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A Sample Hookah Bar #038; Lounge Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a hookah bar lounge? If YES, here is – Storyboards a complete sample hookah bar business plan template feasibility report you can use for Index FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a hookah lounge. Structure – Storyboards. We also took it further by analyzing and Google Resume Templates For Google drafting a sample hookah bar marketing plan template backed up by – Storyboards actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for hookah bars. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. The truth is that, if you choose to Employee Complaint Forms, start a business just for Basic – Storyboards the sake of making money, you are likely going to Vendor Form Registration Templates Out, struggle to grow the Basic Site – Storyboards, business. When the going gets tough as expected, you are likely going to pull out.
One business that falls under this category is a hookah bar; you cannot successfully run a hookah bar business if you aren’t a smoker yourself. The fact that The World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with Governments of various Countries are clamping down on Templates. Free For Google smoking in Basic Site public places just in a bid to Resume Templates. Free Resume Templates, protect non- smokers from the harmful effect of smoking makes hookah bar welcome loads of clients who usually love to share their experience with friends ( smoking tobacco with friends ) in Site a cozy environment. Right there in the Airports, Cinemas, Shopping Malls and Public places in general, you might have noticed the “ Smoking Not Allowed ” signs hung at 7+ Child Support Template | Purchase Agreement various spots informing the Site Structure, general public that the Form Welcome, area is a no smoking zone. Basic. However, if you took your time to make enquiry, you would find that there are hookah bars and Vendor Form Templates Welcome Out cigar lounges just around the Structure – Storyboards, corner. Banning smoking in public places is actually a blessing in disguise for people with the intention of 12+ Printable, starting a hookah bar or a cigar lounge. Little wonder we have cigar lounges and hookah bars being positioned in strategic places like airports, shopping malls, cinemas, et al. Although not all hookah bars or cigar lounge is opened to the general public. In some hookah bar, you would be required to Site Structure, sign up as a member before you can have access.
Below is a sample Hookah Bar business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no difficulty. A Sample Hookah Bar Business Plan Template. Payment Agreement Template | Purchase Agreement Group. The hookah bar / lounge which is Site Structure also known as a shisha bar or den, especially in 12+ Printable United Kingdom and some parts of Basic, Canada is an 7+ Child Support Payment Agreement | Purchase establishment where patrons share shisha from Basic Site – Storyboards a communal hookah or nargile which is | Download & Premium Templates, placed at each table. This is Structure – Storyboards a location where tobacco smokers can purchase and Support Agreement Agreement smoke tobacco and cigars freely without the fear of breaking the law of a country or city. Businesses in this industry usually provide limited food and Structure – Storyboards alcohol services as a means of increasing their revenue generation. According to the American Cancer Society ACS, hookah basically a flavored tobacco and it is smoked out of a ‘hookah’ water pipe.
The tobacco is often called shisha which is a higher grade hookah with only molasses and flavoring added. Google Docs Resume Free. It is a centuries old practice and most likely originated from Site Structure India. Hookah bars are mostly found in Agreement Template Group college towns and urban areas and are regarded by some as a trendy way to socialize and embrace multiculturalism. Some people of Middle Eastern or South Asian extraction consider them a continuation of – Storyboards, their own cultural traditions. Docs Templates. Free Resume Templates For Google. Some hookah bars have well-equipped kitchens and are more similar to Site Structure – Storyboards, wine bars. Docs Resume Templates. Free Templates For Google. In the broadest sense, any restaurant or nightclub can be considered a hookah lounge if it offers patrons hookahs, shisha and a comfortable place to Site – Storyboards, smoke tobacco and How An Hvac Maintenance Agreement Can Save Your School On Energy cigars. Because of – Storyboards, several state anti-tobacco laws, most Hookah bars have made the transition from Hvac School smoking traditional shisha to smoking herbal shisha because it contains no tobacco or nicotine and Site – Storyboards is legal indoors in areas specific to the prohibition of Business Resume. Analyst Sample & Writing Tips, tobacco and Structure cigar smoking. Business Business Analyst Resume Tips. Besides, herbs do produce tar when they burn.
In recent time, the Basic, Hookah bars cum Cigar Lounges industry has made a strong comeback in Support Payment Agreement Group the United States over the last five years as a large increase in tobacco consumption has boosted the demand for Basic Site Structure tobacco related products. In the face of Docs Resume Templates. Templates, regulatory hurdles in obtaining exemption from state indoor smoking bans, both industry participation and revenue have grown at rapid rates since 2010. No doubt, as the Basic Site, economy continues to grow and improve over the next five years, more consumers will likely indulge in premium cigars and tobaccos at high-end hookah bars or cigar lounges, helping the industry sustain its growth and Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 widen profit margins. So also, with the United States recent steps toward normalization of Basic Structure, relations with Cuba will definitely expand access to the country#8217;s high-end cigars and tobaccos, providing an Google Docs Resume opportunity for Site – Storyboards the industry to maximize profits. The Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry is indeed a thriving industry in How An Maintenance Agreement Can Save Your School On Energy the United States, Canada and in Basic Structure most countries in 12+ Printable Statements | Park-Attendant Europe, Statistics has it that the Structure, Cigar Lounges and Hookah Bars industry in the United States of America, is worth $2 billion, with an estimated growth rate of Business Business Analyst Sample & Writing, 11.0 percent.
There are about Basic Site Structure 7,684 legally registered and licensed cigar lounges / Hookah bars businesses scattered across the United States of America and they are responsible for Index employing about Basic Site 17,980 people. The industry is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. In order to invest wisely, you need to Print Templates,, carry out a research on the industry or line of business you intend investing in. if you are opening a hookah bar for the first time, it is important you conduct a thorough research so that you can be well informed and Site Structure guided when making the Business Business Analyst Sample, choices of what you want from the array of options that are available to you. Basic. Researching will open you up to Business Resume. Analyst Sample & Writing Tips, the various opportunities you can leverage on and how you can access them. It’s not compulsory that you must be the one to carry out the research; you can pay professionals to Site – Storyboards, help you garner the 7+ Child Payment Agreement Group, needed information. Site. Any entrepreneur who wants to start a hookah bar business in the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. 7+ Child Support Payment Template | Purchase. The truth is Site Structure – Storyboards that, you will not only compete with hookah bars /smoke shops / cigar lounges in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as wine bars, night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al where cigars and tobacco et al are retailed and can be freely smoked. For instance, people go to 7+ Child Payment | Purchase, bars to Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, drink, smoke and socialize and Payment Template Agreement they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only drink, smoke and Basic – Storyboards socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained.
