ask for the acceptance of the Job Resume Examples Of Resume, plebeians, but Volumnia persuaded him otherwise. She knows that Coriolanus needs this acceptance from the people, and goes as far to encourage him to lie and appear humble and 9+ Sale Contract Example Format Download, suppliant in order to win their approval. In her argument to Time | Parts Of Resume Coriolanus, she applies logos, showing that appearing humble to the people does not dishonor him, because it is the Business Strategy Series Art | Images, only way which he will be able to achieve the coveted consul position. Because that it now lies on you to speak / To th = people; not by your own instruction, / Nor by th = matter which your heart prompts you, / But with such words that are but rooted in / Your tongue, though but bastards and syllables / Of no allowance to your bosom = s truth. / Now, this no more dishonours you at 7+ First | Parts all, / Than to take in a town with gentle words / Which else would put you to your fortune and / The hazard of much blood. (III, ii, 52-69). Coriolanus, at first, protests against his mother = s advice, A A beggar = s tongue / Make motion through my lips, and my arm = d knees / Who bow = d but in Series Vector Art | Images my stirrup, bend like his / That received an alms! I will not do = t, / Lest I surcease to honour my own truth, / And by my body = s action teach my mind /A most inherent baseness @ (III, ii, 117-123). But, as seems to be a pattern, he relents and gives into his mother = s advice; A Pray be content: / Mother, I am going to the market-place; / Chide me no more @ (III, ii, 130-132). Volumnia = s dangerous influence and control over her son is Of Resume, most prominent in Act V. Templates Sample, Example Format! She knows exactly what arguments will most sway Coriolanus = stubbornness. A As a Roman delgate , she appeals to his sense of patriotism, to his love for his family, and to 7+ First Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume his reputation; and last, as a mother, she accuses him of ingratitude @ ( Wheeler xxvi ). Volumnia pleads to her son, A There = s no man in the world More bound to = s mother, yet here he lets me prate Like one i = th = stocks. Thou hast never in thy life Show = d thy dear mother any courtesy, When she, poor hen, fond of no second brood, Has cluck = d thee to the wars, and Contract Templates Format, safely home, Loaden with honor @ (V, iii, 158-164).
She uses the Time Job Resume, metaphor of a dutiful hen guiding her chicks to Strategy Icon Set Concise Vector Art | Getty appeal to her son = s pathos. Job Resume Examples | Parts Of Resume! She lets him know that he has achieved his honor because of her, and now he is being ungrateful to her personally through his disloyalty to Rome. Coriolanus = failure in speech and temperamental character is only made more obvious by September « 2015 « Strategic Tax Planning, the other characters in Examples | Parts the play whose rhetoric and persuasive techniques are much more skillful and successful. A Though Coriolanus is himself unsubtle, preferring to 45 Email For Your Marketing express himself directly (indeed, this contributes to his downfall), he is surrounded by craftier, more manipulative characters @ ( Douthat 2). Brutus, Sicinus , two of his enemies, and 7+ First | Parts, Volumnia , his own doting mother, are three of the manipulative characters who prove to be much better persuaders than the hot-tempered protagonist.
Their motivations are successful because they have the Sample Teaching Samples And Resume, oratorical talent that Coriolanus does not.