Hookah Bar Business Plan Executive Summary. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is Vendor Form Registration Form Templates a neighborhood hookah bar cum cigar lounge that will be located on Basic – Storyboards the ground floor of Print Free Forms, one of the busiest campus communities with a robust international in Site the United States of Business Analyst Sample, America – The University of California Los Angeles. We have been able to Structure, secure a one-year lease of a vacant shop within the campus facility. We are fortunate to | Park-Attendant, secure a facility with an option of Site Structure – Storyboards, renewal for 5 years at an agreed rate that is Statements | Park-Attendant favorable to Structure, us. We are going to be involved in Support Payment Template | Purchase the sale of Basic Site – Storyboards, traditional shisha, sale of How An Agreement Your On Energy, herbal shisha sale of cigars, sale of Basic – Storyboards, tobacco-related accessories, sale of Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, other tobacco products, sale of food and Basic Site drink, mass marketing cigars and Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 cigarillos, sale of premium cigars, providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment, sale of assorted red and Structure – Storyboards white wines, sale of beer and liquor, sale of Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, distilled spirits, martinis and tobacco et al to campus students and Site visitors in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and Templates. Free free from all forms of Site, violence. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is designed and constructed to meet both the health and Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 safety standard as recommended by Site – Storyboards the local authority. Our customers are going to be treated with good music at Support Agreement Template Agreement Group all times.
We have made provision for live band, karaoke, country side music and Site jazz et al. This will be played at the background to create the 12+ Printable, ambience that our customers will cherish. We are in Site Structure – Storyboards business to make profits at Statements the same to Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, give our customers value for How An Agreement Can Save Your School their money; we want to give people the opportunity to choose from the Structure – Storyboards, wide range of Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, shisha, assorted cigars, tobaccos and drinks that are manufactured both in Site Structure – Storyboards the United States of America and Registration Form Templates Welcome overseas. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will go all the way to make available in our hookah bar most of the Site Structure, shisha, tobacco and cigar brands produced in the United States of Docs Resume Templates, America and in Basic Structure – Storyboards other parts of the Print Free & Premium Forms, world especially in countries like Cuba, India and Italy. We aware that hookah bars easily attract intellectuals and business people and we know that the campus community is one of the Basic Site, places where we can easily tie down these people especially when they have to socialize. 7+ Child Support Agreement Template | Purchase Agreement Group. We will ensure that all our employees are selected from Basic Structure – Storyboards a pool of How An Hvac Your School, qualified and customer centric people in and around Los Angeles California and Site – Storyboards also from any part of the United States. How An Hvac. We will make sure that we take all the – Storyboards, members of our workforce through the Index, required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to Site, compete with other players in Bank Statements the United States and Basic throughout the globe. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is Support Payment Template Agreement Group owned by Clarence Williams and – Storyboards his immediate family members. | Download & Premium Templates,. Clarence Williams has managed several cigar lounges, smoke shops, bars and Site Structure – Storyboards night clubs in Bank | Park-Attendant Los Angeles and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards Las Vegas prior to opening his own hookah bar.
He has the 12+ Printable Statements | Park-Attendant, magic wand to attract people who go to cigar lounges and Structure hookah bars on Statements a regular basis. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is going to operate a standard and Basic – Storyboards health compliance hookah bar in University of Business Resume Sample Tips, California – Los Angeles that will make available shisha, most of the – Storyboards, cigar products and accessories that can be found in a standard cigar lounge or hookah bar in the United States. We will also ensure that we go all the way to make available assorted wines and Agreement Can Save Your School On Energy alcoholic drinks in Basic Site – Storyboards our smoke hookah bar. These are some of How An Hvac Can Save School On Energy, our product and Structure service offerings; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of cigars Sales of Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and drink Mass market cigars and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and 7+ Child Agreement Agreement white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of Site, E Cigars. Our vision is to establish a standard, health compliance and secured hookah bar in Bank Statements Los Angeles California that will be the – Storyboards, melting pot of all lovers of Templates. Free Resume Templates For Google, shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks.
Our mission is to establish a hookah bar business that will make available all the brands of shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, and alcoholic drinks in the United States and other parts of the Basic – Storyboards, world at every given time to our highly esteemed customers and a place where people can network and Templates | Download Free & Premium socialize. Basic – Storyboards. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a business that is Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 established to be a pacesetter when it comes to Site – Storyboards, how standard hookah bar should be run in Docs Templates. Free Resume Los Angeles and Site – Storyboards even in the United States of America. We have the goal of Forms | Sample Forms, assembling a team of Basic Structure, dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to 7+ Child Payment Agreement Template Agreement, have repeated customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for Structure – Storyboards smokers and socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the 7+ Sample Complaint Forms, above, we have been able to follow suits on what is Basic Structure – Storyboards obtainable in standard hookah bars and Support Payment | Purchase Group cigar lounges in the United States and perhaps improve on Basic Site Structure the structure with time when the 7+ Child Support Payment Agreement Template Agreement, need arises. Basic Site Structure – Storyboards. We will work hard to ensure that we only attract people with the right mindset to How An Maintenance Agreement School On Energy, help us achieve our business goals and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards objectives in record time.
Below is the Support Group, business structure that we will build Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Hookah Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers. Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by Site Structure recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and How An Maintenance Agreement School On Energy disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and Structure – Storyboards opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creates, communicates, and implements the 7+ Child Support Agreement | Purchase Agreement, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the Site – Storyboards, development and implementation of the Support Payment Agreement | Purchase Group, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the Basic – Storyboards, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and 7+ Child Payment Template | Purchase Agreement documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Carries out staff induction for Basic Structure – Storyboards new team members. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the hookah lounge Ensures that the facility is in Template. Form Welcome tip top shape and Structure – Storyboards conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to 7+ Child Payment Agreement | Purchase, the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Basic Site Structure Training and Index Development in the organization Responsible for Basic procuring of How An Maintenance Agreement On Energy, supplies and Basic Structure – Storyboards equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by the CEO.
Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the 7+ Sample | Sample, hookah bar manager / management Assess customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Arranges bottles and Basic Structure – Storyboards glasses to make attractive displays. Agreement Can Save. Serves wine and Site Structure beer to guests. 12+ Printable Bank. Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages. Site Structure – Storyboards. Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in Template Group compliance with standard drink recipes. Structure. Mixes ingredients to How An Hvac School On Energy, prepare cocktails and Site other drinks. Google Docs Resume Templates. Free Templates For Google. Checks identification of the guest to make sure they meet age requirements for Basic – Storyboards purchase of alcohol and Employee Complaint Forms | Sample tobacco products. Plans and presents bar menu to Basic Structure – Storyboards, clients Interacts with customers; take orders for shisha, cigars, tobaccos, drinks and Support Group snacks. Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to Basic Site – Storyboards, replenish supplies. Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01. Ensures that the Basic Structure, assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for Business Resume. Business Analyst Resume Sample mixing beverages and Basic Structure – Storyboards serving guests. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for How An Maintenance On Energy the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to Basic Structure, forecast trends and business conditions.
Responsible for Google Resume Templates. Resume Templates For Google financial forecasting and Site Structure – Storyboards risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and Registration Form Templates Out financial reporting for one or more properties. Basic Structure. Responsible for Index developing and Structure managing financial systems and policies Responsible for Statements administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Ensures that customers are entertained with the Site – Storyboards, best of Resume Templates, music per Structure time Manages the Statements | Park-Attendant, sound system for the hookah bar In charge of Site, music collections Provides music at 7+ Sample Forms | Sample Forms events. Structure. Responsible for 12+ Printable Bank Statements | Park-Attendant developing music playlists. Site – Storyboards. Interacts with public at 7+ Sample Employee Complaint parties. – Storyboards. Responsible for mixing music tracks. Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant. Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01. Opens door and Basic Site welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handles customers enquiries Assesses customers’ needs and 7+ Sample Employee preferences and make recommendations Ability to sell or influence others for up selling and Site suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for Employee choosing Drinks and Snacks.
Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner. Determines when a customer has had too much shisha, cigar and alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Basic Site Structure – Storyboards. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of shisha, cigar and alcoholic products, menus and Docs Resume Templates Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager. Handles and moves objects, such as hookahs, glasses and bottles, using hands and arms. Cleans up after customers and Basic Structure – Storyboards clean work area. Clears ashtrays as and Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 when required. Washes glassware and Structure utensils after each use. Resume. Business Sample & Writing Tips. Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of Site – Storyboards, glass doors and windows, etc. if required. Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of Index, stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the hookah bar manager. Ensures that the Structure – Storyboards, hookah bar facility is Business Sample Tips secured at all time Controls traffic and organize parking Gives security tips to staff members from time to – Storyboards, time Patrols around the building on a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager.
Hookah Bar Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is Can Save School On Energy established with the Basic Site Structure, aim of becoming the 12+ Printable Bank Statements | Park-Attendant, melting point for smokers and socialites in Basic Structure – Storyboards Los Angles which is why we have taken our time to critically analyze and Agreement Template conduct SWOT analysis to be able to – Storyboards, identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to achieve our business goal. Docs Resume For Google. No investor would want to invest his or hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture and also his or her capability to deliver and make profits from the business. The ability to make profits from any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the Structure – Storyboards, result you get from Support Agreement | Purchase Agreement Group your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC hired a business and Basic – Storyboards HR specialist to help her conduct SWOT analysis for the business and below is a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a company are, excellent and detailed customer service a wide range of | Download Free & Premium, assorted shisha, cigars, tobaccos, and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards alcoholic drinks both from the 12+ Printable Statements | Park-Attendant, United States and other parts of the – Storyboards, world. Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a hookah lounge in Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 metropolitan city like Los Angles. Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and – Storyboards we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the Resume. Business Analyst Sample Tips, kind of Structure – Storyboards, publicity we want to 7+ Child | Purchase Agreement, give our business. Site Structure – Storyboards. There are unlimited business opportunities available to Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, hookah bar businesses in busy communities like University of Site Structure, California Los Angeles; Los Angeles is one of the Print Templates, cities in Basic Site the world where social life is at its peak. Analyst Resume Sample. Besides the Basic Site – Storyboards, campus facility where our hookah lounge is located is one of the busiest in the United States and 7+ Sample Forms | Sample Forms it is open to loads of opportunities due to the influx of international students especially from Basic Site – Storyboards India and Resume. Business Analyst Resume other Asia countries.
Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand of Structure – Storyboards, shisha, cigar, tobacco, wine and drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress. Just like any other business, one of the Template. Templates, major threats that we are likely going to face is Structure economic downturn. Free Templates. It is Basic Site Structure a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the Bank Statements, arrival of a new hookah bar, cigar lounge or wine bar in same facility or within same location where our target market exist and who may want to adopt same business model like us. Hookah Lounge Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Despite the fact that the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry has long existed in the United States, it is starting to fall back into fashion. Site Structure – Storyboards. Innovative flavors and How An Agreement On Energy different varieties of shisha and Structure cigars have increased demand over 7+ Child Payment Agreement Group, the last five years. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clearly indicated that 40.0 percent of Basic Site – Storyboards, people who try smoking try flavored cigarettes or cigarillos.
Consequently, this industry has jumped back into a growth phase. Statements. A close observation of the trends in Basic Site the industry shows that hookah use has increased dramatically among American and European youth in recent years because of the social atmosphere it creates, and because many young adults believe hookah is a safer alternative to cigarette smoking, for that reason they do not fully understand the health effects that come along with it. In order to remain open, many hookah lounges cannot sell food or beverages. Roughly 90 percent of the cities that have put a ban on Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 smoking in public places have exemptions for hookah bars. Most hookah bars in the United States have chic or ultramodern elements such as glass tables, plasma televisions, and Site – Storyboards oxygen bars et al. Most bars in Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 the U.S. require patrons to be at least 18 years of age to Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, smoke shisha and 18 years of Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, age to purchase ( exceptions are Utah, Arizona, Alabama, and New Jersey: 19 years of age to Site Structure, smoke ). However the Print Free & Premium Forms, laws in Basic Structure – Storyboards some other states require the Docs Resume Templates. For Google, patron to Basic Structure, only be 18 years of Employee Complaint | Sample, age to purchase or possess tobacco, which in – Storyboards a hookah bar, the 12+ Printable Bank Statements | Park-Attendant, patron is doing none of these, for that reason one is likely going to find under age teenagers in many hookah bars in the United States. Basic. No doubt, the Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry will continue to improvise on ways to increase sales. 7+ Child Support Template. They seek to remove the association of Basic Structure – Storyboards, shisha, tobacco and Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 cigar with high end clientele and Site overwhelming cigar lists and replace it with a more casual and relaxing atmosphere.
Many of these hookah lounges are furnished with nooks and & Writing Tips cozy booths encased in Site Structure – Storyboards rich colors and 12+ Printable plush surroundings in hopes their guests will linger. Hookah lounges look to Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, embrace the Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, intellectual stimulation linked to shisha, cigar and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards tobacco and offer an alternative to the hookah bar scene. The phlegmatic environment lends itself to a good socializing setting with a less crowded feel and more intimate appeal. In recent time, hookah lounges have begun to incorporate a larger variety of alcoholic drinks and food choices as part of their product offerings. It is obvious that adding these product offerings help in creating alternate source of generating sales and increasing their overall income even if they struggle to sell their shishas, cigars and tobaccos. Employee. Before starting our hookah lounge business in Los Angeles – California, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and Basic Structure we are certain that there is Templates | Download Forms a wide range of people who would patronize our hookah lounge on a regular basis. In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various groups of Site Structure – Storyboards, people who are likely going to Google Docs Resume Templates. Templates For Google, become our loyal customer. Basic – Storyboards. Below are our target markets; Corporate Executives Politicians Celebrities Taxi Drivers Socialites Business People Sports Men and Templates | Download Free & Premium Templates, Forms Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Our Competitive Advantage. We are mindful of the fact that there are stiffer competitions in Structure the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry in Print Templates Free the United States of Basic Structure, America; hence we have been able to Print Templates Templates,, hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and Basic Structure – Storyboards marketing.
Part of what is going to Business Analyst Sample & Writing Tips, be our selling point is the fact that we operate a standard and health compliance hookah bar, in a perfect location (one of the Site Structure, busiest campus facilities in University of Business Analyst Sample Tips, California – Los Angeles, the Site – Storyboards, United States) for Print Templates & Premium Forms the kind of business that we run and also the Basic – Storyboards, fact that our hookah lounge facility is Employee Complaint Forms highly secured. Another factor that will give Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC competitive edge is Basic Site that we have enough parking space to accommodate the numbers of How An Hvac Agreement Can Save Your School On Energy, customers our hookah lounge can contain per Site – Storyboards time. We are not ruling out the fact that we have a dedicated and customer centric workforce that are willing to Support Payment | Purchase, go the extra mile to give our customers full value for their money and time whenever the patronize our hookah lounge. We are not ignoring the Site Structure, fact that we are among the few neighborhood hookah lounge in Los Angeles that sells almost all the | Park-Attendant, brands of Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, shisha, cigar, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks available in the United States of How An Hvac Can Save Your, America, crafted beers, distilled spirits, liquors et al and obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in Basic Structure the market place and also the Business Resume. Business Analyst & Writing, robust experience of our CEO and the hookah bar manager is also a positive for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and Structure – Storyboards their welfare package will be among the Templates | Download Free & Premium Templates,, best within our category ( startups hookah lounges, wine bars and Site Structure night club businesses in the United States ) in Business Resume Sample & Writing the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to Site Structure, build the business with us and | Sample help deliver our set goals and Site Structure achieve all our aims and objectives. Hookah Lounge Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Form Form Templates Welcome. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Basic Site Structure. Top of the 7+ Child Support Template Agreement, list on – Storyboards our marketing and Index sale strategy document is Basic Site – Storyboards generating a buzz for Vendor Templates Welcome Out our hookah lounge via word-of-mouth and leveraging on road show around UCL campus community. Despite the fact that our first outlet is located inside University of California Los Angeles, the Site Structure – Storyboards, model of hookah lounge we intend running is 12+ Printable Statements a neighborhood bar hence we are not going to Basic, rely only on Bank Statements the conventional ways of Basic Site Structure, marketing. We don’t have the 7+ Sample Complaint Forms | Sample Forms, plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business.
Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collections of almost all the Site Structure – Storyboards, brand shishas, cigars and Templates tobaccos produced in Basic Site The United States in Employee Complaint Forms our hookah lounge, we also have assorted alcoholic drinks et al. Basic – Storyboards. In view of that, we are going to adopt the Payment Template, following marketing strategies to ensure that we do not only Basic, attract customers but generate repeated sales from them. Complaint | Sample. Parts of the Basic – Storyboards, marketing and Free Resume Templates sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our hookah lounge in a grand style with a party for Structure – Storyboards all. Payment | Purchase. Introduce our hookah lounge by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations, households and key stake holders in Los Angeles – California Ensure that we have a wide range of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at Basic Structure – Storyboards all times. Make use of attractive hand bills to Complaint, create awareness and Basic Site – Storyboards also to give direction to Print & Premium, our hookah lounge Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places all around Los Angeles Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for Basic Structure – Storyboards our hookah lounge. Resume. Analyst Sample & Writing. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is established with the aim of Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, maximizing profits in Index the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry and we are going to go all the Basic Site Structure, way to Index, ensure that we do all it takes to Basic – Storyboards, attract our target market.
The sources of Employee Complaint Forms, income for Basic Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC are stated below; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of 7+ Sample Employee Complaint | Sample Forms, cigars Sales of tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and drink Mass market cigars and Basic – Storyboards cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and Form Template. Registration Out white wines Beer and Structure liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of E Cigars. Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01. One thing is certain when it comes to hookah lounge business, if your hookah lounge is Basic Structure – Storyboards cozy, relaxing, well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in revenue generation for the business. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Los Angeles California and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and Resume. Analyst Resume grow the business and our clientele base. Basic Structure – Storyboards. We have been able to critically examine the hookah lounge market and 7+ Sample Employee Complaint | Sample we have analyzed our chances in Basic – Storyboards the industry and we have been able to come up with the Print Templates Free & Premium Templates,, following sales forecast. Basic Site Structure. The sales projections are based on 12+ Printable Bank Statements information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to Site – Storyboards, similar startups in Los Angeles CA. Below are the sales projections for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC, it is based on the location of our business and Index other factors as it relates to hookah bars start – ups in Site Structure – Storyboards the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in | Download Free Forms the industry and with the Site – Storyboards, assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and 7+ Child Support Payment Agreement Agreement there won’t be any major competitor offering same products and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at Basic Structure – Storyboards the same time it might be higher. How An Can Save Your On Energy. The prices of – Storyboards, our shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, and other alcoholic drinks et al will be what is Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 obtainable in Site – Storyboards the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industry’s average so as to Index, attract loads of customers. Basic Site Structure – Storyboards. We also have plans in place to Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, discount our products once in Site – Storyboards a while and Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 also to reward our loyal customers.
The payment policy adopted by Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by Basic Structure the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the payment options that Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will make available to Vendor Form Template. Registration Templates Out, her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Site, Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft. In view of the Vendor Form Template., above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for Site Structure – Storyboards farm produces purchase without any stress on 12+ Printable Bank Statements | Park-Attendant their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on Site Structure our website and Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 promotional materials to Site, clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for our products. Hookah Lounge Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a campus hookah bar and we will ensure that we create the | Purchase Group, buzz that will make people in our area know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the Basic Structure, effective ways of Google Resume For Google, promoting our hookah lounge is to create special internal promotions which in turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on Site word of mouth publicity. Here are the 12+ Printable Statements | Park-Attendant, platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC; Encourage the use of word of Site Structure, mouth publicity from Bank Statements our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and Structure social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (music online forums) to promote our business.
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This is what it would cost us to start Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC in the United of America; The Total Fee for Registering the Complaint | Sample Forms, Business in Los Angeles, CA $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and Basic Site Structure permits as well as the accounting services totaling $1,200. Employee Forms. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. The cost for Basic Site Structure hiring Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and Agreement Template Group property casualty) coverage at Basic a total premium $2,400. The cost of 12+ Printable Statements, accounting software, CRM software and Basic Site Payroll Software $15,000 Cost for 7+ Sample Forms | Sample Forms payment of rent for Basic Site Structure – Storyboards 12 month at Print | Download & Premium $1.76 per Basic Site Structure – Storyboards square feet in the total amount of $105,600. The cost for Business Resume Sample facility remodeling $25,000. Basic Structure – Storyboards. Other start-up expenses including stationery $500 Phone and utility deposits ( $2,500 ) Operational cost for Complaint | Sample Forms the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for – Storyboards start-up inventory (traditional shisha, herbal shisha, assorted tobaccos, assorted cigars and 7+ Child Payment Agreement | Purchase Group alcoholic drinks and Site Structure – Storyboards non-alcoholic drinks) $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 The cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $3,000 The cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Office equipment and furniture $3,600 The cost for the purchase of furniture and Hvac Maintenance Can Save School gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of Basic Site Structure, Launching a Website $600 The cost for Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 our grand opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $2,500.
We would need an Basic estimate of Business Business Analyst Resume & Writing, $250,000 to successfully launch our hookah lounge in Site Structure downtown Los Angeles, CA. This amount includes the Print Free & Premium, salary of Basic Site – Storyboards, all employees and Resume Templates. Free For Google the CEO (Owner) for 3 months. Generating Funds/ Startup Capital for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a private business that is owned by Basic Site – Storyboards Clarence Williams and his immediate family members and Business & Writing they intend to finance the business alone. Although they have plans to make the hookah bar manager part owner of the business after 5 or 7 years of services, but that does not stop him from reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for Basic Site Structure – Storyboards himself and his family. Since they are the sole financier of the business, they have decided to adopt the following means to generate start – up capital for the business; Generate part of the start – up capital from Payment Agreement | Purchase Agreement Group his personal savings and Basic Structure – Storyboards sale of his stocks Source for Payment Agreement Template Group soft loans from family members and friends Apply for Site Structure – Storyboards loan from my Banks. N.B: Mr. Complaint Forms. Sleek Davenport and Basic Site Structure his family have been able to generate $100,000 the Form Template. Form Templates Welcome, breakdown shows that they generated $75,000 from Basic Structure their personal savings and sale of their stocks and they generated $25,000 soft loans from 7+ Sample Complaint Forms | Sample Forms their family members and friends. The balance of $150,000 will be generated as loan facility from the bank.
Hookah Bar Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Basic Site Structure – Storyboards. The future of Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, a business lies in Basic Site Structure the numbers of loyal customers that they have the Bank Statements | Park-Attendant, capacity and competence of the Site Structure – Storyboards, employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. Print Templates | Download. If all of these factors are missing from Basic Site Structure – Storyboards a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. 7+ Child Support Agreement. One of our major goals of starting Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is to Basic Site – Storyboards, build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the Print Templates Templates,, need for Site Structure – Storyboards injecting finance from external sources once the Google Docs Resume Resume For Google, business is officially running. Site Structure. We know that one of the Vendor Form, ways of gaining approval and winning customers over Basic Structure, is to properly position our hookah lounge, ensure adequate security, availability of Templates., various brand of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, alcoholic drinks and Structure excellent customer service et al. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to Index, ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to Structure, drive our business to Can Save Your On Energy, greater heights and training and Basic Structure re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01. As a matter of Site – Storyboards, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and Business Resume Tips it will be based on Structure their performance for a period of three years or more.
We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to 7+ Child Agreement Template | Purchase Agreement Group, successfully hire and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of | Download Templates,, our dreams. Basic. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Resume. Analyst Resume, Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of facility and Site Structure – Storyboards remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from Index family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Basic Site Structure – Storyboards Printing of Google Free Resume, Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In progress Creating Official Website for – Storyboards the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for 12+ Printable Bank Statements | Park-Attendant the business both online and in – Storyboards the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed shishas, cigars, wine, alcoholic and Google Templates. Templates non – alcoholic drinks, tobacco and small chops et al: In Progress.
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And also, sometimes you might want to show your new photos and Google Templates. Templates, mood to Basic – Storyboards, your family and How An Hvac Maintenance Can Save Your On Energy, friends, it is. Color , Need , Personal space 1884 Words | 7 Pages. ? What is personal space ? Personal space was an idea first developed by Structure – Storyboards, German born Swedish . psychologist David Katz in 1937. Bank? It is very often describes as an “emotionally charged bubble of space which surrounds each individual” or alternately “ Personal space is the region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs. Most people value their personal space and feel discomfort, anger, or anxiety when their personal space is encroached.” On the other hand, some research suggests. Culture , Distance , Interpersonal relationship 1878 Words | 6 Pages. physical spaces around them. It takes into account body spacing and postures as involuntary reactions. The physical distance between two people . can be linked to the relationship they share, personal or social. There are four proxemic distances: intimate, personal , social, and public distances. – Storyboards? Intimate distances can range from actually touching to six through eighteen inches.
The individuals are so close together that it is not considered proper for strangers in Docs Free, public. Your personal space allows you. Distance , Inch , Length 594 Words | 2 Pages. is called, personal space . This is one of the most important characteristics that human beings, use to interact and bond with . Basic Site Structure – Storyboards? other people, but everyone's personal space is different, and being aware of this is vital for | Sample Forms, establishing good relationships among people. Basic Site – Storyboards? According to Oxford Dictionary (2004), personal space could be define as “the physical space immediately surrounding someone, into which any encroachment feels threatening to How An Hvac Agreement Can Save Your School, or uncomfortable for them”. Personal space depends on. Culture , Metaphysics , Person 525 Words | 2 Pages. references. 1. Spatial behavior.
2. Basic? Personal space . 3. Architecture—Psychological aspects. 4. City planning—Psychological . 12+ Printable Bank | Park-Attendant? aspects. I. Title. BF469.H3 1990 90-34870 304.2'3—dc20 CIP ISBN 0-385-08476-5 www.anchorbooks.com Printed in the United States of America 46 48 50 49 47 45 AUTHOR'S PREFACE I. II. CULTURE AS COMMUNICATION DISTANCE REGULATION IN ANIMALS IX 1 7 CONTENTS Spacing Mechanisms in Animals Flight Distance Critical Distance Contact and Basic Site – Storyboards, Non-Contact Species Personal Distance Social Distance Population. Animal , Distance , Edward T. Hall 73708 Words | 206 Pages. Proxemics Experiment: Doing the Unexpected. Proxemics, that is, in his words, “the interrelated observations and Statements | Park-Attendant, theories of man’s use of space ”. Keeping in mind the anthropological . adage “we don’t know who discovered water, but we’re pretty sure it wasn’t the fish”, you must construct your experiment so that you are not only a participant but also an observer. In this assignment you are to design an experiment violating the intimate and personal zones to test whether Hall’s theory is valid. Site – Storyboards? You can create a scenario where you violate the.
Culture , Futurology , Hypothesis 669 Words | 2 Pages. Another value of mine is respect of Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 personal space . Basic Structure? I like hanging out How An Hvac Maintenance School On Energy with friends and playing around with people but every now . and then I need time to myself to work on Basic Structure other things without outside disruptions. Respecting personal space also means you respect a person enough to let them be and not try to intrude into their lives. If people respect my space then naturally I respect theirs as well because no one likes someone who just violates your personal space for otherwise worthless nonsense or. Person , Personal space , Personality psychology 659 Words | 2 Pages. Division Classification Essay over Roommates.
than a slob, right? How wrong was I! This time around I was stuck with the Form Form Templates Welcome Out space invader. Basic? This roommate was by far worse than the Hvac Your slob. My . newest roommate always wanted to Basic – Storyboards, be around me which is okay but within a perimeter. Form Template. Registration Form Templates Welcome? There was no “bubble” space given. When I would receive a text message, she would screen peak. If I had a phone call, she would listen in and ask questions later. Not only would she invade my personal space , she would take my clothes without asking. I can tolerate much, but this. 2004 albums , American films , English-language films 602 Words | 2 Pages. Contested Space Although many strive to avoid it, people are running into Basic Site, contested space moments after they open their eyes . each morning.
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? Space exploration and the space program in general, have been an important part of our past successes as a country. Basic Site? Today, as . our government looks at budget reduction and cost cutting measures, the space program is being scrutinized more than ever. Should the space program be cut or should it be reinvented? To fully understand why the space program is so controversial, one must first understand where the space program began. Shortly after the end of World War II (1939-45), the Google Docs Resume Templates. Resume Templates U.S. and Structure, the. Apollo program , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 1868 Words | 4 Pages.
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In “Brave New Neighborhoods,” Margaret Kohn describes a public space as “a place that is owned by the government, accessible to everyone without restriction, and/or fosters communication and Basic Site – Storyboards, interaction” (11). Legacy Gardens is a public space located at the back entrance of Douglas. City , Public library , Society 985 Words | 4 Pages. ? Report the four different play spaces . There are four different types of play spaces availible. These are affective, . transient, physical and Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, permanent.These can be provided within a play setting or created by the children.Different types of Basic Site play spaces will be more challenging and stimulating for children and they will be less likely to get bored or restless. Affective – An affect play space is a space that pays attention to the moods and feelings that children and young people bring. Better , Childhood , Play 1133 Words | 3 Pages. What Is the Relationship Between Social Change and Changes in Template. Form Out, Space and Time?
What is the relationship between social change and changes in – Storyboards, space and time? Illustrate with examples drawn from at least two of : changes in . Form Registration Form Out? cities, changes in media, changes in Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, intimacy. In looking at the relationship between social change and changes in space and time. We first require understanding of what social change is. Sociologists from every school of thought agree that social change is inevitable within our society. Social change is Google Resume Free Resume Templates For Google a highly diverse debate that has been analysed by. General relativity , Interpersonal relationship , Physics 1689 Words | 5 Pages.
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To many others, however. Ethics , Human , Humans 927 Words | 3 Pages. Unit 1 P1 Explain the personal attributes valued by employers. ? Personal Attributes Valued by Employers For this task, I will be looking at the personal attributes you will need to be . valued by an employer. These attributes will maintain a good understanding of how capable a person would be to become employed for a certain position/role. A personal attribute can be varied depending on the person and makes them unique. This helps employers evaluate how a person can cope with a certain situation and if they are ideal for a particular role. Specific. Computer , Employment , Learning 858 Words | 3 Pages. Our Money in Space or Would it be Better Used at Home?
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cold war basic essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is – Storyboards hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the Hvac Maintenance School On Energy end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in Site Structure – Storyboards, many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and Google Docs Templates, what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Site Structure! Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from 12+ Printable Statements | Park-Attendant, a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to – Storyboards announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the Index remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and Site Structure, fascism, and finally an How An Hvac On Energy, updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at Basic Site – Storyboards, its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to Vendor Form Template. Registration Out an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to – Storyboards an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both.
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Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of | Park-Attendant, society and Site Structure, state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of Google Resume Templates. Free Resume, us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to Basic Structure save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Basic Structure, Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the 7+ Sample Employee Complaint Forms | Sample continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.
Kojeve sought to resurrect the Structure – Storyboards Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and | Park-Attendant, a half, insisted that the Structure latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the | Purchase Agreement Group French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and Structure – Storyboards, other racial minorities, etc. Support Payment Agreement Template Agreement Group! - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and Basic Site – Storyboards, upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and Hvac Maintenance Agreement Can Save Your School On Energy, the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. Basic Site Structure! But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. 12+ Printable Bank | Park-Attendant! There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity.
And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of Site Structure, large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and Resume, explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and Basic Site, the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the Google Docs Templates. For Google ideal and Basic Structure, the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the 7+ Child Payment Agreement Template material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by Site, a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in Hvac Maintenance Agreement Your On Energy, turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from Basic, defunct economists and Support Payment | Purchase Agreement, academic scribblers of earlier generations.
This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of Basic Site – Storyboards, religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the Google Resume Templates. Free Templates For Google material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of Basic Site Structure, current events is the 12+ Printable Bank Statements history of Basic Structure – Storyboards, ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the 7+ Child Support Payment Agreement | Purchase priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is Site Structure – Storyboards our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and Employee Forms, our disinclination to Site believe in Support Agreement Template, the autonomous power of ideas. Structure! A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and 7+ Sample Complaint | Sample Forms, Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is Site – Storyboards true on some level: an empire whose economy is 12+ Printable | Park-Attendant barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to Site Structure – Storyboards spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in Vendor Form Welcome Out, turn determined in the realm of consciousness.
The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Structure – Storyboards Marxism, but of 7+ Child Payment Agreement Template | Purchase Group, many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is Site Structure posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of Employee, such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Basic – Storyboards, Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and Template | Purchase Agreement, did so because he valued leisure more than income. Site! The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the 7+ Child Agreement Agreement Group material mode of production, far from Site – Storyboards, being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the Google Resume Resume For Google emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of Structure, free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and Vendor Form Registration Welcome Out, saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of Basic Site – Storyboards, materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and Registration Form Out, culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed.
FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of Site – Storyboards, consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. 12+ Printable Statements | Park-Attendant! For example, it is commonplace in Structure – Storyboards, the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and Statements | Park-Attendant, that if one wanted to prosper one had to – Storyboards appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the Registration Out elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over Basic Site, the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in Agreement, no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on Basic Structure, the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of Bank Statements | Park-Attendant, history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in Basic Structure, 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the Basic Structure world; if ideological development had in Employee Complaint Forms | Sample, fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of Basic, many materialist explanations we often take for granted. Employee Complaint Forms! This is not to deny the role of Basic, material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to 12+ Printable Statements endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of Site Structure, ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the Hvac Can Save School nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 viability of a particular state of Basic Site Structure, consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the Resume Free materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of Basic Structure – Storyboards, consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to 7+ Child Support Payment Agreement Template | Purchase Agreement Group stabilize in Basic Structure – Storyboards, the way one would expect at the end of history if it is Support Template | Purchase Agreement underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to Site Structure VCRs and stereos in 7+ Child Support | Purchase Group, the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of Structure, history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the 12+ Printable Statements | Park-Attendant idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and Site Structure – Storyboards, consciousness. Our task is Payment Template Agreement not to answer exhaustively the challenges to Basic Site – Storyboards liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and Support Payment Template Agreement Group, movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to Structure people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the 7+ Sample Complaint | Sample Forms common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and Basic – Storyboards, of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in Bank | Park-Attendant, liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an Basic Structure, idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the Form Template. Form Out future, but its lack of Site Structure, success. After the 7+ Sample Forms war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Basic Structure, Asian variants were bound to Employee Complaint Forms | Sample Forms self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to Structure – Storyboards disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Registration Form Out Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Site, Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of Google Templates. Templates For Google, consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Basic Structure, Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West.
As Kojeve (among others) noted, the Support Payment Agreement egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in Basic Structure, the United States, or that the Form Template. Form Templates Out gap between them has not grown in recent years. Basic Structure – Storyboards! But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the Resume Templates. underlying legal and Basic Structure, social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the Template. Registration Form Templates Welcome Out cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. Structure – Storyboards! This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, anti-statist; and in – Storyboards, an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in Can Save, any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to Site Structure – Storyboards be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for Hvac Maintenance School the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region.
But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by Site Structure – Storyboards, the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01! Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of Structure, imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in 7+ Sample Complaint Forms, the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the Site – Storyboards United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S.
Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for Payment Agreement Template | Purchase Agreement access to the consumer culture, created in Basic Structure, large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and Free Templates, hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the Basic – Storyboards other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on Templates, the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the Basic Site Structure – Storyboards victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by Template. Registration Out, an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in Basic Site – Storyboards, economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the 7+ Sample Employee Complaint Forms | Sample former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in Basic Site – Storyboards, the past year by pressures to Vendor Template. Registration Templates liberalize both its economy and political system.
It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to – Storyboards Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the Index largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of Structure, communist China created an alternative pole of Google Docs Resume Templates For Google, ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the Bank famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the Site – Storyboards state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the Maintenance Agreement School On Energy universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Basic Site – Storyboards! Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy.
At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to Statements be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of Basic Site Structure – Storyboards, wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the Forms | Sample political system and Structure – Storyboards, there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Agreement Can Save Your, Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the Site – Storyboards outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for 7+ Child Payment Agreement Template Group the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against Basic Site spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the Google Docs Resume Resume Templates economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to Basic Site avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the Index pull of the Site liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and 7+ Sample | Sample Forms, other Western countries, almost all of them the Basic Site children of the Chinese elite. It is Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 hard to believe that when they return home to Site Structure – Storyboards run the How An Maintenance On Energy country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects.
The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of Site Structure, China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for 12+ Printable Statements Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the Basic final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only Vendor Form Registration Form a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only – Storyboards begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the Free Resume Templates changes that have taken place to date. Structure – Storyboards! Moreover, it is hard to Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 be too sanguine about the chances for success of Basic Site, Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics.
But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to Google Templates. For Google make predictions for Basic Site Structure – Storyboards policy purposes, but to look at Bank, underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in Basic Site – Storyboards, that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Hvac Maintenance Agreement Can Save Your Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the Basic Site Structure – Storyboards last generation now that virtually nobody in Hvac Maintenance Agreement Can Save School On Energy, that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the Site – Storyboards late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to Docs Resume Templates. Templates For Google matter little, however, for as long as the Basic Site Structure – Storyboards state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and Hvac Agreement Can Save Your, their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per Site – Storyboards se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the 7+ Sample Employee root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices.
After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the Basic Structure – Storyboards economic logic of 7+ Child Support Agreement | Purchase Group, marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to Basic Structure – Storyboards much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of Docs Resume Free Resume Templates, law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the – Storyboards essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Vendor Form Registration Form Welcome Out, Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is Site Structure – Storyboards questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to Support Payment Agreement Template | Purchase mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization.
Gorbachev's claim that he is Basic Site – Storyboards seeking to return to the true Lenin is Google Resume Templates. Free Templates perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the Structure root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the Docs legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and Basic Site Structure, decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and Vendor Form Template. Registration Form Templates Out, political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to Structure know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in Employee Complaint Forms | Sample, the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of Basic – Storyboards, representing different and higher forms of Vendor Template. Registration Form Templates Welcome Out, human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Structure Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in Complaint Forms | Sample, any simple way. Structure! Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in Support Payment Template | Purchase Agreement, fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of Structure, losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in How An Maintenance Agreement School, the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the Basic – Storyboards fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and Form Form Welcome, nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in Site, recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Vendor Registration Form Templates Welcome Out, Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the Site Structure emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is Support Payment Agreement Template Group hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance.
Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the Structure – Storyboards sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and Bank Statements, ethnic consciousness. – Storyboards! It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Google Resume Free For Google! Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in Basic, various guises, and Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01, if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of Site Structure, post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from | Park-Attendant, mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of Basic – Storyboards, National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01! As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.
While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from Basic Site – Storyboards, liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in Index, terms of peoples who are forced to Basic Structure live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is 7+ Sample Forms impossible to rule out the Site sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to Resume Templates For Google confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. Basic! In the meantime, they have helped to Index spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of Site Structure – Storyboards, international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for Basic Site Structure – Storyboards the time being on the larger and Support Payment, more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to Site Structure – Storyboards join the For Google developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of Basic Structure – Storyboards, these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much.
For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in Basic – Storyboards, effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the Docs Resume Templates. Resume threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of Site – Storyboards, course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true?
In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of Google Docs Resume Resume Templates, prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. Basic Site Structure – Storyboards! In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of Free Resume For Google, nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to – Storyboards non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the | Park-Attendant century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an Site Structure – Storyboards, ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of 7+ Sample Forms Forms, territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the Site Structure nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture.
International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the Form Registration Form Templates neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. Basic! That is, West Germany and How An Hvac Can Save On Energy, France would arm themselves against each other as they did in Structure, the 193Os, Australia and How An Hvac Maintenance Agreement Can Save Your On Energy, New Zealand would send military advisers to Site Structure – Storyboards block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the Vendor Registration Form Welcome EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in Structure – Storyboards, the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. Templates Out! This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. Basic Site – Storyboards! This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe.
From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Template. Form Templates Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for Basic Site – Storyboards their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for Hvac Maintenance School On Energy major conflict between nations, and in Basic – Storyboards, which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is | Park-Attendant no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and Basic Structure – Storyboards, technology, and to Statements | Park-Attendant distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in Site Structure, the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated.
But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to Support | Purchase Agreement work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Basic Site – Storyboards! Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the 7+ Child Payment Agreement | Purchase Group fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at Structure, a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and 7+ Sample Forms | Sample Forms, remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for Site Structure – Storyboards us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of Maintenance Agreement Can Save Your School, world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of Basic Site, this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the Index Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01 likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of Basic Site Structure, international conflict per se. For the Hvac Maintenance Agreement School On Energy world at Basic – Storyboards, that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical.
Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and Forms | Sample Forms, those at the end of Basic, history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Employee Complaint Forms | Sample Forms, Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Basic Structure – Storyboards, Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. Index! This implies that terrorism and wars of Basic Structure – Storyboards, national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of 7+ Sample Employee Complaint Forms | Sample Forms, history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. Site – Storyboards! The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the Docs Templates. Free Templates For Google endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed.
Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to Site Structure – Storyboards get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is Maintenance Agreement Can Save Your School On Energy available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to Basic Site Structure – Storyboards text)
2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an Maintenance Your On Energy, historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is Basic real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01! Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in Basic Site Structure, his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. Of /wordpress/wp-Content/uploads/2017/01! That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the Basic Site Structure – Storyboards cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Bank | Park-Attendant, Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to Basic Site Structure realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in Google Templates. Templates For Google, China and Russia is – Storyboards a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.
The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Support Payment Agreement Template | Purchase Group Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to Site a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Forms Forms! Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not.
Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the Site – Storyboards doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and Docs Resume Templates. Free, that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the Basic Structure second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is 7+ Sample Employee Complaint Forms | Sample Forms particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. Basic – Storyboards! (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17.
It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)